Relationships Between "Religious" and "Secular" Jews - Mishnah Demai

הַמְקַבֵּל עָלָיו לִהְיוֹת נֶאֱמָן, מְעַשֵּׂר אֶת שֶׁהוּא אוֹכֵל, וְאֶת שֶׁהוּא מוֹכֵר, וְאֶת שֶׁהוּא לוֹקֵחַ, וְאֵינוֹ מִתְאָרֵחַ אֵצֶל עַם הָאָרֶץ.

רַבִּי יְהוּדָה אוֹמֵר, אַף הַמִּתְאָרֵחַ אֵצֶל עַם הָאָרֶץ נֶאֱמָן.

אָמְרוּ לוֹ, עַל עַצְמוֹ אֵינוֹ נֶאֱמָן, כֵּיצַד יְהֵא נֶאֱמָן עַל שֶׁל אֲחֵרִים:

Those who take it upon themselves to be trustworthy (ne’eman), must tithe whatever they eat and whatever they sell and whatever they buy, and they may not be the guest of an am haaretz.

Rabbi Judah says: even one who is the guest of an am haaretz can still be considered trustworthy.

They said to him: He is not trustworthy with himself! How can he be considered trustworthy with others?

הַמְקַבֵּל עָלָיו לִהְיוֹת חָבֵר, אֵינוֹ מוֹכֵר לְעַם הָאָרֶץ לַח וְיָבֵשׁ, וְאֵינוֹ לוֹקֵחַ מִמֶּנּוּ לַח, וְאֵינוֹ מִתְאָרֵח אֵצֶל עַם הָאָרֶץ, וְלֹא מְאָרְחוֹ אֶצְלוֹ בִּכְסוּתוֹ.

רַבִּי יְהוּדָה אוֹמֵר, אַף לֹא יְגַדֵּל בְּהֵמָה דַקָּה, וְלֹא יְהֵא פָרוּץ בִּנְדָרִים וּבִשְׂחוֹק, וְלֹא יְהֵא מִטַּמֵּא לְמֵתִים, וּמְשַׁמֵּשׁ בְּבֵית הַמִּדְרָשׁ.

אָמְרוּ לוֹ, לֹא בָאוּ אֵלּוּ לַכְּלָל:

One who takes it upon himself to become a chaver may not sell to an am haaretz either wet or dry produce, nor buy from him wet produce, nor be the guest of an am haaretz, nor host an am haaretz as a guest while he is wearing his cloak.

Rabbi Judah says: [a chaver] may not also raise small animals, nor make a lot of vows, nor joke around too much, nor become defiled by contact with the dead. Rather, [a chaver] should be an attendant at the house of study.

They said to him: these practices do not come within the general rule [of being a chaver].

הַמַּדִּיר אֶת חֲבֵרוֹ שֶׁיֹּאכַל אֶצְלוֹ, וְהוּא אֵינוֹ מַאֲמִינוֹ עַל הַמַּעַשְׂרוֹת, אוֹכֵל עִמּוֹ בַּשַּׁבָּת הָרִאשׁוֹנָה, וְאַף עַל פִּי שֶׁאֵינוֹ מַאֲמִינוֹ עַל הַמַּעַשְׂרוֹת, וּבִלְבַד שֶׁיֹּאמַר לוֹ מְעֻשָּׂרִין הֵן.

וּבְשַׁבָּת שְׁנִיָּה, אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁנָּדַר מִמֶּנּוּ הֲנָיָה, לֹא יֹאכַל עַד שֶׁיְּעַשֵּׂר:

One who vowed to have his friend eat with him - but the friend does not trust him with tithes - he may eat with him on the first Shabbat even though he does not generally trust him with tithes, provided that his friend said to him that the food had been tithed.

But on the second Shabbat, even if he has vowed, [the chaver] may not eat with him unless he first tithes the produce.

הַנִּכְנָס לְעִיר וְאֵינוֹ מַכִּיר אָדָם שָׁם, אָמַר, מִי כָּאן נֶאֱמָן. מִי כָּאן מְעַשֵּׂר. אָמַר לוֹ אֶחָד, אֲנִי, אֵינוֹ נֶאֱמָן. אָמַר לוֹ, אִישׁ פְּלוֹנִי נֶאֱמָן, הֲרֵי זֶה נֶאֱמָן.

הָלַךְ לִקַּח מִמֶּנּוּ, אָמַר לוֹ, מִי כָּאן מוֹכֵר יָשָׁן. אָמַר לוֹ, מִי שֶׁשְּׁלָחֲךָ אֶצְלִי, אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁהֵן כְּגוֹמְלִין זֶה אֶת זֶה, הֲרֵי אֵלּוּ נֶאֱמָנִין:

Someone enters a city and doesn’t know anyone. So they say: “Who here is trustworthy? Who gives tithes here?” One person one responds: “I am.” That person may not be trusted. [But if] that person replied: “So-and-so is trustworthy,” then so-and-so may be trusted.

If they then went to buy from so-and-so, and asked so-and-so: “Who here sells aged produce?” and so-and-so replies: “The one who sent you to me,” though they appear to be repaying each other, they may be trusted.