כי הוא נורא ואיום
1א
הדף מאת: רונן אחיטוב / המדרשה באורנים
2ב
הלימוד עוסק בדימוי של ראש השנה כיום הדין. העיון בתלמוד הבבלי ובתלמוד הירושלמי וההשוואה ביניהם מעלים את השאלות בידי מי נתונה המלכות, בידי האל או בני האדם? איזו מערכת יחסים בין האל ובני האדם עולה מהמקורות, ואיזו אווירה הם מעצבים לראש השנה כיום שבו נידונים בני האדם 'כבני מרון'.
3ג
העולם נידון בארבעה פרקים
בארבעה פרקים [=תקופות] העולם נידון [=נשפט]:

בפסח על התבואה.

בעצרת [=שבועות] על פירות האילן.

בראש השנה כל באי העולם עוברין לפניו כבני מרון שנאמר: (תהלים ל"ג) "היוצר יחד לבם המבין אל כל מעשיהם".

ובחג [סוכות] נידונין על המים [=הגשמים].
At four set times the world is judged:On Pesah in respect to the produce. On Shavuot in respect to the fruit of the tree. On Rosh Hashanah all the people of the world pass before Him like a division of soldier [a numerus], as it says, “He who fashions the hearts of them all, who discerns all their doings” (Psalms 33:15). And on Sukkot they are judged in respect of rain.
4ד
דיון
  • על מה נידונים בכל פרק?
  • איזה מבין הפרקים יוצא דופן? במה הוא שונה מהאחרים?
5ה
אמר ר' עקיבא: אמרה תורה, הבא עומר שעורין בפסח (קרבן העומר), שהוא פרק שעורין - כדי שתתברך עליך תבואה; הביא בכורים חטים בעצרת (קרבן "שתי הלחם"), שהוא פרק אילן כדי שיתברכו עליך פירות אילן; הביא ניסוך המים בחג כדי שיתברכו עליך מי גשמים, ואומר (זכריה יד, יז-יח) "וְהָיָה אֲשֶׁר לֹא יַעֲלֶה מֵאֵת מִשְׁפְּחוֹת הָאָרֶץ אֶל יְרוּשָׁלִַם לְהִשְׁתַּחֲוֹת לְמֶלֶךְ ה' צְבָאוֹת וְלֹא עֲלֵיהֶם יִהְיֶה הַגָּשֶׁם: וְאִם מִשְׁפַּחַת מִצְרַיִם לֹא תַעֲלֶה וְלֹא בָאָה וְלֹא עֲלֵיהֶם...".
As for the sacrificial waters one is held guilty on account of piggul, or of nothar, or of uncleanness. Therefore if they have become unfit or unclean they are taken to the house of burning ; but in the cases of the bottle and flask themselves one is guilty of transgression, since the things themselves are holy. Rabbi Akiba said, the Torah says, Bring an omer of barley at Passover, for it is the season of the barley crop, that the increase may be blessed to thee. Bring wheat as an offering of first-fruits at Shavuos, for it is the season of the wheat harvest, that the fruits of the tree may be blessed to thee. Pour out water at Sukkot, for it is the rainy season, that the rains may be blessed to thee, for it is said, And it shall be, that Those of all the families of the earth that do not go up unto Jerusalem to worship the King, Lord of hosts, upon them there shall be no rain. And if the family of Egypt go not up, neither shall it be upon them. [Zachariah 14]
6ו
דיון
  • איזה 'פרק' חסר בדברי ר' עקיבא? מדוע הוא השמיט אותו?
7ז
מאי "כבני מרון"?

הכא תרגימו: כבני אמרנא [=כאן פירשו "כבני צאן"].

ריש לקיש אמר: כמעלות בית מרון [=כמו במדרגות במעלה לבית מירון, שעולים בהן אחת-אחת].

אמר רב יהודה אמר שמואל: כחיילות [=כמו חיילים] של בית דוד.

אמר רבה בר בר חנה אמר רבי יוחנן: וכולן נסקרין בסקירה אחת.

אמר רב נחמן בר יצחק: אף אנן נמי תנינא [=אף אנו למדנו] (תהלים לג) "היצר יחד לבם, המבין אל כל מעשיהם".
Here the verse is referring to the time before one’s sentence is issued, when God shows favor and forgives; and there the verse is referring to the time after the sentence has been issued, when He no longer forgives. This implies that after a sentence has been issued, there is no possibility of repentance, which seems to contradict the statement of Rabbi Yoḥanan. The Gemara answers: Here too it is referring to an individual, but a community is granted forgiveness even after its sentence has been issued. § The question of whether or not an individual’s sentence can be rescinded is a dispute between tanna’im, as it is taught in a baraita that Rabbi Meir would say: Two people take to their beds, and their illness is the same, or two people ascend to the tribunal [gardom] for judgment, and their potential sentence is the same; but this one comes down from his bed, while that one does not come down from his bed, and this one is saved from death, while that one is not saved. For what reason did this one recover and come down from his bed, while that one did not recover and come down from his bed; and why was this one saved from death, while that one was not saved? The difference between them is that this one prayed and was answered, while that one prayed, but was not answered. And for what reason was this one answered and that one not answered? This one prayed a prayer with his whole heart and consequently was answered, while that one did not pray a prayer with his whole heart and therefore was not answered. Rabbi Elazar said: Not so; rather, here he prayed before his heavenly sentence was issued, and so he was answered, whereas there the other one prayed after his heavenly sentence was issued, and therefore he was not answered. Rabbi Yitzḥak disagreed and said: Crying out to God is effective for a person, both before his sentence has been issued and also after his sentence has been issued, as even after his sentence has been issued, it can still be rescinded if he repents. The Gemara asks: Can a sentence of a community really be torn up because they have repented? But one verse says: “O Jerusalem, wash your heart from wickedness, that you may be saved” (Jeremiah 4:14), and elsewhere it is written: “For though you wash yourself with lye, and use much soap, yet the stain of your iniquity is before Me, says the Lord God” (Jeremiah 2:22). What, is it not that here the verse is referring to the time before the sentence, when the heart can still be washed with repentance, whereas there the verse is referring to the time after the sentence, when washing no longer helps, as the sentence cannot be canceled? The Gemara answers: No, both this verse and that verse refer to the time after the sentence has been decreed, and still it is not difficult: Here the verse is referring to a sentence accompanied by an oath taken by God not to cancel the sentence, whereas there the verse is referring to a sentence that is not accompanied by God’s oath not to cancel the sentence, and so the sentence can in fact be canceled through repentance. This is like what Rav Shmuel bar Ami said, as Rav Shmuel bar Ami said, and some say that it was Rav Shmuel bar Naḥmani who said that Rabbi Yonatan said: From where is it derived that a sentence accompanied by God’s oath not to cancel it cannot be torn up or canceled? As it is stated: “And therefore I have sworn to the house of Eli, that the iniquity of Eli’s house will not be purged with sacrifice nor offering forever” (I Samuel 3:14). With regard to this verse Rava said: With sacrifice or offering the sin of Eli’s house is not atoned, but it can be atoned through Torah study. Abaye said: With sacrifice or offering the sin of Eli’s house is not atoned, but it is atoned through Torah study and the performance of acts of kindness. It is related that Rabba and Abaye came from the house of Eli, which was subject to the curse that most of its members would die young. Rabba, who engaged almost exclusively in Torah study, lived for forty years, whereas Abaye, who engaged in both Torah study and in the performance of acts of kindness lived for sixty years. The Sages taught in a baraita: There was a certain family in Jerusalem whose members used to die at the age of eighteen, and they did not know why. They came and told Rabban Yoḥanan ben Zakkai about their situation. He said to them: Perhaps you are descended from the family of Eli, as it is written about them: “And all the increase of your house shall die young men” (I Samuel 2:33). If indeed this is so, the remedy is as follows: Go and engage in Torah study, in the merit of which you will live. They went and engaged in Torah study and lived. And people would call that family afterward by the name of Rabbi Yoḥanan in his honor. Rav Shmuel bar Inya said in the name of Rav: From where is it derived that the sentence of a community is never sealed [neḥtam]? The Gemara immediately asks: Is never sealed? But isn’t it written: “Yet the stain [nikhtam] of your iniquity is before Me” (Jeremiah 2:22), which implies that the sentence of a community is indeed sealed. Rather, one must say that the question was as follows: From where is it known with regard to the sentence of a community that although it is sealed, it can still be torn up? As it is stated: “As is the Lord our God whenever we call out to Him” (Deuteronomy 4:7). This implies that there is always a way to draw close to God. The Gemara asks: But isn’t it written: “Seek the Lord while He may be found; call upon Him when He is near” (Isaiah 55:6), which implies that there are times when He is not near and does not answer. The Gemara answers: There the verse is referring to an individual, to whom God is near only at certain times; here the verse is referring to a community, to which God is close whenever the people call out to Him. § The Gemara asks: With regard to an individual, when is God near to him? Rabba bar Avuh said: These are the ten days between Rosh HaShana and Yom Kippur. The Gemara asks further: The verse states: “And it came to pass about ten days after that the Lord smote Nabal, and he died” (I Samuel 25:38). These ten days, what are they doing here, i.e., why was there a delay of ten days before Nabal died? Rav Yehuda said that Rav said: They correspond to the ten meals that Nabal gave the servants of David who came to visit him, as out of politeness he allowed David’s ten servants to eat, and therefore his punishment was delayed for ten days. Rav Naḥman said that Rabba bar Avuh said: These are the ten days between Rosh HaShana and Yom Kippur, during which everyone is given one last opportunity to repent for the sins he committed over the course of the previous year. § The mishna teaches: On Rosh HaShana all creatures pass before Him like benei maron. The Gemara asks: What is the meaning of the phrase benei maron? The Gemara answers: Here in Babylonia they interpreted it to mean: Like a flock of sheep [kivnei imarna]. Reish Lakish disagreed and said: Like the ascent of Beit Maron, which was very steep; one standing at the summit could discern all those climbing the mountain with a single look. Rav Yehuda said that Shmuel said another opinion: Like the soldiers of the house of King David, who could be surveyed with a single glance. Rabba bar bar Ḥana said that Rabbi Yoḥanan said: And they are all scanned in a single scan. Rav Naḥman bar Yitzḥak said: We, too, learn this in the baraita: The verse states: “He who fashions their hearts alike, who considers all their deeds” (Psalms 33:15). What is this verse saying? If we say this is what it is saying: That He created everyone and unites all their hearts together, there is a difficulty, since don’t we see that it is not so, as the hearts of people are not united and are not similar to one another? Rather, is this not what it is saying: The Creator sees their hearts together and considers all their deeds with a single scan? MISHNA: In six months of the year the messengers go out from the court in Jerusalem to report throughout Eretz Yisrael and the Diaspora which day was established as the New Moon, the thirtieth or the thirty-first day since the previous New Moon. They go out in the month of Nisan, due to Passover, so that people will know on which day to celebrate it; in the month of Av, due to the fast of the Ninth of Av; in Elul, due to Rosh HaShana, which begins thirty days after the New Moon of Elul; in Tishrei, due to the need to establish the correct dates on which to celebrate the Festivals of Tishrei, i.e., Yom Kippur and Sukkot; in Kislev, due to Hanukkah; and in Adar, due to Purim. And when the Temple was standing, messengers would also go out in the month of Iyyar due to small Passover, i.e., second Pesaḥ, which occurs on the fourteenth of Iyyar. This holiday allowed those who were ritually impure or on a distant journey on the fourteenth of Nisan, and therefore incapable of bringing the Paschal lamb at that time, to bring their Paschal lamb a month later. GEMARA: The Gemara asks: And if they go out for the month of Av due to the fast, let them go out also in the months of Tammuz and Tevet, as they too contain public fast days.
8ח
דיון
  • מה עומד מאחורי הפירושים השונים ל'בני מרון'?
  • לפי כל פירוש - מי נידון בראש השנה, הציבור יחד או כל אדם בנפרד?
  • איך אתם מרגישים בתפילת ראש השנה: האם כחלק מגדוד חיילים גדול או כבודדים הנידונים ביחידות?
9ט
תלמוד ירושלמי מסכת ראש השנה פרק א דף נז טור ב /ה"ג
אמר רבי סימון: כתיב "כי מי גוי גדול אשר לו חוקים ומשפטים צדיקים" [דברים ד ח]. רבי חמא בי רבי חנינה ורבי הושעיה:

חד אמר: אי זו אומה כאומה הזאת! בנוהג שבעולם, אדם יודע שיש לו דין - לובש שחורים ומתעטף שחורים, ומגדל זקנו שאינו יודע היאך דינו יוצא.

אבל ישראל אינן כן,

אלא לובשים לבנים ומתעטפין לבנים ומגלחים זקנם ואוכלין ושותין ושמחים יודעין שהקב"ה עושה להן ניסים!

וחורנה [והאחר] אמר: אי זו אומה כאומה הזאת! בנוהג שבעולם, השלטון [השופט] אומר "הדין היום" והליסטים [הגנב] אומר "למחר הדין" למי שומעין: לא לשלטון?

אבל הקב"ה אינו כן:

אמרו בית דין "היום ראש השנה", הקב"ה אומר למלאכי השרת: העמידו בימה, יעמדו סניגורין, יעמדו קטיגורין, שאמרו בני "היום ראש השנה".

נמלכו בית דין לעברה למחר [החליטו בית הדין להוסיף יום לחודש אלול ולדחות את ראש השנה] - הקב"ה אומר למלאכי השרת: העבירו בימה, יעברו סניגורין, יעברו קטיגורין, שנמלכו בני לעברה למחר.

מה טעמא [מה הרמז בפסוק לכך]? "כי חוק לישראל הוא משפט לאלהי יעקב" (תהילים פא ה). אם אינו "חוק לישראל", כביכול אינו "משפט לאלהי יעקב".

ר' קריספא בשם ר' יוחנן: לשעבר "אלה מועדי ה'". מכאן ואילך "אשר תקראו אותם" [ויקרא כג ד] אמר רבי אילא: אם קריתם אותם - הם מועדי, ואם לאו - אינן מועדי.

אמר רבי סימון: כתיב "רבות עשית אתה ה' אלהי נפלאותיך ומחשבותיך אלינו". לשעבר - רבות עשית. מיכן והילך - "נפלאותיך ומחשבותיך אלינו"!

אמר רבי לוי (משל) למלך שהיה לו אורלוגין (שעון). כיון שעמד בנו - מסרה לו.

אמר רבי יוסה בר חנינה: למלך שהיה לו שומרה (סוכת שמירה). כיון שעמד בנו - מסרה לו.

אמר רבי אחא: למלך שהיה לו טבעת [חותם לחוקק חוקים]. כיון שעמד בנו - מסרה לו.

אמר רבי חייה בר בא: לנגר שהיו לו כלי נגרות, כיון שעמד בנו - מסרה לו.

אמר רבי יצחק: למלך שהיו לו אוצרות, כיון שעמד בנו מסרם לו

ורבנן אמרי: לרופא שהיה לו נרתיק של רפואות, כיון שעמד בנו מסרה לו.
10י
דיון
שאלות לדיון:
  • מהם אותם ניסים שעליהם מדברת הדרשה בתחילתה? מדוע נהוג לשמוח בראש השנה ולא ללבוש שחורים כמו ביום דין רגיל?
  • איזו אווירה שורה בראש השנה, לפי דרשה זו? האם היא תואמת את האווירה שעולה מן התלמוד הבבלי לעיל (בדיון על בני מרון)?
  • מי שולט בבית הדין האלוהי, לפי המדרש? מה המשמעות של עיבור החודש וקביעת המועדים לפי זה?
  • מה הנמשל העומד מאחורי כל המשלים בסוף הדרשה - השעון, השומֵרה, הטבעת, כלי הנגרות, האוצרות והרפואות?
  • איזה יחס עולה מן הדרשה בקשר שבין אלוהים ועם ישראל? איזו אחריות מוטלת על בני האדם לפי דרשה זו?
  • אם בני האדם הם השולטים בעולם - מהי משמעותו של יום הדין?
12 יב