The Talmud on Skin Color
On the Jewish/ Non-Jewish Divide
Opposing Racism with the Talmud
George M. Fredrickson, Racism: A Short History (new edition). Princeton, 2016.
David M. Goldenberg, The Curse of Ham: Race and Slavery in Early Judaism, Christianity and Islam. Princeton, 2003.
Christine M. Hayes, Gentile Impurities and Jewish Identities: Intermarriage and Conversion from the Bible to the Talmud. Oxford, 2002.
Benjamin Isaac, The Invention of Racism in Classical Antiquity. Princeton, 2004.
Michael Omi and Howard Winant, Racial Formation in the United States (3rd edition). Routledge, 2015.
Adi Ophir and Ishay Rosen-Zvi, Goy: Israel's Multiple Others and the Birth of the Gentile. Oxford, 2018.
Mira Beth Wasserman, Jews, Gentiles, and Other Animals: The Talmud after the Humanities. Penn, 2017.
For online resources, visit Jews, Race, and Religion at the Center for Jewish Ethics