Jewish History Timeline
ויהי רעב בארץ הנה אברהם ירד למצרים מפני הרעב לגור שם להחיות נפשו בימי הבצורת והמצרים עשקו אותו חנם לקחת את אשתו והקב"ה נקם נקמתם בנגעים גדולים והוציאו משם במקנה בכסף ובזהב וגם צוה עליו פרעה אנשים לשלחם ורמז אליו כי בניו ירדו מצרים מפני הרעב לגור שם בארץ והמצרים ירעו להם ויקחו מהם הנשים כאשר אמר (שמות א כב) וכל הבת תחיון והקב"ה ינקום נקמתם בנגעים גדולים עד שיוציאם בכסף וזהב וצאן ובקר מקנה כבד מאד והחזיקו בהם לשלחם מן הארץ לא נפל דבר מכל מאורע האב שלא יהיה בבנים והענין הזה פרשוהו בבראשית רבה (מ ו) רבי פנחס בשם רבי אושעיא אמר אמר הקב"ה לאברהם צא וכבוש את הדרך לפני בניך ואתה מוצא כל מה שכתוב באברהם כתוב בבניו באברהם כתוב ויהי רעב בארץ בישראל כתיב (להלן מה ו) כי זה שנתים הרעב בקרב הארץ
And there was famine in the land (Gen. 12:10) – behold, Avraham went down to Egypt due to hunger, to live there temporarily in order to save his life in the days of drought, and the Egyptians exploited him without cause to get his wife, and the Holy One of Blessing avenged them with great afflictions, and brought him out from there with cattle, silver and gold, and Pharaoh had commanded men to send him. And it is a hint from (Avraham), since his children went down to Egypt because of hunger to live temporarily in the land, and the Egyptians did evil to them and took their wives, as it says (Exodus 1:22) And every (baby) girl you shall let live, and the Holy One of Blessing avenged them with great afflictions until they were taken out (laden) with silver and gold and sheep and cattle, with many possessions, and they (Egyptians) pressed them to be gone from the land. Not a single incident that befell the father didn't befall the children. And this matter is explained in Bereshit Rabbah 8:6: "Rabi Pinchas said in the name of Rabbi Oshaya - The Holy One said to Avraham: ‘Go and conquer the way for your children.’ And you find that everything that was written regarding Avraham was also written regarding his descendants: regarding Avraham it is written and there was famine in the land, regarding Israel it is written (Genesis 45:6) this is already two years of famine in all the land."
(41) and take the Levites for Me, the LORD, in place of every first-born among the Israelite people, and the cattle of the Levites in place of every first-born among the cattle of the Israelites.
Numbers 16: From Korah, Datan and Abiram: A Case Study for the Methods of Academic Biblical Studies at TheTorah.com
The aligned right blue source is J,
The aligned left red source is P,
The black in italics is the redactor (R).
1 Now Korah, son of Izhar son of Kohath son of Levi, took
And Datan and Abiram sons of Eliab, and On son of Pelet—descendants of Reuben—2 got up before Moses,
(and) two hundred and fifty Israelites, chieftains of the community, chosen in the assembly, men of repute. 3 They gathered against Moses and Aaron and said to them, “You have gone too far! For all the community are holy, all of them, and YHWH is in their midst. Why then do you raise yourselves above YHWH’s congregation?” 4 When Moses heard this, he fell on his face. 5 Then he spoke to Korah and all his company, saying, “Come morning, YHWH will make known who is His and who is holy, and will grant him access to Himself; He will grant access to the one He has chosen. 6 Do this: You, Korah and all your band, take fire pans, 7 and tomorrow put fire in them and lay incense on them before YHWH. Then the man whom YHWH chooses, he shall be the holy one. You have gone too far, sons of Levi!” 8 Moses said further to Korah, “Hear me, sons of Levi. 9 Is it not enough for you that the God of Israel has set you apart from the community of Israel and given you access to Him, to perform the duties of YHWH’s Tabernacle and to minister to the community and serve them? 10 Now that He has advanced you and all your fellow Levites with you, do you seek the 7 priesthood too? 11 Truly, it is against YHWH that you and all your company have banded together. For who is Aaron that you should rail against him?”
12 Moses sent for Datan and Abiram, sons of Eliab; but they said, “We will not come! 13 Is it not enough that you brought us from a land flowing with milk and honey to have us die in the wilderness, that you would also lord it over us? 14 Even if you had brought us to a land flowing with milk and honey, and given us possession of fields and vineyards, should you gouge out those men’s eyes? We will not come!”
15 Moses was much aggrieved and he said to YHWH, “Pay no regard to their oblation. I have not taken the ass of any one of them, nor have I wronged any one of them.” 16 And Moses said to Korah, “Tomorrow, you and all your company appear before YHWH, you and they and Aaron. 17 Each of you take his fire pan and lay incense on it, and each of you bring his fire pan before YHWH, two hundred and fifty fire pans; you and Aaron also [bring] your fire pans.” 18 Each of them took his fire pan, put fire in it, laid incense on it, and took his place at the entrance of the Tent of Meeting, as did Moses and Aaron. 19 Korah gathered the whole community against them at the entrance of the Tent of Meeting. Then the Presence of YHWH appeared to the whole community, 20 and YHWH spoke to Moses and Aaron, saying, 21 “Stand back from this community that I may annihilate them in an instant!” 22 But they fell on their faces and said, “O God, Source of the breath of all flesh! When one man sins, will You be wrathful with the whole community?” 23 YHWH spoke to Moses, saying, 24 “Speak to the community and say: Withdraw from about the abode of Korah (Datan, and Abiram) note: words do not appear in the Septuagint.”
25 Moses rose and went to Datan and Abiram, the elders of Israel following him. 26 He addressed the community, saying, “Move away from the tents of these wicked men and touch nothing that belongs to them, lest you be wiped out for all their sins.”
27 So they withdrew from about the abode of Korah (Datan, and Abiram) note: words do not appear in the Septuagint..
Now Datan and Abiram had come out and they stood at the entrance of their tents, with their wives, their children, and their little ones. 28 And Moses said, “By this you shall know that it was YHWH who sent me to do all these things; that they are not of my own devising: 29 if these men die as all men do, if their lot be the common fate of all mankind, it was not YHWH who sent me. 30 But if YHWH brings about something unheard-of, so that the ground opens its mouth and swallows them up with all that belongs to them, and they go down alive into Sheol, you shall know that these men have spurned the YHWH.” 31 Scarcely had he finished speaking all these words when the ground under them burst asunder, 32 and the earth opened its mouth and swallowed them up with their households, all the people (which were Korah’s) and all their possessions. 33 They went down alive into Sheol, with all that belonged to them; the earth closed over them and they vanished from the midst of the congregation. 34 All Israel around them fled at their shrieks, for they said, “The earth might swallow us!”
35 And a fire went forth from YHWH and consumed the two hundred and fifty men offering the incense.
TaNaKh as Anthology
(מד) וַיַּהֲפֹ֣ךְ לְ֭דָם יְאֹרֵיהֶ֑ם וְ֝נֹזְלֵיהֶ֗ם בַּל־יִשְׁתָּיֽוּן׃ (מה) יְשַׁלַּ֬ח בָּהֶ֣ם עָ֭רֹב וַיֹּאכְלֵ֑ם וּ֝צְפַרְדֵּ֗עַ וַתַּשְׁחִיתֵֽם׃ (מו) וַיִּתֵּ֣ן לֶחָסִ֣יל יְבוּלָ֑ם וִֽ֝יגִיעָ֗ם לָאַרְבֶּֽה׃ (מז) יַהֲרֹ֣ג בַּבָּרָ֣ד גַּפְנָ֑ם וְ֝שִׁקְמוֹתָ֗ם בַּֽחֲנָמַֽל׃ (מח) וַיַּסְגֵּ֣ר לַבָּרָ֣ד בְּעִירָ֑ם וּ֝מִקְנֵיהֶ֗ם לָרְשָׁפִֽים׃ ...
(נא) וַיַּ֣ךְ כָּל־בְּכ֣וֹר בְּמִצְרָ֑יִם רֵאשִׁ֥ית א֝וֹנִ֗ים בְּאָהֳלֵי־חָֽם׃
(44) He turned their rivers into blood; He made their waters undrinkable. (45) He inflicted upon them swarms of insects to devour them, frogs to destroy them. (46) He gave their crops over to grubs, their produce to locusts. (47) He killed their vines with hail, their sycamores with frost. (48) He gave their beasts over to hail, their cattle to lightning bolts. ... (51) He struck every first-born in Egypt, the first fruits of their vigor in the tents of Ham.
(כז) שָֽׂמוּ־בָ֭ם דִּבְרֵ֣י אֹתוֹתָ֑יו וּ֝מֹפְתִ֗ים בְּאֶ֣רֶץ חָֽם׃ (כח) שָׁ֣לַֽח חֹ֭שֶׁךְ וַיַּחְשִׁ֑ךְ וְלֹֽא־מָ֝ר֗וּ אֶת־דברוו [דְּבָרֽוֹ׃] (כט) הָפַ֣ךְ אֶת־מֵימֵיהֶ֣ם לְדָ֑ם וַ֝יָּ֗מֶת אֶת־דְּגָתָֽם׃ (ל) שָׁרַ֣ץ אַרְצָ֣ם צְפַרְדְּעִ֑ים בְּ֝חַדְרֵ֗י מַלְכֵיהֶֽם׃ (לא) אָ֭מַר וַיָּבֹ֣א עָרֹ֑ב כִּ֝נִּ֗ים בְּכָל־גְּבוּלָֽם׃ (לב) נָתַ֣ן גִּשְׁמֵיהֶ֣ם בָּרָ֑ד אֵ֖שׁ לֶהָב֣וֹת בְּאַרְצָֽם׃ (לג) וַיַּ֣ךְ גַּ֭פְנָם וּתְאֵנָתָ֑ם וַ֝יְשַׁבֵּ֗ר עֵ֣ץ גְּבוּלָֽם׃ (לד) אָ֭מַר וַיָּבֹ֣א אַרְבֶּ֑ה וְ֝יֶ֗לֶק וְאֵ֣ין מִסְפָּֽר׃ (לה) וַיֹּ֣אכַל כָּל־עֵ֣שֶׂב בְּאַרְצָ֑ם וַ֝יֹּ֗אכַל פְּרִ֣י אַדְמָתָֽם׃ (לו) וַיַּ֣ךְ כָּל־בְּכ֣וֹר בְּאַרְצָ֑ם רֵ֝אשִׁ֗ית לְכָל־אוֹנָֽם׃
(27) They performed His signs among them, His wonders, against the land of Ham. (28) He sent darkness; it was very dark; did they not defy His word? (29) He turned their waters into blood and killed their fish. (30) Their land teemed with frogs, even the rooms of their king. (31) Swarms of insects came at His command, lice, throughout their country. (32) He gave them hail for rain, and flaming fire in their land. (33) He struck their vines and fig trees, broke down the trees of their country. (34) Locusts came at His command, grasshoppers without number. (35) They devoured every green thing in the land; they consumed the produce of the soil. (36) He struck down every first-born in the land, the first fruit of their vigor.
(א) וַיְהִ֥י דְבַר־יְהוָ֖ה אֵלַ֥י לֵאמֹֽר׃ (ב) הָלֹ֡ךְ וְקָֽרָאתָ֩ בְאָזְנֵ֨י יְרוּשָׁלִַ֜ם לֵאמֹ֗ר כֹּ֚ה אָמַ֣ר יְהוָ֔ה זָכַ֤רְתִּי לָךְ֙ חֶ֣סֶד נְעוּרַ֔יִךְ אַהֲבַ֖ת כְּלוּלֹתָ֑יִךְ לֶכְתֵּ֤ךְ אַחֲרַי֙ בַּמִּדְבָּ֔ר בְּאֶ֖רֶץ לֹ֥א זְרוּעָֽה׃
(1) The word of the LORD came to me, saying, (2) Go proclaim to Jerusalem: Thus said the LORD: I accounted to your favor The devotion of your youth, Your love as a bride— How you followed Me in the wilderness, In a land not sown.
(ו) לְמַ֤עַן יֵדְע֨וּ ׀ דּ֣וֹר אַ֭חֲרוֹן בָּנִ֣ים יִוָּלֵ֑דוּ יָ֝קֻ֗מוּ וִֽיסַפְּר֥וּ לִבְנֵיהֶֽם׃ ... (ח) וְלֹ֤א יִהְי֨וּ ׀ כַּאֲבוֹתָ֗ם דּוֹר֮ סוֹרֵ֪ר וּמֹ֫רֶ֥ה דּ֭וֹר לֹא־הֵכִ֣ין לִבּ֑וֹ וְלֹא־נֶאֶמְנָ֖ה אֶת־אֵ֣ל רוּחֽוֹ׃ ... (י) לֹ֣א שָׁ֭מְרוּ בְּרִ֣ית אֱלֹהִ֑ים וּ֝בְתוֹרָת֗וֹ מֵאֲנ֥וּ לָלֶֽכֶת׃ (יא) וַיִּשְׁכְּח֥וּ עֲלִילוֹתָ֑יו וְ֝נִפְלְאוֹתָ֗יו אֲשֶׁ֣ר הֶרְאָֽם׃
(6) that a future generation might know —children yet to be born— and in turn tell their children ...(8) and not be like their fathers, a wayward and defiant generation, a generation whose heart was inconstant, whose spirit was not true to God. ... (10) they did not keep God’s covenant, they refused to follow His instruction; (11) they forgot His deeds and the wonders that He showed them.
(ו) וַיַּעֲבֹ֨ר יְהוָ֥ה ׀ עַל־פָּנָיו֮ וַיִּקְרָא֒ יְהוָ֣ה ׀ יְהוָ֔ה אֵ֥ל רַח֖וּם וְחַנּ֑וּן אֶ֥רֶךְ אַפַּ֖יִם וְרַב־חֶ֥סֶד וֶאֱמֶֽת ׀ (ז) נֹצֵ֥ר חֶ֙סֶד֙ לָאֲלָפִ֔ים נֹשֵׂ֥א עָוֺ֛ן וָפֶ֖שַׁע וְחַטָּאָ֑ה וְנַקֵּה֙ לֹ֣א יְנַקֶּ֔ה פֹּקֵ֣ד ׀ עֲוֺ֣ן אָב֗וֹת עַל־בָּנִים֙ וְעַל־בְּנֵ֣י בָנִ֔ים עַל־שִׁלֵּשִׁ֖ים וְעַל־רִבֵּעִֽים׃
(6) The LORD passed before him and proclaimed: “The LORD! the LORD! a God compassionate and gracious, slow to anger, abounding in kindness and faithfulness, (7) extending kindness to the thousandth generation, forgiving iniquity, transgression, and sin; yet He does not remit all punishment, but visits the iniquity of parents upon children and children’s children, upon the third and fourth generations.”
(ל) כִּ֛י אִם־אִ֥ישׁ בַּעֲוֺנ֖וֹ יָמ֑וּת כָּל־הָֽאָדָ֛ם הָאֹכֵ֥ל הַבֹּ֖סֶר תִּקְהֶ֥ינָה שִׁנָּֽיו׃ (ס)
(30) But every one shall die for his own sins: whosoever eats sour grapes, his teeth shall be blunted.
(כז) הִנֵּ֛ה יָמִ֥ים בָּאִ֖ים נְאֻם־יְהוָ֑ה וְזָרַעְתִּ֗י אֶת־בֵּ֤ית יִשְׂרָאֵל֙ וְאֶת־בֵּ֣ית יְהוּדָ֔ה זֶ֥רַע אָדָ֖ם וְזֶ֥רַע בְּהֵמָֽה׃ (כח) וְהָיָ֞ה כַּאֲשֶׁ֧ר שָׁקַ֣דְתִּי עֲלֵיהֶ֗ם לִנְת֧וֹשׁ וְלִנְת֛וֹץ וְלַהֲרֹ֖ס וּלְהַאֲבִ֣יד וּלְהָרֵ֑עַ כֵּ֣ן אֶשְׁקֹ֧ד עֲלֵיהֶ֛ם לִבְנ֥וֹת וְלִנְט֖וֹעַ נְאֻם־יְהוָֽה׃ (כט) בַּיָּמִ֣ים הָהֵ֔ם לֹא־יֹאמְר֣וּ ע֔וֹד אָב֖וֹת אָ֣כְלוּ בֹ֑סֶר וְשִׁנֵּ֥י בָנִ֖ים תִּקְהֶֽינָה׃ (ל) כִּ֛י אִם־אִ֥ישׁ בַּעֲוֺנ֖וֹ יָמ֑וּת כָּל־הָֽאָדָ֛ם הָאֹכֵ֥ל הַבֹּ֖סֶר תִּקְהֶ֥ינָה שִׁנָּֽיו׃ (ס) (לא) הִנֵּ֛ה יָמִ֥ים בָּאִ֖ים נְאֻם־יְהוָ֑ה וְכָרַתִּ֗י אֶת־בֵּ֧ית יִשְׂרָאֵ֛ל וְאֶת־בֵּ֥ית יְהוּדָ֖ה בְּרִ֥ית חֲדָשָֽׁה׃ (לב) לֹ֣א כַבְּרִ֗ית אֲשֶׁ֤ר כָּרַ֙תִּי֙ אֶת־אֲבוֹתָ֔ם בְּיוֹם֙ הֶחֱזִיקִ֣י בְיָדָ֔ם לְהוֹצִיאָ֖ם מֵאֶ֖רֶץ מִצְרָ֑יִם אֲשֶׁר־הֵ֜מָּה הֵפֵ֣רוּ אֶת־בְּרִיתִ֗י וְאָנֹכִ֛י בָּעַ֥לְתִּי בָ֖ם נְאֻם־יְהוָֽה׃ (לג) כִּ֣י זֹ֣את הַבְּרִ֡ית אֲשֶׁ֣ר אֶכְרֹת֩ אֶת־בֵּ֨ית יִשְׂרָאֵ֜ל אַחֲרֵ֨י הַיָּמִ֤ים הָהֵם֙ נְאֻם־יְהוָ֔ה נָתַ֤תִּי אֶת־תּֽוֹרָתִי֙ בְּקִרְבָּ֔ם וְעַל־לִבָּ֖ם אֶכְתֲּבֶ֑נָּה וְהָיִ֤יתִי לָהֶם֙ לֵֽאלֹהִ֔ים וְהֵ֖מָּה יִֽהְיוּ־לִ֥י לְעָֽם׃
(27) See, a time is coming—declares the LORD—when I will sow the House of Israel and the House of Judah with seed of men and seed of cattle; (28) and just as I was watchful over them to uproot and to pull down, to overthrow and to destroy and to bring disaster, so I will be watchful over them to build and to plant—declares the LORD. (29) In those days, they shall no longer say, “Parents have eaten sour grapes and children’s teeth are blunted.” (30) But every one shall die for his own sins: whosoever eats sour grapes, his teeth shall be blunted. (31) See, a time is coming—declares the LORD—when I will make a new covenant with the House of Israel and the House of Judah. (32) It will not be like the covenant I made with their fathers, when I took them by the hand to lead them out of the land of Egypt, a covenant which they broke, though I espoused them—declares the LORD. (33) But such is the covenant I will make with the House of Israel after these days—declares the LORD: I will put My Teaching into their inmost being and inscribe it upon their hearts. Then I will be their God, and they shall be My people.
(י) וַֽיְהִי֙ דְּבַר־יְהוָ֔ה אֶל־שְׁמוּאֵ֖ל לֵאמֹֽר׃ (יא) נִחַ֗מְתִּי כִּֽי־הִמְלַ֤כְתִּי אֶת־שָׁאוּל֙ לְמֶ֔לֶךְ כִּֽי־שָׁב֙ מֵאַֽחֲרַ֔י וְאֶת־דְּבָרַ֖י לֹ֣א הֵקִ֑ים וַיִּ֙חַר֙ לִשְׁמוּאֵ֔ל וַיִּזְעַ֥ק אֶל־יְהוָ֖ה כָּל־הַלָּֽיְלָה׃ ...(כח) וַיֹּ֤אמֶר אֵלָיו֙ שְׁמוּאֵ֔ל קָרַ֨ע יְהוָ֜ה אֶֽת־מַמְלְכ֧וּת יִשְׂרָאֵ֛ל מֵעָלֶ֖יךָ הַיּ֑וֹם וּנְתָנָ֕הּ לְרֵעֲךָ֖ הַטּ֥וֹב מִמֶּֽךָּ׃ (כט) וְגַם֙ נֵ֣צַח יִשְׂרָאֵ֔ל לֹ֥א יְשַׁקֵּ֖ר וְלֹ֣א יִנָּחֵ֑ם כִּ֣י לֹ֥א אָדָ֛ם ה֖וּא לְהִנָּחֵֽם׃ ... (לה) וְלֹא־יָסַ֨ף שְׁמוּאֵ֜ל לִרְא֤וֹת אֶת־שָׁאוּל֙ עַד־י֣וֹם מוֹת֔וֹ כִּֽי־הִתְאַבֵּ֥ל שְׁמוּאֵ֖ל אֶל־שָׁא֑וּל וַיהוָ֣ה נִחָ֔ם כִּֽי־הִמְלִ֥יךְ אֶת־שָׁא֖וּל עַל־יִשְׂרָאֵֽל׃ (פ)
(10) The word of the LORD then came to Samuel: (11) “I regret that I made Saul king, for he has turned away from Me and has not carried out My commands.” Samuel was distressed and he entreated the LORD all night long. ... (28) And Samuel said to him, “The LORD has this day torn the kingship over Israel away from you and has given it to another who is worthier than you. (29) Moreover, the Glory of Israel does not deceive or regret, for He is not human that He should regret.” ...(35) Samuel never saw Saul again to the day of his death. But Samuel grieved over Saul, because the LORD regretted that He had made Saul king over Israel.
(כז) וּבַחֲנֻכַּ֞ת חוֹמַ֣ת יְרוּשָׁלִַ֗ם בִּקְשׁ֤וּ אֶת־הַלְוִיִּם֙ מִכָּל־מְק֣וֹמֹתָ֔ם לַהֲבִיאָ֖ם לִֽירוּשָׁלִָ֑ם לַעֲשֹׂ֨ת חֲנֻכָּ֤ה וְשִׂמְחָה֙ וּבְתוֹד֣וֹת וּבְשִׁ֔יר מְצִלְתַּ֖יִם נְבָלִ֥ים וּבְכִנֹּרֽוֹת׃ ...
(יג:א) בַּיּ֣וֹם הַה֗וּא נִקְרָ֛א בְּסֵ֥פֶר מֹשֶׁ֖ה בְּאָזְנֵ֣י הָעָ֑ם וְנִמְצָא֙ כָּת֣וּב בּ֔וֹ אֲ֠שֶׁר לֹא־יָב֨וֹא עַמֹּנִ֧י וּמֹאָבִ֛י בִּקְהַ֥ל הָאֱלֹהִ֖ים עַד־עוֹלָֽם׃ ....(כג) גַּ֣ם ׀ בַּיָּמִ֣ים הָהֵ֗ם רָאִ֤יתִי אֶת־הַיְּהוּדִים֙ הֹשִׁ֗יבוּ נָשִׁים֙ אשדודיות [אַשְׁדֳּדִיּ֔וֹת] עמוניות [עַמֳּנִיּ֖וֹת] מוֹאֲבִיּֽוֹת׃ (כד) וּבְנֵיהֶ֗ם חֲצִי֙ מְדַבֵּ֣ר אַשְׁדּוֹדִ֔ית וְאֵינָ֥ם מַכִּירִ֖ים לְדַבֵּ֣ר יְהוּדִ֑ית וְכִלְשׁ֖וֹן עַ֥ם וָעָֽם׃ (כה) וָאָרִ֤יב עִמָּם֙ וָאֲקַֽלְלֵ֔ם וָאַכֶּ֥ה מֵהֶ֛ם אֲנָשִׁ֖ים וָֽאֶמְרְטֵ֑ם וָאַשְׁבִּיעֵ֣ם בֵּֽאלֹהִ֗ים אִם־תִּתְּנ֤וּ בְנֹֽתֵיכֶם֙ לִבְנֵיהֶ֔ם וְאִם־תִּשְׂאוּ֙ מִבְּנֹ֣תֵיהֶ֔ם לִבְנֵיכֶ֖ם וְלָכֶֽם׃
(27) At the dedication of the wall of Jerusalem, the Levites, wherever they lived, were sought out and brought to Jerusalem to celebrate a joyful dedication with thanksgiving and with song, and cymbals, harps, and lyres. ...
(13:1) At that time they read to the people from the Book of Moses, and it was found written that no Ammonite or Moabite might ever enter the congregation of God, ... (23) Also at that time, I saw that Jews had married Ashdodite, Ammonite, and Moabite women; (24) a good number of their children spoke the language of Ashdod and the language of those various peoples, and did not know how to speak Judean. (25) I argued with them, cursed them, flogged them, tore out their hair, and forced them to make an oath to God, saying, “You shall not give your daughters in marriage to their sons, or take any of their daughters for your sons or yourselves."
(א) וַיְהִ֗י בִּימֵי֙ שְׁפֹ֣ט הַשֹּׁפְטִ֔ים וַיְהִ֥י רָעָ֖ב בָּאָ֑רֶץ וַיֵּ֨לֶךְ אִ֜ישׁ מִבֵּ֧ית לֶ֣חֶם יְהוּדָ֗ה לָגוּר֙ בִּשְׂדֵ֣י מוֹאָ֔ב ה֥וּא וְאִשְׁתּ֖וֹ וּשְׁנֵ֥י בָנָֽיו׃ ... (ד) וַיִּשְׂא֣וּ לָהֶ֗ם נָשִׁים֙ מֹֽאֲבִיּ֔וֹת שֵׁ֤ם הָֽאַחַת֙ עָרְפָּ֔ה וְשֵׁ֥ם הַשֵּׁנִ֖ית ר֑וּת וַיֵּ֥שְׁבוּ שָׁ֖ם כְּעֶ֥שֶׂר שָׁנִֽים׃ (ה) וַיָּמ֥וּתוּ גַם־שְׁנֵיהֶ֖ם מַחְל֣וֹן וְכִלְי֑וֹן וַתִּשָּׁאֵר֙ הָֽאִשָּׁ֔ה מִשְּׁנֵ֥י יְלָדֶ֖יהָ וּמֵאִישָֽׁהּ׃ ... (יא) וַיֹּ֨אמְר֜וּ כָּל־הָעָ֧ם אֲשֶׁר־בַּשַּׁ֛עַר וְהַזְּקֵנִ֖ים עֵדִ֑ים יִתֵּן֩ יְהוָ֨ה אֶֽת־הָאִשָּׁ֜ה הַבָּאָ֣ה אֶל־בֵּיתֶ֗ךָ כְּרָחֵ֤ל ׀ וּכְלֵאָה֙ אֲשֶׁ֨ר בָּנ֤וּ שְׁתֵּיהֶם֙ אֶת־בֵּ֣ית יִשְׂרָאֵ֔ל וַעֲשֵׂה־חַ֣יִל בְּאֶפְרָ֔תָה וּקְרָא־שֵׁ֖ם בְּבֵ֥ית לָֽחֶם׃ ... (יג) וַיִּקַּ֨ח בֹּ֤עַז אֶת־רוּת֙ וַתְּהִי־ל֣וֹ לְאִשָּׁ֔ה וַיָּבֹ֖א אֵלֶ֑יהָ וַיִּתֵּ֨ן יְהוָ֥ה לָ֛הּ הֵרָי֖וֹן וַתֵּ֥לֶד בֵּֽן׃ ... (כא) ... וּבֹ֖עַז הוֹלִ֥יד אֶת־עוֹבֵֽד׃ (כב) וְעֹבֵד֙ הוֹלִ֣יד אֶת־יִשָׁ֔י וְיִשַׁ֖י הוֹלִ֥יד אֶת־דָּוִֽד׃
(1) In the days when the chieftains ruled, there was a famine in the land; and a man of Bethlehem in Judah, with his wife and two sons, went to reside in the country of Moab. ... (4) They married Moabite women, one named Orpah and the other Ruth, and they lived there about ten years. (5) Then those two—Mahlon and Chilion—also died; so the woman was left without her two sons and without her husband. ...
[Ruth and Naomi go to Beit Lechem, meet Boaz,...]
(11) All the people at the gate and the elders answered, “We are [witnesses]. May the LORD make the woman who is coming into your house like Rachel and Leah, both of whom built up the House of Israel! ... (13) So Boaz married Ruth; she became his wife, and he cohabited with her. The LORD let her conceive, and she bore a son. ...(21) ... Boaz begot Obed, (22) Obed begot Jesse, and Jesse begot David.
Recommended for Further Reading
- Who Wrote the Bible and The Bible With Sources Revealed, by Richard Elliot Friedman
- The Divine Symphony: The Bible's Many Voices, by Israel Knohl
- The Creation of History in Ancient Israel, by Marc Zvi Brettler
- From Gods to God: How the Bible Debunked, Suppressed, or Changed Ancient Myths and Legends, by Yair Zakovitch and Avigdor Shinan