ביקור חולים
1א
הדף מאת: שלומי פרלמוטר, רננה פילזר, בית מדרש אלול / בית מדרש אלול
2ב
דף זה עוסק במצוות ביקור חולים מצד החולה ומצד המבקר מתוך שלוש סוגיות בגמרא. נדון בביקור חולים כהזדמנות למפגש ולפשרה, בהגבלות על ביקור חולים, בשיעור המצווה , בסוגי ביקור ובשאלה עד היכן ביקור חולים (מהם גבולות החסד)?
3ג
אמר רב המנונא: מאי דכתיב (קוהלת ח) "מי כהחכם ומי יודע פשר דבר"? מי כהקדוש ברוך הוא שיודע לעשות פשרה בין שני צדיקים, בין חזקיהו לישעיהו. חזקיהו אמר: ליתי ישעיהו גבאי (יבוא ישעיהו אלי) דהכי אשכחן (שכך מצאנו) באליהו דאזל לגבי (שהלך אצל) אחאב שנאמר (מלכים א יח) "וילך אליהו להראות אל אחאב". ישעיהו אמר: ליתי חזקיהו גבאי (יבוא חזקיהו אלי) דהכי אשכחן (שכך מצאנו) ביהורם בן אחאב דאזל לגבי אלישע. מה עשה הקב"ה? הביא יסורים על חזקיהו ואמר לו לישעיהו לך ובקר את החולה שנאמר (מלכים ב כ; ישעיהו לח) "בימים ההם חלה חזקיהו למות ויבא אליו ישעיהו בן אמוץ הנביא ויאמר אליו כה אמר ה' <צבאות> צו לביתך כי מת אתה ולא תחיה" וגו'. מאי כי מת אתה ולא תחיה? מת אתה בעולם הזה ולא תחיה לעולם הבא. אמר ליה - מאי כולי האי (מה כל זה)? אמר ליה משום דלא עסקת בפריה ורביה. א"ל משום דחזאי לי ברוח הקדש דנפקי מינאי בנין דלא מעלו! (משום שחזיתי ברוח הקודש שיצאו ממני בנים שאינם מעולים) א"ל בהדי כבשי דרחמנא למה לך? (אמר לו ישעיהו, בסתריו של הקב"ה למה לך להתעסק?) מאי דמפקדת איבעי לך למעבד ומה דניחא קמיה קודשא בריך הוא לעביד. (מה שצווית היית צריך לעשות ומה שנוח בעיני הקב"ה הוא שייעשה). אמר ליה - השתא הב לי ברתך אפשר דגרמא זכותא דידי ודידך ונפקי מנאי בנין דמעלו (עתה תן לי את בתך, אולי תגרום זכותי וזכותך ויצאו ממני בנים מעולים) א"ל כבר נגזרה עליך גזירה. א"ל בן אמוץ כלה נבואתך וצא! כך מקובלני מבית אבי אבא אפי' חרב חדה מונחת על צוארו של אדם אל ימנע עצמו מן הרחמים. אתמר נמי רבי יוחנן ורבי <אליעזר> [אלעזר] דאמרי תרוייהו אפילו חרב חדה מונחת על צוארו של אדם אל ימנע עצמו מן הרחמים שנא' (איוב יג) "הן יקטלני לו איחל". א"ר חנן: אפי' בעל החלומות אומר לו לאדם למחר הוא מת, אל ימנע עצמו מן הרחמים, שנאמר (קוהלת ה) "כי ברוב חלומות והבלים ודברים הרבה כי את האלהים ירא". מיד - (ישעיהו לח) "ויסב חזקיהו פניו אל הקיר ויתפלל אל ה'" מאי קיר? אמר רשב"ל - מקירות לבו, שנא' (ירמיהו ד) "מעי מעי אוחילה קירות לבי" וגו'. ר' לוי אמר - על עסקי הקיר, אמר לפניו: רבונו של עולם ומה שונמית שלא עשתה אלא (עליית) קיר אחת קטנה החיית את בנה, אבי אבא שחפה את ההיכל כולו בכסף ובזהב על אחת כמה וכמה! (ישעיהו לח) "(ויאמר אנא ה') זכר נא את אשר התהלכתי לפניך באמת ובלב שלם והטוב בעיניך עשיתי" מאי והטוב בעיניך עשיתי? א"ר יהודה אמר רב - שסמך גאולה לתפלה. ר' לוי אמר שגנז ספר רפואות.
With regard to redemption and prayer, the Gemara tells the story of Hezekiah’s illness, his prayer to God, and subsequent recuperation. Rav Hamnuna said: What is the meaning of that which is written praising the Holy One, Blessed be He: “Who is like the wise man, and who knows the interpretation [pesher] of the matter” (Ecclesiastes 8:1)? This verse means: Who is like the Holy One, Blessed be He, Who knows how to effect compromise [peshara] between two righteous individuals, between Hezekiah, the king of Judea, and Isaiah the prophet. They disagreed over which of them should visit the other. Hezekiah said: Let Isaiah come to me, as that is what we find with regard to Elijah the prophet, who went to Ahab, the king of Israel, as it is stated: “And Elijah went to appear to Ahab” (I Kings 18:2). This proves that it is the prophet who must seek out the king. And Isaiah said: Let Hezekiah come to me, as that is what we find with regard to Yehoram ben Ahab, king of Israel, who went to Elisha the prophet, as it is stated: “So the king of Israel, Jehosaphat and the king of Edom went down to him” (II Kings 3:12). What did the Holy One, Blessed be He, do to effect compromise between Hezekiah and Isaiah? He brought the suffering of illness upon Hezekiah and told Isaiah: Go and visit the sick. Isaiah did as God instructed, as it is stated: “In those days Hezekiah became deathly ill, and Isaiah ben Amoz the prophet came and said to him: Thus says the Lord of Hosts: Set your house in order, for you will die and you will not live” (Isaiah 38:1). This seems redundant; what is the meaning of you will die and you will not live? This repetition means: You will die in this world, and you will not live, you will have no share, in the World-to-Come. Hezekiah said to him: What is all of this? For what transgression am I being punished?
Isaiah said to him: Because you did not marry and engage in procreation.
Hezekiah apologized and said: I had no children because I envisaged through divine inspiration that the children that emerge from me will not be virtuous. Hezekiah meant that he had seen that his children were destined to be evil. In fact, his son Menashe sinned extensively, and he thought it preferable to have no children at all. Isaiah said to him: Why do you involve yourself with the secrets of the Holy One, Blessed be He? That which you have been commanded, the mitzva of procreation, you are required to perform, and that which is acceptable in the eyes of the Holy One, Blessed be He, let Him perform, as He has so decided. Hezekiah said to Isaiah: Now give me your daughter as my wife; perhaps my merit and your merit will cause virtuous children to emerge from me.
Isaiah said to him: The decree has already been decreed against you and this judgment cannot be changed.
Hezekiah said to him: Son of Amoz, cease your prophecy and leave. As long as the prophet spoke as God’s emissary, Hezekiah was obligated to listen to him. He was not, however, obligated to accept Isaiah’s personal opinion that there was no possibility for mercy and healing. Hezekiah continued: I have received a tradition from the house of my father’s father, from King David, the founding father of the dynasty of kings of Judea: Even if a sharp sword rests upon a person’s neck, he should not prevent himself from praying for mercy. One may still hold out hope that his prayers will be answered, as was David himself when he saw the Angel of Destruction, but nonetheless prayed for mercy and his prayers were answered. With regard to the fact that one should not despair of God’s mercy, the Gemara cites that it was also said that Rabbi Yoḥanan and Rabbi Eliezer both said: Even if a sharp sword is resting upon a person’s neck, he should not prevent himself from praying for mercy, as it is stated in the words of Job: “Though He slay me, I will trust in Him” (Job 13:15). Even though God is about to take his life, he still prays for God’s mercy. Similarly, Rabbi Ḥanan said: Even if the master of dreams, in a true dream, an angel (Ma’ayan HaBerakhot) tells a person that tomorrow he will die, he should not prevent himself from praying for mercy, as it is stated: “For in the multitude of dreams and vanities there are many words; but fear God” (Ecclesiastes 5:6). Although the dream may seem real to him, that is not necessarily the case, and one must place his trust in God. Having heard Isaiah’s harsh prophecy, immediately “Hezekiah turned his face toward the wall and prayed to the Lord” (Isaiah 38:2). The Gemara asks: What is meant by the word “wall [kir]” in this context? Why did Hezekiah turn his face to a wall? Rabbi Shimon ben Lakish said: This symbolically alludes to the fact that Hezekiah prayed to God from the chambers [kirot] of his heart, as it is stated elsewhere: “My anguish, my anguish, I am in pain. The chambers of my heart. My heart moans within me” (Jeremiah 4:19). Rabbi Levi said: Hezekiah intended to evoke matters relating to a wall, and he said before God: Master of the Universe, and if the woman from Shunem, who made only a single small wall on the roof for the prophet Elisha, and you revived her son, all the more so should you bring life to the descendant of my father’s father, King Solomon, who covered the entire Temple Sanctuary with silver and gold. In his prayer, Hezekiah said: “Please, Lord, please remember that I walked before You in truth, and with a complete heart, and what was good in Your eyes I did. And Hezekiah wept sore” (Isaiah 38:3). The Gemara asks: To what specific action was he referring when he said: “And what was good in your sight I did”? Various opinions are offered: Mentioning Hezekiah’s merits, Rav Yehuda said in the name of Rav that he juxtaposed redemption and prayer at sunrise instead of sleeping late, as was the custom of most kings (Iyyun Ya’akov). Rabbi Levi said: He suppressed the Book of Remedies upon which everyone relied.
4ד
דיון
  • לפי הניסיון האישי שלכם, האומנם מחלה היא הזדמנות לפיוס?
  • אמונה בגזרה קבועה מראש מול תקווה לרחמים. עם איזו עמדה מגיע כל אחד מהבאים למפגש ועם איזו עמדה הוא יוצא?
  • פרייה ורביה - האם זו חובה אנושית/חברתית/דתית או החלטה אישית? האם יש לכם ביקורת כלפי מי שנמנע מכך מרצון?
  • רחם ורחמים: מקום הילדים וההולדה בסוגיה (הצעת הבת, הזכרת השונמית)
  • גניזת ספר רפואות - מה היחס בין רפואה לתפילה? האם הן עומדות בסתירה זו לזו? מה גרם לחזקיהו להתפלל לאלוהים לבסוף?
5ה
המודר הנאה מחברו (ו)נכנס לבקרו, עומד, אבל לא יושב; מרפאהו רפאות נפשות, אבל לא רפאות ממון; ורוחץ עימו באמבטי גדולה, אבל לא בקטנה. וישן עימו במיטה. רבי יהודה אומר: בימות החמה, אבל לא בימות הגשמים, מפני שהוא מהנהו. ומסב עימו על המיטה, ואוכל עימו על השולחן; אבל לא מן התמחוי, אבל אוכל הוא מן התמחוי החוזר. לא יאכל עימו מן האיבוס שלפני הפועלין. לא יעשה עימו באומן, דברי רבי מאיר; וחכמים אומרין, עושה הוא ברחוק ממנו.
If one is forbidden to benefit from his neighbor, and he pays him a visit [in sickness] he must stand, but not sit. He may afford him a cure of life, but not a cure of money. He may bathe together with him in a large bath, but not in a small one. He may sleep in a bed with him. Rabbi Judah said: in summer, but not in winter, because he thereby benefits him. He may [nevertheless] recline with him on a couch. [He may] eat at the same table with him but not out of the same bowl; but he may eat with him out of a bowl which returns. He may not eat with him out of the food trough put before laborers. He may not work with him on the same furrow, the words of Rabbi Meir. But the Sages say: he may work at a distance from him.
6ו
דיון
  • מהי מטרת ההגבלות על המבקר? האם אפשר לשמור על גבולות ברורים במצבים אינטימיים של חברות?
  • מדוע הדיון המרכזי בתלמוד בביקור חולים הוא דווקא במסגת של 'הדרת הנאה', של ביקור למרות מגבלות?
  • האם יש פה ביקורת על המדיר את חברו מהנאה או שזוהי דרך ענישה לגיטימית?
7ז
אמר ריש לקיש: רמז לביקור חולין מן התורה מנין שנאמר (במדבר טז, פרשת קורח) "אם כמות כל האדם ימותון אלה ופקודת כל אדם" וגו'. מאי משמע? אמר רבא אם כמות כל האדם ימותון אלה, שהן חולים ומוטלים בעריסתן ובני אדם מבקרים אותן מה הבריות אומרים - לא ה' שלחני לזה. דרש רבא (במדבר טז) "אם בריאה יברא ה'" אם בריאה גיהנם - מוטב תהיה, אם לאו - יברא ה'. איני? והא תניא שבעה דברים נבראו קודם שנברא העולם אלו הן תורה ותשובה גן עדן וגיהנם כסא הכבוד ובית המקדש ושמו של משיח....
תניא: ביקור חולים אין לה שיעור. מאי אין לה שיעור? סבר רב יוסף למימר אין שיעור למתן שכרה. אמר ליה אביי וכל מצות מי יש שיעור למתן שכרן? והא תנן הוי זהיר במצוה קלה כבחמורה שאין אתה יודע מתן שכרן של מצות. אלא אמר אביי אפי' גדול אצל קטן. רבא אמר אפי' מאה פעמים ביום. אמר רבי אחא בר חנינא כל המבקר חולה נוטל אחד מששים בצערו. אמרי ליה אם כן ליעלון שיתין ולוקמוה! [שיעמדו שישים אנשים ויעמידוהו מחוליו!] אמר ליה כעישורייתא דבי רבי [כמו העישורים בבית מדרשו של רבי] ובבן גילו. דתניא רבי אומר בת הניזונית מנכסי אחין נוטלת עישור נכסים. אמרו לו לרבי לדבריך מי שיש לו עשר בנות ובן אין לו לבן במקום בנות כלום! אמר להן ראשונה נוטלת עישור נכסים שניה במה ששיירה שלישית במה ששיירה וחוזרות וחולקות בשוה.
§ Apropos the halakhot of visiting the ill, the Gemara cites related statements. Reish Lakish said: From where is there an allusion from the Torah to visiting the ill? It is as it is stated: “If these men die the common death of all men, and be visited after the visitation of all men, then the Lord has not sent me” (Numbers 16:29). The Gemara asks: From where in this verse may visiting the ill be inferred? Rava said that this is what Moses is saying: If these men, the congregation of Korah, die the common death of all men, who become ill, and are confined to their beds, and people come to visit them; if that happens to them, what do the people say? They say: The Lord has not sent me for this task. Apropos Korah and his congregation, Rava interpreted the repetitive formulation in this verse homiletically: “But if the Lord will create a creation [beria yivra], and the ground opens its mouth, and swallows them, and all that is theirs, and they will descend alive into the pit, then you shall understand that these men have despised God” (Numbers 16:30). Here, Moses is saying: If Gehenna is already a creation [beria] and exists, that is optimal; if not, God should create [yivra] it now. The Gemara asks: Is that so? Was there uncertainty at that point as to whether Gehenna had already been created? But isn’t it taught in a baraita: Seven phenomena were created before the world was created, and they are: Torah, and repentance, the Garden of Eden, and Gehenna, the Throne of Glory, and the Temple, and the name of the Messiah. The Gemara provides sources for each of these phenomena. Torah was created before the world was created, as it is written: “The Lord made me as the beginning of His way, the first of His works of old” (Proverbs 8:22). Based on the subsequent verses, this is referring to the Torah. Repentance was created before the world was created, as it is written: “Before the mountains were brought forth, or ever You had formed the earth and the world, even from everlasting to everlasting, You are God” (Psalms 90:2), and it is written immediately afterward: “You return man to contrition; and You say: Repent, children of man” (Psalms 90:3). The Garden of Eden was created before the world was created, as it is written: “And the Lord God planted a garden in Eden eastward [mikedem]” (Genesis 2:8). “Eastward [mikedem]” is interpreted in the sense of before [mikodem], i.e., before the world was created. Gehenna was created before the world was created, as it is written: “For its hearth is ordained of old” (Isaiah 30:33). The hearth, i.e., Gehenna, was created before the world was created. The Throne of Glory was created before the world was created, as it is written: “Your throne is established of old, You are from everlasting” (Psalms 93:2). The Temple was created before the world was created, as it is written: “Your Throne of Glory on high from the beginning, in the place of our Temple” (Jeremiah 17:12). The name of the Messiah was created before the world was created, as it is written about him: “May his name endure forever; his name existed before the sun” (Psalms 72:17). The name of the Messiah predated the creation of the sun and the rest of the world. Apparently, Rava’s explanation that Moses was uncertain whether Gehenna had been created yet is contradicted by this baraita. Rather, the interpretation of the repetitive formulation of the verse is that this is what Moses is saying: If the opening was created for Gehenna, that is optimal, and if not, the Lord should create it now. The Gemara asks: But isn’t it written: “And there is nothing new under the sun” (Ecclesiastes 1:9)? How, then, could Moses request that God create the mouth of Gehenna now? The Gemara answers: This is what Moses said: If the mouth of Gehenna is not close to here, let God bring it closer. Apropos the conflict between Moses and Korah, the Gemara cites an additional verse that Rava interpreted homiletically, and some say that it was Rabbi Yitzḥak who said: What is the meaning of that which is written: “The sun and moon stood still in their habitation [zevula], at the light of Your arrows as they go, at the shining of Your glittering spear” (Habakkuk 3:11)? What do the sun and moon seek in zevul, which is the fourth heaven; aren’t they fixed in rakia, the second heaven? Rather, this teaches that the sun and moon ascended from rakia to zevul and said before Him: Master of the Universe! If You do justice for the son of Amram, i.e., Moses, in his dispute with Korah, we will continue to illuminate the world, and if not, we will not illuminate the world. At that moment, the Holy One, Blessed be He, shot arrows, and threw spears at them, and said to them: Each and every day idolaters bow to you and you continue to illuminate the world and do not protest. In My honor, you did not protest, but in honor of flesh and blood, you protested? And ever since, each and every day the heavenly hosts shoot arrows and throw spears at the sun and the moon, and only then do they emerge and illuminate the world, as it is stated: “At the light of Your arrows as they go, at the shining of Your glittering spear” (Habakkuk 3:11). § Returning to the topic of visiting the ill, the Gemara states: It is taught in a baraita: The mitzva of visiting the ill has no fixed measure. The Gemara asks: What is the meaning of: Has no fixed measure? Rav Yosef thought to say: There is no fixed measure for the granting of its reward. Abaye said to him: And do all other mitzvot have a fixed measure for the granting of their reward? But didn’t we learn in a mishna (Avot 2:1): Be as meticulous in the observance of a minor mitzva as a major one, as you do not know the granting of reward for mitzvot. Rather, Abaye said: There is no fixed measure for the disparity between the ill person and his visitor, as even a prominent person pays a visit to a lowly person and should not say that doing so is beneath a person of his standing. Rava said: There is no fixed measure for the number of times that one should visit the ill, as even one hundred times a day is appropriate. Rav Aḥa bar Ḥanina said: Anyone who visits an ill person takes from him one-sixtieth of his suffering. The Sages said to him: If so, let sixty people enter to visit him, and stand him up, and restore him to health. Rav Aḥa bar Ḥanina said to them: It is like the tenths of the school of Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi, who said that each of one’s daughters inherits one-tenth of his possessions. His intent was that each daughter would receive one-tenth of the remainder after the previous daughter took her portion. Here too, each visitor takes from the ill person one-sixtieth of the suffering that remains, and consequently a degree of suffering will always remain with the ill person. Furthermore, visiting is effective in easing the suffering of the ill person only when the visitor is one born under the same constellation as the ill person. The Gemara elaborates on the tenths of the school of Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi, as it is taught in a baraita that Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi says: A daughter who is supported from the property of her brothers after the death of their father receives one-tenth of the estate as her dowry. The Sages said to Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi: According to your statement, in the case of one who has ten daughters and a son, no property at all remains for the son in a place where there are daughters, as they receive the entire inheritance. Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi said to them: The first daughter takes one-tenth of the estate, the second takes one-tenth of that which the first left of the inheritance, the third takes one-tenth of that which the second left of the inheritance, and so on. After each succeeding daughter takes her share, they pool their resources and then divide the property equally. Therefore, the son is left with a share of the inheritance.
8ח
דיון
מצוות ביקור חולים מן התורה -
  • מדוע מוכנס לפה סיפור קורח ועדתו, הרי אפשר למצוא בתורה דוגמאות פשוטות וברורות יותר לביקור חולים כמו המלאכים הבאים לבקר את אברהם?
'כל המבקר חולה נוטל אחד משישים בצערו' -
  • האומנם מבקרים באמת יכולים לקחת משהו מצערו של חולה? באיזה מובן? האם זה משפיע יותר על המבקר או על החולה?
  • איזה סוג של מבקר מעדיף החולה בדרך כלל, מבקר עצוב שמזדהה עם המחלה או מבקר שמח ותוסס?
  • השוואת המחלה לכסף (ירושתן של בנות רבי) - מה ביניהם? האם ההשוואה נותנת שיעור למצוות ביקור חולים?
9ט
רב חלבו חלש (חלה). נפק אכריז רב כהנא: רב חלבו באיש (חלה). לא איכא דקא אתי (לא היה מי שבא (לבקרו)) אמר להו: לא כך היה מעשה בתלמיד אחד מתלמידי ר' עקיבא שחלה. לא נכנסו חכמים לבקרו ונכנס ר' עקיבא לבקרו, ובשביל שכיבדו (טאטא וניקה) וריבצו (מים על הרצפה) לפניו חיה (הבריא). אמר ליה: רבי, החייתני. יצא ר' עקיבא ודרש: כל מי שאין מבקר חולים כאילו שופך דמים. כי אתא רב דימי (מארץ ישראל) אמר: כל המבקר את החולה גורם לו שיחיה וכל שאינו מבקר את החולה גורם לו שימות. מאי גרמא (במה הוא גורם)? אילימא כל המבקר את החולה מבקש עליו רחמים שיחיה וכל שאין מבקר את החולה מבקש עליו רחמים שימות, שימות סלקא דעתך? אלא כל שאין מבקר חולה אין מבקש עליו רחמים לא שיחיה ולא שימות. רבא יומא קדמאה דחליש אמר להון לא תיגלו לאיניש דלא לתרע מזליה (ביום הראשון שהיה חולה היה אומר לבני ביתו אל תגלו לאיש שלא יורע מצבי) מכאן ואילך אמר להון: פוקו ואכריזו בשוקא דכל דסני לי ליחדי לי (צאו והכריזו בשוק שאני חולה שכל השונא לי ישמח במחלתי) וכתיב (משלי כד) "בנפול אויבך אל תשמח" וגו' ודרחים לי ליבעי עלי רחמי (ומי שאוהב אותי יבקש עלי רחמים). אמר רב: כל המבקר את החולה ניצול מדינה של גיהנם שנאמר (תהילים מא) "אשרי משכיל אל דל ביום רעה ימלטהו ה'". אין דל אלא חולה שנאמר (ישעיהו לח) "מדלה יבצעני" אי נמי מן הדין קרא (או גם כן מהפסוק הזה אפשר ללמוד) (שמואל ב יג) "מדוע אתה ככה דל בן המלך בבקר בבקר" וגו'. אין רעה אלא גיהנם שנאמר (משלי טז) "כל פעל ה' למענהו וגם רשע ליום רעה". ואם ביקר, מה שכרו? מה שכרו?! כדאמר - ניצול מדינה של גיהנם! אלא מה שכרו בעוה"ז - (תהילים מא) "ה' ישמרהו ויחייהו ואושר בארץ ואל תתנהו בנפש אויביו" - "ה' ישמרהו" - מיצר הרע. "ויחייהו" - מן היסורין. "ואושר בארץ" - שיהו הכל מתכבדין בו. "ואל תתנהו בנפש אויביו" - שיזדמנו לו ריעים כנעמן שריפו את צרעתו ואל יזדמנו לו ריעים כרחבעם שחילקו את מלכותו. תניא: ר"ש בן אלעזר אומר: אם יאמרו לך ילדים בנה וזקנים סתור, שמע לזקנים ואל תשמע לילדים, שבנין ילדים סתירה וסתירת זקנים בנין. וסימן לדבר (מלכים א יב) רחבעם בן שלמה. אמר רב שישא בריה דרב אידי: לא ליסעוד איניש קצירא לא בתלת שעי קדמייתא ולא בתלת שעי בתרייתא דיומא כי היכי דלא ליסח דעתיה מן רחמי תלת שעי קדמייתא רווחא דעתיה בתרייתא תקיף חולשיה. (לא יבקר אדם את החולה לא בשלוש שעות ראשונות של היום ולא בשלוש שעות אחרונות של היום כדי שלא יסיח דעתו מן הרחמים. שלוש שעות ראשונות מרווחת דעתו לאחר מנוחת הלילה והמבקר סבור שאין צורך להתפלל עליו. באחרונות - מתגברת חולשתו והמבקר סבור שכבר אין טעם להתפלל עליו). אמר רבין אמר רב: מניין שהקב"ה זן את החולה שנאמר (תהילים מא) "ה' יסעדנו על ערש דוי" וגו'. ואמר רבין אמר רב: מניין שהשכינה שרויה למעלה ממטתו של חולה שנאמר "ה' יסעדנו על ערש דוי". תניא נמי הכי: הנכנס לבקר את החולה לא ישב לא על גבי מטה ולא ע"ג ספסל ולא על גבי כסא אלא מתעטף ויושב ע"ג קרקע מפני שהשכינה שרויה למעלה ממטתו של חולה שנאמר "ה' יסעדנו על ערש דוי"
The Gemara relates: Rav Ḥelbo fell ill. Rav Kahana went out and announced: Rav Ḥelbo fell ill. There was no one who came to visit him. Rav Kahana said to the Sages: Didn’t the incident involving one of the students of Rabbi Akiva who became sick transpire in that manner? In that case, the Sages did not enter to visit him, and Rabbi Akiva entered to visit him and instructed his students to care for him. And since they swept and sprinkled water on the dirt floor before the sick student, he recovered. The student said to Rabbi Akiva: My teacher, you revived me. Rabbi Akiva went out and taught: With regard to anyone who does not visit the ill, it is as though he is spilling blood, as it could be that the sick person has no one to care for him. If there are no visitors, no one will know his situation and therefore no one will come to his aid. When Rav Dimi came from Eretz Yisrael to Babylonia he said: Anyone who visits the ill causes that he will live, and anyone who does not visit the ill causes that he will die. The Gemara asks: In what way are his actions the cause of that result? If we say that anyone who visits the ill pleads for mercy from God that he will live, and anyone who does not visit the ill pleads for mercy that he will die, does it enter your mind that he would pray that the sick person will die? Rather, anyone who does not visit the ill does not plead for mercy for him, neither that he will live nor that he will die. Since he might have saved the sick person with prayers had he visited, his failure to visit is tantamount to causing his death. The Gemara relates with regard to Rava: On the first day that he was ill, he would say to his family: Do not reveal to any person that I am ill, so that his luck not suffer. From this point forward, when his situation deteriorated he would say to them: Go and proclaim in the marketplace that I am ill, as thereby let all who hate me rejoice over my distress, and it is written: “Rejoice not when your enemy falls, and let not your heart be glad when he stumbles; lest the Lord see it, and it displease Him, and He turn away His wrath from him” (Proverbs 24:17–18). And let all who love me pray that God have mercy upon me. Rav said: Anyone who visits the ill is spared from the judgment of Gehenna, as it is stated: “Happy is he that considers the poor; the Lord will deliver him in the day of evil” (Psalms 41:2). In this verse, the term poor [dal] means nothing other than ill, as it is stated in the prayer of Hezekiah when he was ill: “He will cut me off from the illness [middalla]” (Isaiah 38:12). Alternatively, it may be derived from this verse in which Jonadab asked his sick friend Amnon, son of King David: “Why, son of the king, are you so sick [dal] from morning to morning?” (II Samuel 13:4). And the term evil means nothing other than Gehenna, as it is stated: “The Lord made everything for His own purpose, and even the wicked for the day of evil” (Proverbs 16:4), and the ultimate punishment of the evildoer is Gehenna. And if one visited the ill, what is his reward? The Gemara wonders at that question: What is his reward? It is as Rav said: He is spared from the judgment of Gehenna. Rather, the question is: What is his reward in this world? Rav continues: His reward is as it is written: “The Lord will preserve him, and keep him alive, let him be called happy in the land; and deliver not You him unto the greed of his enemies” (Psalms 41:3). He elaborates: “The Lord will preserve him” from the evil inclination; “and keep him alive” and spare him from suffering; “let him be called happy in the land” means that everyone will be honored from their association with him; “and deliver not You him unto the greed of his enemies,” so that companions like those who counseled Naaman to seek a cure for his leprosy from Elisha (II Kings 5:3) will happen to associate with him, and companions like those who counseled Rehoboam with advice that resulted in the schism in his kingdom (I Kings 12:6–19) will not happen to associate with him. On a similar note, it is taught in a baraita that Rabbi Shimon ben Elazar says: If youths would say to you: Construct, and Elders would say to you: Demolish, heed the Elders and do not heed the youths, as the construction of youths is demolition, and the demolition of Elders is construction. And a mnemonic device for this matter is “Rehoboam, son of Solomon” (I Kings 12:21). Had he heeded the advice of the Elders and yielded at that time, there would have been no schism. Rav Sheisha, son of Rav Idi, said: Let one not visit a sick person, neither during the first three hours of the day, nor in the last three hours of the day, so that he will not be diverted from praying for mercy. Rav Sheisha elaborates: During the first three hours the sick person is relieved, as after a night’s sleep his suffering is somewhat alleviated and the visitor will conclude that there is no need for prayer. In the last three hours of the day his weakness is exacerbated, and the visitor will despair of ameliorating his suffering and will conclude that prayer is futile. § Ravin said that Rav said: From where is it derived that the Holy One, Blessed be He Himself sustains the sick person? It is as it is stated: “The Lord will support him upon the bed of suffering” (Psalms 41:4). Support in this context is understood to mean that He will feed him. And Ravin said that Rav said: From where is it derived that the Divine Presence is resting above the bed of the sick person? It is also as it is stated: “The Lord will support him upon the bed of suffering,” which indicates that God is actually over his bed. The Gemara notes that this is also taught in a baraita: One who enters to visit a sick person may neither sit on the bed nor sit on a bench or on a chair that is higher than the bed upon which the sick person is lying. Rather, he deferentially wraps himself in his garment and sits on the ground, because the Divine Presence is resting above the bed of the sick person, as it is stated: “The Lord will support him upon the bed of suffering,” and it is inappropriate for one to sit above the place where the Divine Presence rests.
10י
דיון
ר' עקיבא ותלמידיו - "ובשביל שכיבדו וריבצו לפניו חיה" - לפני מי? האם יש פה ביקורת של המספר?

גילוי וכיסוי במחלה - באילו מצבים אתם מעדיפים לספר על מחלות וחולשות ובאילו מצבים אתם נמנעים מכך? איך תסבירו את המעבר החד של רבא משתיקה מוחלטת להפצת דבר מחלתו בשוק?
11יא
ואפילו הכי לא סמך רבי אלעזר ברבי שמעון אדעתיה קביל עליה יסורי באורתא הוו מייכי ליה שיתין נמטי לצפרא נגדי מתותיה שיתין משיכלי דמא וכיבא (ר' אלעזר קיבל על עצמו ייסורים כדי לכפר על עוונו. בערב היו מקפלים לו שישים מצעות של לבד, בבוקר היו מוציאים מתחתיו שישים כלים של דם ומוגלה למרות הלבד). למחר עבדה ליה דביתהו שיתין מיני לפדא ואכיל להו וברי ולא הות שבקא ליה דביתהו למיפק לבי מדרשא כי היכי דלא לדחקוהו רבנן (עשתה לו אשתו שישים מיני לפתן והבריא ולא הניחה לו אשתו ללכת לבית המדרש כדי שלא ידחקוהו חכמים, משום שחששה לבריאותו). באורתא אמר להו (בערב אמר לייסוריו) - אחיי ורעיי בואו! בצפרא אמר להו - זילו (בבוקר אמר להם - לכו), מפני ביטול תורה. יומא חד שמעה דביתהו אמרה ליה את קא מייתית להו עילויך (יום אחד שמעה אותו אשתו. אמרה לו - אתה הוא שמביא אותם עליך!) כלית ממון של בית אבא! אימרדה אזלה לבית נשא [מרדה בו והלכה לבית אביה (והוא נותר ללא מי שייטפל בו וללא כסף)]. סליקו ואתו הנך [שיתין] ספונאי עיילו ליה שיתין עבדי כי נקיטי שיתין ארנקי ועבדו ליה שיתין מיני לפדא ואכיל להו (ובאו שישים ספנים והביאו לו שישים עבדים המחזיקים שישים ארנקים ועשו לו שישים מיני לפתן ואכל אותם). יומא חד אמרה לה לברתה: זילי בקי באבוך מאי קא עביד האידנא. אתיא. אמר לה: זילי אמרי לאמך שלנו גדול משלהם. (יום אחד אמרה לבתה - לכי בדקי מה עושה אביך כעת. באה אליו. אמר לה - לכי ואמרי לאמך שהרכוש שלנו גדול מהרכוש של בית אמך) קרי אנפשיה (קרא על עצמו) - (משלי לא) "היתה כאניות סוחר ממרחק תביא לחמה". אכל ושתי וברי נפק לבי מדרשא. אייתו לקמיה שיתין מיני דמא - טהרינהו. הוה קא מרנני רבנן ואמרי: סלקא דעתך לית בהו חד ספק? (אכל ושתה והבריא והלך לבית המדרש. הביאו לפניו שישים מיני דם שהיה ספק האם הם דם נדה או לא וטיהר את כולם. היו מרננים אחריו חכמים - עולה על דעתך שאין בהם אחד שיש בו ספק?!) אמר להו: אם כמותי הוא, יהיו כולם זכרים ואם לאו תהא נקבה אחת ביניהם. היו כולם זכרים ואסיקו להו (קראו להם) ר' אלעזר על שמיה. תניא אמר רבי: כמה פריה ורביה ביטלה רשעה זו מישראל. (הרשעה היא אשתו של ר' אלעזר שכשלא הניחה לו לבוא לבית המדרש, לא היה מי שיתיר נשים לבעליהן בספק נדה.)
§ After this digression, the Gemara returns to the story of Rabbi Elazar, son of Rabbi Shimon. And although his flesh did not putrefy, even so Rabbi Elazar, son of Rabbi Shimon, still did not rely on his own opinion, as he was worried that he may have erred in one of his decisions. He accepted afflictions upon himself as atonement for his possible sins. At night his attendants would spread out sixty felt bed coverings for him. In the morning, despite the bed coverings, they would remove sixty basins of blood and pus from underneath him. The following day, i.e., every morning, his wife would prepare for him sixty types of relish [lifda] made from figs, and he would eat them and become healthy. His wife, concerned for his health, would not allow him to go to the study hall, so that the Rabbis would not push him beyond his limits. In the evening, he would say to his pains: My brothers and my friends, come! In the morning he would say to them: Go away, due to the dereliction of Torah study that you cause me. One day his wife heard him inviting his pains. She said to him: You are bringing the pains upon yourself. You have diminished the money of my father’s home due to the costs of treating your self-imposed afflictions. She rebelled against him and went back to her father’s home, and he was left with no one to care for him. Meanwhile, there were these sixty sailors who came and entered to visit Rabbi Elazar, son of Rabbi Shimon. They brought him sixty servants, each bearing sixty purses, and prepared him sixty types of relish and he ate them. When they had encountered trouble at sea, these sailors had prayed to be saved in the merit of Rabbi Elazar, son of Rabbi Shimon. Upon returning to dry land, they presented him with these gifts. One day, the wife of Rabbi Elazar, son of Rabbi Shimon, said to her daughter: Go and check on your father and see what he is doing now. The daughter came to her father, who said to her: Go and tell your mother that ours is greater than theirs, i.e., my current financial status is greater than that of your father’s household. He read the verse about himself: “She is like the merchant-ships; she brings her food from afar” (Proverbs 31:14). As he was unhindered by his wife from going to the study hall, Rabbi Elazar, son of Rabbi Shimon, ate and drank and became healthy and went out to the study hall. The students brought sixty questionable samples of blood before him for inspection, to determine whether or not they were menstrual blood. He deemed them all ritually pure, thereby permitting the women to engage in intercourse with their husbands. The Rabbis of the academy were murmuring about Rabbi Elazar, son of Rabbi Shimon, and saying: Can it enter your mind that there is not one uncertain sample among them? He must be mistaken. Rabbi Elazar, son of Rabbi Shimon, said to them: If the halakha is in accordance with my ruling, let all the children born from these women be males. And if not, let there be one female among them. It turned out that all of the children were males, and they were called Elazar in his name. It is taught in a baraita that Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi lamented and said concerning the wife of Rabbi Elazar, son of Rabbi Shimon: How much procreation has this evil woman prevented from the Jewish people. She caused women not to have children by preventing her husband from going to the study hall and rendering his halakhic rulings. As Rabbi Elazar, son of Rabbi Shimon, was dying, he said to his wife: I know that the Rabbis are angry at me for arresting several thieves who are their relatives, and therefore they will not properly tend to my burial. When I die, lay me in my attic and do not be afraid of me, i.e., do not fear that anything will happen to my corpse. Rabbi Shmuel bar Naḥmani said: Rabbi Yonatan’s mother told me that the wife of Rabbi Elazar, son of Rabbi Shimon, told her: I laid him in the attic for no less than eighteen years and for no more than twenty-two years. His wife continued: When I would go up to the attic I would check his hair, and when a hair would fall out from his head, blood would come and appear in its place, i.e., his corpse did not decompose. One day I saw a worm emerging from his ear, and I became very distressed that perhaps his corpse had begun to decompose. My husband appeared to me in a dream and said to me: It is no matter for concern. Rather, this is a consequence for a sin of mine, as one day I heard a Torah scholar being insulted and I did not protest as I should have. Therefore, I received this punishment in my ear, measure for measure. During this period, when two people would come for adjudication of a dispute, they would stand by the doorway to the home of Rabbi Elazar, son of Rabbi Shimon. One litigant would state his side of the matter, and the other litigant would state his side of the matter. A voice would issue forth from his attic, saying: So-and-so, you are guilty; so-and-so, you are innocent. The Gemara relates: One day, the wife of Rabbi Elazar, son of Rabbi Shimon, was quarreling with a neighbor. The neighbor said to her as a curse: This woman should be like her husband, who was not buried. When word spread that Rabbi Elazar, son of Rabbi Shimon, had not been buried, the Rabbis said: This much, i.e., now that the matter is known, to continue in this state is certainly not proper conduct, and they decided to bury him. There are those who say that the Sages found out that Rabbi Elazar, son of Rabbi Shimon, had not been buried when Rabbi Shimon ben Yoḥai, his father, appeared to them in a dream and said to them: I have a single fledgling among you, i.e., my son, and you do not wish to bring it to me by burying him next to me. Consequently, the Sages went to tend to his burial. The residents of Akhbaria, the town where the corpse of Rabbi Elazar, son of Rabbi Shimon, was resting, did not allow them to do so, as they realized that all the years that Rabbi Elazar, son of Rabbi Shimon, had been resting in his attic, no wild beast had entered their town. The townspeople attributed this phenomenon to his merit and they did not want to lose this protection. One day, which was Yom Kippur eve, everyone in the town was preoccupied with preparations for the Festival. The Rabbis sent a message to the residents of the adjacent town of Biri instructing them to help remove the body of Rabbi Elazar, son of Rabbi Shimon, from the attic, and they removed his bier and brought it to his father’s burial cave. They found a serpent [le’akhna] that had placed its tail in its mouth and completely encircled the entrance to the cave, denying them access. They said to it: Serpent, serpent! Open your mouth to allow a son to enter next to his father. It opened its mouth for them and uncoiled, and they buried Rabbi Elazar, son of Rabbi Shimon, alongside his father. The Gemara continues: After this incident, Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi sent a messenger to speak with the wife of Rabbi Elazar, son of Rabbi Shimon, and propose marriage. She sent a message to him in response: Shall a vessel used by someone sacred, i.e., Rabbi Elazar, son of Rabbi Shimon, be used by someone who is, relative to him, profane? There, in Eretz Yisrael, they say that she used the colloquial adage: In the location where the master of the house hangs his sword, shall the contemptible shepherd hang his basket [kultei]? Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi sent a message back to her: Granted that in Torah he was greater than I, but was he greater than I in pious deeds? She sent a message back to him: Whether he was greater than you in Torah I do not know; but I do know that he was greater than you in pious deeds, as he accepted afflictions upon himself. The Gemara asks: With regard to Torah knowledge, what is the event that demonstrated the superiority of Rabbi Elazar, son of Rabbi Shimon, over Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi? The Gemara answers: When Rabban Shimon ben Gamliel and Rabbi Yehoshua ben Korḥa, the leading Sages of the generation, were sitting on benches [asafselei] teaching Torah along with the other Sages, the youthful pair Rabbi Elazar, son of Rabbi Shimon, and Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi would sit before them on the ground out of respect. These two young students would engage in discussions with the Sages, in which they would raise difficulties and answer them brilliantly. Seeing the young scholars’ brilliance, the leading Sages said: From their waters we drink, i.e., we are learning from them, and they are the ones sitting on the ground? Benches were prepared for Rabbi Elazar, son of Rabbi Shimon, and Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi, and they were promoted to sit alongside the other Sages. Rabban Shimon ben Gamliel said to the other Sages present: I have a single fledgling among you, i.e., my son Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi, and you are seeking to take it from me? By promoting my son to such a prestigious position at such a young age, his chances of being adversely affected by the evil eye are greatly increased. They demoted Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi to sit on the ground, at his father’s request. Rabbi Yehoshua ben Korḥa said to the Sages: Should one who has a father to care for him, i.e., Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi, be demoted so that he may live, while the other one, who does not have a father to care for him, i.e., Rabbi Elazar, son of Rabbi Shimon, should be allowed to die? Upon hearing his argument, the Sages also demoted Rabbi Elazar, son of Rabbi Shimon, without explaining to him the reason for his demotion. He became offended and said to them: You are equating Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi to me, by demoting us together. In fact, I am much greater than he. As a result of that incident, the relationship of Rabbi Elazar, son of Rabbi Shimon, with Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi changed. Up until that day, when Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi would state a matter of Torah, Rabbi Elazar, son of Rabbi Shimon, would support him by citing proofs for his opinion. From this point forward, when they were discussing a subject and Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi would say: I have an argument to respond, Rabbi Elazar, son of Rabbi Shimon, would preempt him by saying to him: Such and such is what you have to respond, and this is the refutation of your claim. Now that you asked these questions, you have surrounded us with bundles of refutations that have no substance, i.e., you have forced us to give unnecessary answers. Rabbi Elazar, son of Rabbi Shimon, would anticipate Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi’s comments and immediately dismiss them as having no value. Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi became offended. He came and told his father what had transpired. Rabban Shimon ben Gamliel said to him: My son, do not let his actions offend you, as he is a lion, son of a lion, and you are a lion, son of a fox. Rabbi Elazar’s father, Rabbi Shimon, was a renowned Sage, and therefore Rabbi Elazar’s sagacity is not surprising. In any event, this incident demonstrates the superiority of Rabbi Elazar, son of Rabbi Shimon, to Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi with regard to knowledge of Torah. The Gemara concludes: This incident is the background to a statement which Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi said: There are three prototypical modest people, and they are: Father, i.e., Rabban Shimon ben Gamliel;
12יב
דיון
  • מתי אנחנו כבר לא מוכנים לבקר חולה או לסעוד אותו?
  • איך הייתם פועלים במקום אשתו של ר' אלעזר בר' שמעון?
14 יד
15טו
דף הנחיות למנחה:
ביקור חולים - דף למנחה.doc