אנעים זמירות
1א
הדף מאת: אור מרגלית
2ב
הפיוט 'אנעים זמירות' הגיע ככל הנראה מבית מדרשם של חסידי אשכנז במאה השלוש-עשרה. בקהילות אשכנזיות רבות נהוג לשיר אותו בסוף תפילת מוסף של שבת מול ארון קודש פתוח, במנגינה חביבה שאותה מוביל ילד והקהל עונה לו. בקהילות אחרות נשמר הפיוט להזדמנויות מיוחדות בלבד - ערב יום כיפור, יום טוב או שמחת תורה - באווירה חגיגית ובמנגינה רבת הוד. הלימוד עוסק במתח שבין שני המנהגים. הלימוד נוצר בעקבות מנהג מיוחד לשמחת תורה של קהילת אחווה בעיר מודיעין: בסיום הקריאה בתורה פותחים את ספר התורה כולו בעזרת כל חברי הקהילה, ומעמידים אותו בצורת מעגל או ספירלה. לאחר מכן גוללים את הספר מהסוף להתחלה, כך שכשמניחים אותו אפשר להמשיך לקרוא מבראשית. במהלך ההגבהה ופרישת הספר שרים 'אנעים זמירות' במנגינה של חב"ד המופיעה בסוף הלימוד. תודה לקהילה.
3ג
דיון
א. מבוא
הפיוט 'אנעים זמירות' הגיע ככל הנראה מבית מדרשם של חסידי אשכנז במאה השלוש-עשרה (שאינם קשורים לחסידות הבעל שם טוב מהמאה השמונה-עשרה והלאה). אף שהוא מיוחס לאחד הבולטים שבחסידי אשכנז, רבי יהודה החסיד, נראה שלא הוא כתב אותו (ראו ויקיפדיה). בקהילות אשכנזיות רבות נהוג לשיר את הפיוט בסוף תפילת מוסף בשבת, כמו שכתב ר' מיכל הלוי אפשטיין, בתארו את סדר תפילת השבת: "ואומרים עלינו וקדיש יתום ואח"כ אומרים אנעים זמירות שהוא שיר קדוש ונאה לאומרו בשבתות ויו"ט שאז הקדושה שורה" (ערוך השולחן סימן רפ"ז). שם אחר לפיוט הוא 'שיר הכבוד', על שם פסוק שהיה נהוג לאומרו לפני 'אנעים זמירות' - "שאו שערים ראשיכם ויבוא מלך הכבוד", או כיוון שהוא עוסק ב'כבוד הבורא'. השיר כתוב בחרוזים ומהשורה החמישית וכמעט עד הסוף הוא מסודר לפי סדר האלפבית.
האזינו למנגינה המוכרת ושימו לב לתחושה שהיא מעוררת בכם (כאן הילד אופיר פלדבאו שר בליווי פסנתר ומקהלה).
4ד
רבי יהודה החסיד, שיר הכבוד / אנעים זמירות
אנעים זמירות
אַנְעִים זְמִירוֹת וְשִׁירִים אֶאֱרֹג כִּי אֵלֶיךָ נַפְשִׁי תַּעֲרֹג
נַפְשִׁי חִמְּדָה בְּצֵל יָדֶךָ לָדַעַת כָּל רָז סוֹדֶךָ
מִדֵּי דַּבְּרִי בִּכְבוֹדֶךָ הוֹמֶה לִבִּי אֶל דּוֹדֶיךָ
עַל כֵּן אֲדַבֵּר בְּךָ נִכְבָּדוֹת וְשִׁמְךָ אֲכַבֵּד בְּשִׁירֵי יְדִידוֹת

אֲסַפְּרָה כְּבוֹדְךָ וְלֹא רְאִיתִיךָ אֲדַמְּךָ אֲכַנְּךָ וְלֹא יְדַעְתִּיךָ
בְּיַד נְבִיאֶיךָ בְּסוֹד עֲבָדֶיךָ דִּמִּיתָ הֲדַר כְּבוֹד הוֹדֶךָ

גְּדֻלָּתְךָ וּגְבוּרָתֶךָ כִּנּוּ לְתֹקֶף פְּעֻלָּתֶךָ
דִּמּוּ אוֹתְךָ וְלֹא כְפִי יֶשְׁךָ וַיְשַׁוּוּךָ לְפִי מַעֲשֶׂיךָ

הִמְשִׁילוּךָ בְּרֹב חֶזְיוֹנוֹת הִנְּךָ אֶחָד בְּכָל דִּמְיוֹנוֹת
וַיֶּחֱזוּ בְךָ זִקְנָה וּבַחֲרוּת וּשְׂעַר רֹאשְׁךָ בְּשֵׂיבָה וְשַׁחֲרוּת

זִקְנָה בְּיוֹם דִּין וּבַחֲרוּת בְּיוֹם קְרָב כְּאִישׁ מִלְחָמוֹת יָדָיו לוֹ רַב
חָבַשׁ כּוֹבַע יְשׁוּעָה בְּרֹאשׁוֹ הוֹשִׁיעָה לוֹ יְמִינוֹ וּזְרוֹעַ קָדְשׁוֹ

טַלְלֵי אוֹרוֹת רֹאשׁוֹ נִמְלָא וּקְוֻצּוֹתָיו רְסִיסֵי לַיְלָה
יִתְפָּאֵר בִּי כִּי חָפֵץ בִּי וְהוּא יִהְיֶה לִי לַעֲטֶרֶת צְבִי

כֶּתֶם טָהוֹר פָּז דְּמוּת רֹאשׁוֹ וְחַק עַל מֶצַח כְּבוֹד שֵׁם קָדְשׁוֹ
לְחֵן וּלְכָבוֹד צְבִי תִּפְאָרָה אֻמָּתוֹ לוֹ עִטְּרָה עֲטָרָה

מַחְלְפוֹת רֹאשׁוֹ כְּבִימֵי בְחוּרוֹת קְוֻצּוֹתָיו תַּלְתַּלִים שְׁחוֹרוֹת
נְוֵה הַצֶּדֶק צְבִי תִפְאַרְתּוֹ יַעֲלֶה נָּא עַל רֹאשׁ שִׂמְחָתוֹ

סְגֻלָּתוֹ תְּהִי בְיָדוֹ עֲטֶרֶת וּצְנִיף מְלוּכָה צְבִי תִפְאֶרֶת
עֲמוּסִים נְשָׂאָם עֲטֶרֶת עִנְּדָם מֵאֲשֶׁר יָקְרוּ בְעֵינָיו כִּבְּדָם

פְּאֵרוֹ עָלַי וּפְאֵרִי עָלָיו וְקָרוֹב אֵלַי בְּקָרְאִי אֵלָיו
צַח וְאָדֹם לִלְבוּשׁוֹ אָדֹם פּוּרָה בְּדָרְכוֹ בְּבוֹאוֹ מֵאֱדוֹם

קֶשֶׁר תְּפִלִּין הֶרְאָה לֶעָנָו תְּמוּנַת ה' לְנֶגֶד עֵינָיו
רוֹצֶה בְּעַמּוֹ עֲנָוִים יְפָאֵר יוֹשֵׁב תְּהִלּוֹת בָּם לְהִתְפָּאֵר

רֹאשׁ דְּבָרְךָ אֱמֶת קוֹרֵא מֵרֹאשׁ דּוֹר וָדוֹר עַם דּוֹרֶשְׁךָ דְּרֹשׁ
שִׁית הֲמוֹן שִׁירַי נָא עָלֶיךָ וְרִנָּתִי תִּקְרַב אֵלֶיךָ

תְּהִלָּתִי תְּהִי לְרֹאשְׁךָ עֲטֶרֶת וּתְפִלָּתִי תִּכּוֹן קְטֹרֶת
תִּיקַר שִׁירַת רָשׁ בְּעֵינֶיךָ כְּשִּׁיר יוּשַׁר עַל קָרְבָּנֶיךָ

בִּרְכָתִי תַעֲלֶה לְרֹאשׁ מַשְׁבִּיר מְחוֹלֵל וּמוֹלִיד צַדִּיק כַּבִּיר
וּבְבִרְכָתִי תְנַעֲנַע לִי רֹאשׁ וְאוֹתָהּ קַח לְךָ כִּבְשָׂמִים רֹאשׁ

יֶעֱרַב נָא שִׂיחִי עָלֶיךָ כִּי נַפְשִׁי תַעֲרֹג אֵלֶיךָ
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מושגים
  • רבי יהודה החסיד - מראשוני חסידות אשכנז, חי בסוף המאה ה-12 תחילת המאה ה-13 בגרמניה. מיוחס לו חיבור ספר חסידים וכן 'שיר הכבוד'.
5ה
דיון
  • אילו אסוציאציות מעוררת בכם המנגינה?
  • ציירו תמונה שתתאים למנגינה (אפשר לחלק צבעים ודפים; לחלופין - תארו מה הייתם מציירים או איזו תמונה שאתם מכירים תואמת בעיניכם למנגינה)?
6ו
דיון
ב. זמירות נחמדות או שיר כבוד
שימו לב לדרך שבה מתייחס הרב משה שטרנבוך לאמירת 'אנעים זמירות':
7ז
הרב משה שטרנבוך, תשובות והנהגות כרך ב סימן פא
מנהגינו כאן לומר אנעים זמירות ביום טוב ולא בשבת כמנהג הרבה מקומות, והטעם כיון שיש לאומרה במתינות ובנעימה, ובשבת טרודים ולא מוכנים לשיר...
ונראה שהסדר הראוי לאמירת אנעים זמירות ביום טוב, הוא שהחזן יאמר בשירה ובנעימות פסוק אחד, והקהל שותקים ושומעים, ואז הקהל אומר בשירה ובנעימות הפסוק השני והוא שותק ושומע, ואז שלימות השירה על ידי אמירת שניהם
ומטעם זה מה שרגילין בהרבה קהלות שהחזן מבליע אמירתו תוך כדי אמירת הקהל וכן להיפך, ומדמין שכל אחד חייב רק בחלק שלו -- לא טוב הם עושים..
ולפי זה ראוי שיהא החזן דוקא גדול [=מבוגר] ולא קטן, לומר ביום טוב אנעים זמירות בשירה וזמרה ושמחה, והציבור שומעים ועונים אחריו בשמחה, וזהו כעין שירה שראוי לומר ביום טוב (וכמו הלל שאומרים ביום טוב) שצריך להוציא הקהל [ידי חובה], וקטן אינו כבוד שהוא [יהיה] שליח הציבור [=שליח הציבור] שמוציא, וגם לרוב קדושת הפיוט. אבל לא נהגו כן, וקטן יורד כשליח ציבור לזמר.
ויש קהלות שבכל יום אומרים אנעים זמירות בבוקר, והלבוש (אורח חיים, סימן קל"ב) צווח על זה. ואצל החסידים רובם אומרים כל שבת, ואצלינו שמדקדקין לומר בנעימות ובשירה ובמתינות, כראוי לשירת מלאכי השרת, ולשמוע משליח הציבור, ולצאת גם ממנו, נהגו כן רק בימים טובים. ויש בזה יסוד על פי הלכה, ולכן לא כדאי לקבל דעת כמה 'בעלי בתים' שרוצים לשנות שיאמרו בכל שבת כיון שאז עלולים לאמרה במהירות ובלי נעימה.
8ח
דיון
  • שימו לב למנהגים השונים שמזכיר הרב שטרנבוך בעניין מתי אומרים 'אנעים זמירות'; מי אומר; ואיך.
  • על מה מתרעם הרב שטרנבוך? האם אפשר לדעת מי הם אלה שמתנגדים לדעתו? האם נראה לכם שבסביבתו של הרב נוהגים בדיוק כפי שהוא חושב שהיה ראוי?
  • מדוע לדעתכם יש כל כך הרבה מתח סביב פיוט שלא בכל העדות נהוג לומר אותו והוא בוודאי לא חלק מרכזי בתפילה?
כפי שהרב שטרנבוך מזכיר, גם הרב מרדכי יפה (מחבר ה"לבוש" על שולחן ערוך 1530-1612) התנגד באופן נחרץ לתדירות שבה היו אומרים 'אנעים זמירות' בימיו; וגם בימי הרב יפה שינוי המנהג כנראה לא היה דבר פשוט (מפתיע לגלות שאחד השיקולים שלו, אותו הוא לא מהסס לשטוח בפני קוראיו באופן לגמרי גלוי, הוא שקופת הצדקה מרוויחה לא מעט מתשלומים עבור הכבוד של פתיחת הארון לאנעים זמירות; ראו 'לבוש' על אורח חיים, סימן קל"ב).
9ט
דיון
ג. שיר הכבוד כקו מתח דתי גבוה

על מנת להבין את המתיחות ההלכתית/חברתית סביב השיר, נחזור ונעיין בכמה משורותיו:
אַנְעִים זְמִירוֹת וְשִׁירִים אֶאֱרֹג כִּי אֵלֶיךָ נַפְשִׁי תַּעֲרֹג
נַפְשִׁי חִמְּדָה בְּצֵל יָדֶךָ לָדַעַת כָּל רָז סוֹדֶךָ
...
אֲסַפְּרָה כְּבוֹדְךָ וְלֹא רְאִיתִיךָ אֲדַמְּךָ אֲכַנְּךָ וְלֹא יְדַעְתִּיךָ

דִּמּוּ אוֹתְךָ וְלֹא כְפִי יֶשְׁךָ וַיְשַׁוּוּךָ לְפִי מַעֲשֶׂיךָ
  • מדוע המשורר 'מנעים את זמירותיו ו'אורג' את שיריו?
  • איך הרצון להיות 'בצל ידו' של ה' היא ידיעת סודותיו?
  • מדוע הדברים שהמשורר 'מספר', הדימויים והכינויים בהם הוא משתמש, אינם מספיקים?
  • מדוע הדימויים של ה' אינם משקפים אותו?
היעזרו במקורות הבאים:

10י
(ב) כְּאַיָּל תַּעֲרֹג עַל אֲפִיקֵי מָיִם כֵּן נַפְשִׁי תַעֲרֹג אֵלֶיךָ אֱלֹהִים. (ג) צָמְאָה נַפְשִׁי לֵאלֹהִים לְאֵל חָי מָתַי אָבוֹא וְאֵרָאֶה פְּנֵי אֱלֹהִים.
As the hart panteth after the water brooks, so panteth my soul after Thee, O God. My soul thirsteth for God, for the living God: 'When shall I come and appear before God?'
11יא
רבי משה בן מימון, מתוך העיקר השלישי, שלוש עשרה עיקרים, הקדמה לפרק חלק, פרוש המשניות.
[הא-ל] אינו גוף ולא כוח בגוף...ואמר הנביא "וְאֶל מִי תְדַמְּיוּנִי וְאֶשְׁוֶה יֹאמַר קָדוֹשׁ" (ישעיהו מה:כה)... וכל מה שבא בכתבי הקודש שמתארים אותו בתוארי הגופות, כמו ההליכה והעמידה והישיבה והדיבור וכיוצא בזה - הכל דרך השאלה.
12יב
דיון
  • חזרו אל הטקסט המלא של שיר הכבוד וסמנו את המילים המתארות כביכול את 'מראהו' של ה'.
  • האם הדברים מסתדרים עם העיקר השלישי? אם כן, כיצד?
13יג
דיון
ישנו מתח משמעותי ביותר בין התיאורים הפלסטיים המופיעים באנעים זמירות לבין העיקר השלישי הקובע כי הוא אינו גוף ואינו דמות הגוף. ניתן ליישב את המתח במידה רבה על ידי דברים הכתובים בשני המקורות. בעיקר השלישי נאמר שתיאורי הגוף המופיעים במקרא הם 'על דרך השאלה', כלומר לשון מטפורית. גם ב'אנעים זמירות' עצמו נאמר יותר מפעם שהתיאורים הם בגדר 'דימויים' או 'כינויים' ולא תיאורים של ה' כפי שהוא באמת ('אדמך, אכנך ולא כפי ישך'). עם זאת, ריבוי התיאורים אומר דורשני.

המתח שבין הרצון 'לראות' את ה' לבין המציאות שבה אי אפשר לראות אותו, מופיע באופן מובהק אפילו בנוגע למשה. לאחר חטא העגל, משה לא רק מבקש שה' ימחל לבני ישראל וימשיך ללכת איתם, הוא גם מוסיף ומבקש:
14יד
(יח) וַיֹּאמַר [משה]: הַרְאֵנִי נָא אֶת כְּבֹדֶךָ. (יט) וַיֹּאמֶר [ה']: אֲנִי אַעֲבִיר כָּל טוּבִי עַל פָּנֶיךָ וְקָרָאתִי בְשֵׁם ה' לְפָנֶיךָ וְחַנֹּתִי אֶת אֲשֶׁר אָחֹן וְרִחַמְתִּי אֶת אֲשֶׁר אֲרַחֵם. (כ) וַיֹּאמֶר [ה'] לֹא תוּכַל לִרְאֹת אֶת פָּנָי כִּי לֹא יִרְאַנִי הָאָדָם וָחָי. (כא) וַיֹּאמֶר ה': הִנֵּה מָקוֹם אִתִּי וְנִצַּבְתָּ עַל הַצּוּר. (כב) וְהָיָה בַּעֲבֹר כְּבֹדִי וְשַׂמְתִּיךָ בְּנִקְרַת הַצּוּר וְשַׂכֹּתִי כַפִּי עָלֶיךָ עַד עָבְרִי. (כג) וַהֲסִרֹתִי אֶת כַּפִּי וְרָאִיתָ אֶת אֲחֹרָי וּפָנַי לֹא יֵרָאוּ.
And he said: ‘Show me, I pray Thee, Thy glory.’ And He said: ‘I will make all My goodness pass before thee, and will proclaim the name of the LORD before thee; and I will be gracious to whom I will be gracious, and will show mercy on whom I will show mercy.’ And He said: ‘Thou canst not see My face, for man shall not see Me and live.’ And the LORD said: ‘Behold, there is a place by Me, and thou shalt stand upon the rock. And it shall come to pass, while My glory passeth by, that I will put thee in a cleft of the rock, and will cover thee with My hand until I have passed by. And I will take away My hand, and thou shalt see My back; but My face shall not be seen.’
15טו
דיון
  • מה משה מבקש?
  • מה הקשר בין הבקשה של משה לבין רחמיו של ה'?
  • מדוע 'כף ידו' של ה' צריכה לכסות את משה עד שהוא עובר?
  • האם משה מקבל את מבוקשו?
  • מה ה' בכל זאת מאפשר למשה לראות?
לכאורה מהקטע עולה כי ניתן לראות את ה'! אמנם אי אפשר גם לראות את פניו וגם לחיות, אך משתמע שאפשר לראות את פניו ולמות. ברור לחלוטין מהקטע שאת 'אחוריו' של ה' משה אכן זוכה לראות! הרבה דיו נשפך על פרשה זו. רציונליסטים התקשו בראש ובראשונה בניגוד בין המסקנה העולה מהקטע לבין התפיסה היהודית הבסיסית לפיה ה' איננו גוף ואינו דמות הגוף. הרמב"ם למשל הסביר ש"וראית את אחורי" פירושו להבין את דרכי הפעולה של ה' בעולם, כלומר בראש ובראשונה חוקי הטבע (מורה הנבוכים חלק א' פרק כא, לח). אך אגדות חז"ל ובעקבותיהן שיר הכבוד התחברו לחוויה הדתית המתוארת בדרכים ציוריות יותר.
16טז
דיון
ד. 'פארו עלי ופארי עליו' -- השתוקקות והדדיות ביחס לה'
נראה כעת כמה קטעים מתחילת מסכת ברכות בתלמוד הבבלי, הרלוונטיות במיוחד לחוויה הדתית של משה כפי שהיא מצטיירת בשיר הכבוד:
17יז
אמר רבי אבין בר רב אדא אמר רבי יצחק: מנין שהקדוש ברוך הוא מניח תפילין - שנאמר נִשְׁבַּע ה' בִּימִינוֹ, וּבִזְרוֹעַ עֻזּוֹ" (ישעיהו סב:ח) אמר לו רב נחמן בר יצחק לרב חייא בר אבין: תפילין אלו של ריבונו של עולם, מה כתוב בהם? אמר לו: "ומי כעמך ישראל גוי אחד בארץ"...
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תניא, אמר רבי ישמעאל בן אלישע: פעם אחת נכנסתי להקטיר קטורת לפני ולפנים, וראיתי אכתריאל יה ה' צבאות שהוא יושב על כסא רם ונשא ואמר לי: ישמעאל בני, ברכני! - אמרתי לו: יהי רצון מלפניך שיכבשו רחמיך את כעסך ויגולו רחמיך על מדותיך ותתנהג עם בניך במדת הרחמים ותכנס להם לפנים משורת הדין, ונענע לי בראשו.

וַהֲסִרֹתִי אֶת כַּפִּי וְרָאִיתָ אֶת אֲחֹרָי - אמר רב חנא בר ביזנא אמר רבי שמעון חסידא: מלמד שהראה הקדוש ברוך הוא למשה קשר של תפילין.
The Gemara cites another aggadic statement: Rabbi Avin bar Rav Adda said that Rabbi Yitzḥak said: From where is it derived that the Holy One, Blessed be He, wears phylacteries? As it is stated: “The Lord has sworn by His right hand, and by the arm of His strength” (Isaiah 62:8). Since it is customary to swear upon holy objects, it is understood that His right hand and the arm of His strength are the holy objects upon which God swore. Specifically, “His right hand” refers to the Torah, as it is stated in describing the giving of the Torah: “From His right hand, a fiery law for His people” (Deuteronomy 33:2). “The arm of His strength,” His left hand, refers to phylacteries, as it is stated: “The Lord gave strength to His nation” (Psalms 29:11), in the form of the mitzva of phylacteries. The Gemara asks: And from where is it derived that phylacteries provide strength for Israel? As it is written: “And all the nations of the land shall see that the name of the Lord is called upon you, and they will fear you” (Deuteronomy 28:10). It was taught in a baraita that Rabbi Eliezer the Great says: This is a reference to the phylacteries of the head, upon which the name of God is written in fulfillment of the verse: “That the name of the Lord is called upon you.” Rav Naḥman bar Yitzḥak said to Rav Ḥiyya bar Avin: What is written in the phylacteries of the Master of the world? Rav Ḥiyya bar Avin replied: It is written: “Who is like Your people, Israel, one nation in the land?” (I Chronicles 17:21). God’s phylacteries serve to connect Him, in a sense, to the world, the essence of which is Israel. Rav Naḥman bar Yitzḥak continues: Is the Holy One, Blessed be He, glorified through the glory of Israel? Rav Ḥiyya bar Avin answered: Yes, as indicated by the juxtaposition of two verses; as it is stated: “You have affirmed, this day, that the Lord is your God, and that you will walk in His ways and keep His laws and commandments, and listen to His voice.” And the subsequent verse states: “And the Lord has affirmed, this day, that you are His treasure, as He spoke to you, to keep His commandments” (Deuteronomy 26:17–18). From these two verses it is derived that the Holy One, Blessed be He, said to Israel: You have made Me a single entity [ḥativa] in the world, as you singled Me out as separate and unique. And because of this, I will make you a single entity in the world, and you will be a treasured nation, chosen by God. You have made Me a single entity in the world, as it is stated that Israel declares God’s oneness by saying: “Hear, Israel, the Lord is our God, the Lord is One” (Deuteronomy 6:4). And because of this, I will make you a single entity in the world, unique and elevated with the utterance: “Who is like Your people, Israel, one nation in the land?” Consequently, the Holy One, Blessed be He, is glorified through the glory of Israel whose praises are written in God’s phylacteries. Rav Aḥa, son of Rava said to Rav Ashi: It works out well with regard to the contents of one of the four compartments of God’s phylacteries of the head. However, all four compartments of Israel’s phylacteries of the head contain portions of the Torah that praise God. What portions in praise of Israel are written in the rest of the compartments of God’s phylacteries of the head? Rav Ashi said to him: In those three compartments it is written: “For who is a great nation, to whom God is close, like the Lord our God whenever we call upon Him?” (Deuteronomy 4:7); “And who is a great nation, who has righteous statutes and laws, like this entire Torah which I set before you today?” (Deuteronomy 4:8); “Happy are you, Israel, who is like you? A people saved by the Lord, the shield of your help, and that is the sword of your excellence. And your enemies shall dwindle away before you, and you shall tread upon their high places” (Deuteronomy 33:29); “Or has God attempted to go and take for Himself a nation from the midst of another nation, by trials, by signs and by wonders” (Deuteronomy 4:34); “And to elevate you above all nations that He has made, in praise, in name and in glory; that you may be a holy people to the Lord, your God, as He has spoken” (Deuteronomy 26:19). Rav Aḥa, son of Rava, raises an objection: If all of these verses are included in God’s phylacteries of the head, there are too many compartments as more than four verses of praise were listed. Rather, the portions in God’s phylacteries must be arranged as follows: The verses “For who is a great nation” and “And who is a great nation” are included in one compartment, as they are similar. “Happy are you, Israel” and "Who is like your people, Israel" are in one compartment. “Or has God attempted” is in one compartment and “And to elevate you” is in one compartment in the phylacteries of the head, where there are four separate compartments. And all of the verses are written together on one parchment in the phylacteries of the arm, which has only one compartment. Additionally, Ravin bar Rav Adda said that Rabbi Yitzḥak said: One who is accustomed to come to the synagogue and did not come one day, the Holy One, Blessed be He, asks about him, as it were, to determine what happened to him, as it is stated: “Who among you fears the Lord? Who hears the voice of His servant? Though he walks in darkness and has no light, let him trust in the name of the Lord, and rely upon his God” (Isaiah 50:10). In other words, God asks, who among you fears the Lord yet did not come to hear the voice of His servant the prayer leader, who engages in the service of God? He who went out before dawn and walks in darkness before prayer. If it is for a matter involving a mitzva that he went and absented himself from prayer in the synagogue, then, despite the darkness, there is light for him, the aura of his mitzva will protect him. But if it is for an optional matter, some mundane purpose, that he went and absented himself from prayer in the synagogue, then, even once the day begins, there is no light for him (Maharsha). The verse continues: “Let him trust in the name of the Lord.” The Gemara asks: What is the reason that God is so exacting with this person? The Gemara answers: Because he should have relied on the name of the Lord, and trusted that he would not incur any loss if he postponed dealing with his mundane matters until after prayer in the synagogue, and he did not rely on God. On this same topic, Rabbi Yoḥanan said: When the Holy One, Blessed be He, enters a synagogue and does not find ten people there, He immediately becomes angry, as it is stated: “Why, when I came, was there no one? When I called, there was no one to answer…Behold, with My rebuke I dry up the sea, I make the rivers a wilderness” (Isaiah 50:2). Concerning another aspect of the constancy of prayer, Rabbi Ḥelbo said that Rav Huna said: One who sets a fixed place for his prayer, the God of Abraham assists him. Since prayer parallels the Temple service, it is a sign of respect to set a fixed place for this sacred rite (Rabbi Yoshiyahu Pinto). The God of Abraham assists him because this pious custom evokes Abraham’s conduct. When he dies, those who eulogize one who set a fixed place for his prayer say about him: “Where is the humble one, where is the pious one, of the disciples of our father Abraham?” Presumably, one who sets a fixed place for prayer is a disciple of Abraham in every respect, including humility and piety (Rabbi Yoshiyahu Pinto). The Gemara asks: From where do we derive that Abraham our father set a fixed place for his prayer? The Gemara answers: As it is written: “And Abraham rose in the morning to the place where he had stood before God” (Genesis 19:27), and the verb “standing” means nothing other than prayer, as it is stated: “And Pinehas stood and prayed” (Psalms 106:30). Rabbi Ḥelbo said that Rav Huna said: One who leaves the synagogue should not take large strides because it creates the impression that he is eager to leave. Abaye explained Rav Huna’s statement and said: This halakha was only said with regard to leaving the synagogue, where large strides seem particularly disrespectful. However, with regard to entering a synagogue, it is a mitzva to run and one is permitted to rush and take large strides (Rabbi Yoshiyahu Pinto). As it is said: “And let us know, eagerly strive to know the Lord” (Hosea 6:3). One who eagerly enters a synagogue displays his enthusiasm to follow the path of God. Rabbi Zeira said: Initially, when I saw the Sages running to the Rabbi’s lecture on Shabbat, I said: These Sages are desecrating Shabbat. One is prohibited from running on Shabbat in deference to the sanctity of the day. Once I heard that which Rabbi Tanḥum said that Rabbi Yehoshua ben Levi said: One should always run for a matter of halakha, even on Shabbat, as it is stated: “They shall walk after the Lord, who will roar like a lion” (Hosea 11:10). In other words, one should rush as though he were chased by a lion (Birkat Hashem), I too run. Rabbi Zeira said: The reward for attending the lecture is for running. Since most individuals attending the lecture did not fully understand the material taught, the primary reward for attendance was given for their intention to hear the Torah being taught, as evidenced by their rush to arrive. Similarly, Abaye said: The reward for attending the kalla is for the crowding. Due to the large crowd, study was difficult, so the primary reward was given for their effort to hear and understand some part of the lecture. Similarly, Rava said: The reward for learning the halakhic traditions of the amora’im is for the logical analysis, as the primary reward for studying Talmud was not given for knowing the halakhic conclusions, but for the logical reasoning that led to those conclusions. Rav Pappa said: The primary reward for attending a house of mourning [bei tammaya] is for the silence, which is the optimal manner for those consoling the mourners to express their empathy. Mar Zutra said: The primary reward for fasting is for the charity given to the poor on the fast day (see Isaiah 58). Rav Sheshet said: The primary reward for delivering a eulogy is for causing those in attendance to raise their voices and cry, as that increases the grief over the deceased. Rav Ashi said: The primary reward for participating in a wedding is for the words, i.e., the good wishes with which the guests regale the bride and groom. Back to the topic of deference for a synagogue, the Gemara records that Rav Huna said: One who prays behind the synagogue is called wicked, as while the entire congregation is facing one direction to pray, he faces the opposite direction creating the impression that he is treating the synagogue and its congregation with contempt. As it is stated: “The wicked walk round about, when vileness is exalted among the sons of men” (Psalms 12:9). In other words, only the wicked walk round about the synagogue in order to pray. Abaye said: This halakha was said only in a case where one does not turn his face toward the synagogue. But where he turns his face toward the synagogue and prays we have no prohibition in that case. To reinforce the gravity of this prohibition, the Gemara relates: A certain individual prayed behind the synagogue and did not turn to face the synagogue. Elijah the Prophet passed by and appeared to him as an Arab [taya’a]. Elijah said: “This is how [kadu bar] you stand before your Master?” Elijah drew a sword and killed him. Rav Huna already explained the beginning of the verse, “The wicked walk round about.” The Gemara explains the end of the verse: “When vileness is exalted among the sons of men.” One of the Sages said to Rav Beivai bar Abaye, and some say Rav Beivai said to Rav Naḥman bar Yitzḥak: What is the meaning of: “When vileness is exalted among the sons of men”? He replied to: These are matters of utmost importance, exalted, i.e., mitzvot or prayer, which people nonetheless treat with contempt, vileness among the sons of men. Rabbi Yoḥanan and his student, Rabbi Elazar, both said an alternative explanation of this verse: Once a person needs the help of others and loses dignity in their eyes, vileness among the sons of men, his face changes and becomes like a kerum, as it is stated: “When [kerum] vileness is exalted among the sons of men.” What is kerum referred to by Rabbi Yoḥanan and Rabbi Elazar? When Rav Dimi came to Babylonia from Eretz Yisrael he said: There is a bird in the cities by the sea called kerum and when the sun rises, the bird changes several colors. Similarly, one who becomes dependent upon others blushes in embarrassment. Rabbi Ami and Rabbi Asi both said: One who becomes dependent upon others, it is as if he was punished with two punishments: Fire and water. As it is stated: “You have caused men to ride over our heads; we have gone through fire and water” (Psalms 66:12). And Rabbi Ḥelbo said that Rav Huna said: One must always be vigilant with regard to the afternoon prayer, as Elijah’s prayer was only answered in the afternoon prayer, as it is stated: “And it was at the time of the afternoon offering that Elijah the Prophet came near, and he said: Lord, God of Abraham, Isaac and Israel, let it be known on this day that You are God in Israel, and that I am Your servant, and that I have done all these things at Your word. Answer me, Lord, answer me, that this people will know that You, Lord, are God” (I Kings 18:36–37). Because Elijah was answered in the afternoon prayer, it has particular significance. In passing, the Gemara explains why it was necessary for Elijah to repeat, “answer me, Lord, answer me”: The first answer me was the request that fire descend from the heavens, while the second answer me was the request that Israel should accept complete faith in God and not say that the fire descending from the heavens was an act of sorcery. Rabbi Yoḥanan said: One must be vigilant with regard to the evening prayer as well, as it is stated: “Let my prayer come forth as incense before You, the lifting of my hands as the evening offering” (Psalms 141:2).
Rav Naḥman bar Yitzḥak said: One must be vigilant with regard to the morning prayer as well, as it is stated: “Lord, in the morning You shall hear my voice; in the morning I will order my prayer unto You and will look forward” (Psalms 5:4). And Rabbi Ḥelbo said that Rav Huna said: Anyone who benefits from the feast of a groom but does not cause him to rejoice violates the five voices mentioned in this verse, as it is stated: “The voice of joy and the voice of gladness, the voice of the groom and the voice of the bride, and the voice of those who say: Give thanks to the Lord of hosts, for the Lord is good, for His mercy lasts forever, even of those who bring a thanks-offering to the house of the Lord. For I will restore the captivity of the land as it was in the beginning, says the Lord” (Jeremiah 33:11). These five voices in the context of a bride and groom correspond to the five voices mentioned in the context of the revelation at Sinai, as in Song of Songs, the day of the revelation at Sinai is alluded to by the phrase: His wedding day (Rabbi Yoshiyahu Pinto, Maharsha). What is his reward if he causes the groom to rejoice? He is privileged to acquire the Torah, which was given with five voices, as it is stated: “And it was on the third day, when it was morning, there were sounds [kolot], and lightning and a thick cloud upon the mountain, and the voice of the shofar (Exodus 19:16). The plural kolot indicates at least two sounds, while “the voice of the shofar” is one more. The passage continues: “And when the voice of the shofar grew louder and louder, Moses spoke and God answered him by a voice” (Exodus 19:19). Along with the three previous voices, the second shofar and the voice with which God answered Moses amount to a total of five voices at the revelation at Sinai. The Gemara asks: Is this so? Isn’t it also written: “And the whole nation saw the voices and the torches and the sound of the shofar” (Exodus 20:15)? Clearly more than five voices are mentioned with regard to the revelation at Sinai. The Gemara answers: Those voices were sounded prior to the giving of the Torah, so they are not included in this calculation of voices. Rabbi Abbahu said: The reward for causing a groom to rejoice is the same as if one had offered a thanks-offering in the Temple, for as it is stated later in the previously cited verse from Jeremiah: “Those who bring a thanks-offering to the house of the Lord.”
And Rav Naḥman bar Yitzḥak said: The reward for causing a groom to rejoice is the same as if one rebuilt one of Jerusalem’s ruins, as it is stated later in the same verse: “For I will restore the captivity of the land as it was in the beginning.” And Rabbi Ḥelbo said that Rav Huna said: Any person who has the fear of Heaven, his words are heeded, as it is stated: “The end of the matter, all having been heard: Fear God, and keep His commandments; for this is all of man” (Ecclesiastes 12:13). The Gemara explains: “The end of the matter, all having been heard,” refers to the words of one “who keeps His commandments; for this is all of man.” With regard to the end of this verse, the Gemara asks: What is meant by, “for this is all of man”? Rabbi Elazar said: The Holy One, Blessed be He, said about him: The entire world was created only for this person. This is the ultimate person for which all of man was created. Rabbi Abba bar Kahana said: The end of this verse teaches that this is equivalent to the entire world, all of man.
Rabbi Shimon ben Azzai, and some say Rabbi Shimon ben Zoma, says: Not only is he the equivalent of the entire world, but the entire world was created to serve as companions for him, so that he would have a society in which to live and with which to interact. And Rabbi Ḥelbo said that Rav Huna said: One who is aware that another person is accustomed to greet him is not only obligated to return his greeting, but he must greet him first, as it is stated: “Seek peace and pursue it” (Psalms 34:15). If the other person extended his greeting to him and he did not respond, he is called a robber, as it is stated: “It is you who have eaten up the vineyard, the spoils of the poor is in your houses” (Isaiah 3:14). The only way to steal from a pauper who owns nothing is to rob him of his dignity by refusing to return his greeting. Along the same lines, Rabbi Yoḥanan said in the name of Rabbi Yosei: From where is it derived that the Holy One, Blessed be He, prays? As it is stated: “I will bring them to My holy mountain, and make them joyful in the house of My prayer” (Isaiah 56:7). The verse does not say the house of their prayer, but rather, “the house of My prayer”; from here we see that the Holy One, Blessed be He, prays. The Gemara asks: What does God pray? To whom does God pray? Rav Zutra bar Tovia said that Rav said:
God says: May it be My will that My mercy will overcome My anger towards Israel for their transgressions,
and may My mercy prevail over My other attributes through which Israel is punished,
and may I conduct myself toward My children, Israel, with the attribute of mercy,
and may I enter before them beyond the letter of the law. Similarly, it was taught in a baraita that Rabbi Yishmael ben Elisha, the High Priest, said: Once, on Yom Kippur, I entered the innermost sanctum, the Holy of Holies, to offer incense, and in a vision I saw Akatriel Ya, the Lord of Hosts, one of the names of God expressing His ultimate authority, seated upon a high and exalted throne (see Isaiah 6).
And He said to me: Yishmael, My son, bless Me.
I said to Him the prayer that God prays: “May it be Your will that Your mercy overcome Your anger,
and may Your mercy prevail over Your other attributes,
and may You act toward Your children with the attribute of mercy,
and may You enter before them beyond the letter of the law.”
The Holy One, Blessed be He, nodded His head and accepted the blessing. This event teaches us that you should not take the blessing of an ordinary person lightly. If God asked for and accepted a man’s blessing, all the more so that a man must value the blessing of another man. And Rabbi Yoḥanan said in the name of Rabbi Yosei: From where is it derived that one must not placate a person while he is in the throes of his anger, rather he should mollify him after he has calmed down? As it is written, when following the sin of the Golden Calf, Moses requested that the Divine Presence rest upon Israel as it had previously, God said to him: “My face will go, and I will give you rest” (Exodus 33:14). Rabbi Yoḥanan explained: The Holy One, Blessed be He, said to Moses: Wait until My face of wrath will pass and I will grant your request. One must wait for a person’s anger to pass as well. The Gemara asks: And is there anger before the Holy One, Blessed be He? Can we speak of God using terms like anger? The Gemara answers: Yes, as it was taught in a baraita, God becomes angry, as it is stated: “God vindicates the righteous, God is furious every day” (Psalms 7:12). How much time does His anger last? God’s anger lasts a moment. And how long is a moment? One fifty-eight thousand, eight hundred and eighty-eighth of an hour, that is a moment. The Gemara adds: And no creature can precisely determine that moment when God becomes angry, except for Balaam the wicked, about whom it is written: “He who knows the knowledge of the Most High” (Numbers 24:16). This should not be understood to mean that Balaam was a full-fledged prophet. Now, clearly, Balaam did not know the mind of his animal; and he did know the mind of the Most High? If he could not understand the rebuke of his donkey, he was certainly unable to understand the mind of the Most High. Rather, this verse from Numbers teaches that Balaam was able to precisely determine the hour that the Holy One, Blessed be He, is angry. At that moment, Balaam would utter his curse and, through God’s anger, it would be fulfilled. And that is what the prophet said to Israel: “My nation, remember what Balak king of Moab advised, and how Balaam, son of Beor, responded; from Shittim to Gilgal, so that you may know the righteous acts of the Lord” (Micah 6:5). What is meant by the statement: “So that you may know the righteous acts of the Lord”? Rabbi Elazar said that the Holy One, Blessed be He, said to Israel: Know how many acts of kindness I performed on your behalf, that I did not become angry during the days of Balaam the wicked, for had I become angry, there would have been no remnant or survivor remaining among the enemies of Israel, a euphemism for Israel itself. Instead, God restrained His anger and Balaam’s curse went unfulfilled. And that is what Balaam said to Balak: “How can I curse whom God has not cursed? And how can I condemn whom God has not condemned?” (Numbers 23:8). This verse teaches that all those days, God was not angry. And how long does His anger last? God’s anger lasts a moment. And how long is a moment? Rabbi Avin, and some say Rabbi Avina, said: A moment lasts as long as it takes to say it [rega]. From where do we derive that God is only angry for a moment? As it is stated: “His anger is but for a moment, His favor, for a lifetime” (Psalms 30:6). And if you wish, say instead, from here, as it is stated: “Hide yourself for a brief moment, until the anger passes” (Isaiah 26:20), meaning that God’s anger passes in a mere moment. The Gemara asks: When is the Holy One, Blessed be He, angry? Abaye said: God’s anger is revealed through animals. During the first three hours of the day, when the sun whitens the crest of the rooster and it stands on one leg. When it appears that its life has left him and he suddenly turns white, that is when God is angry. The Gemara asks: The rooster also stands that way every hour. What kind of sign is this? The Gemara answers: The difference is that every other hour when the rooster stands in that way, there are red streaks in his crest. But when God is angry, there are no red streaks in his crest. The Gemara relates: A certain heretic who was in Rabbi Yehoshua ben Levi’s neighborhood would upset him by incessantly challenging the legitimacy of verses. One day, Rabbi Yehoshua ben Levi took a rooster and placed it between the legs of the bed upon which he sat and looked at it. He thought: When the moment of God’s anger arrives, I will curse him and be rid of him. When the moment of God’s anger arrived, Rabbi Yehoshua ben Levi slept. When he woke up, he said to himself: Conclude from the fact that I nodded off that it is not proper conduct to do so, to curse people, even if they are wicked. “His mercy is over all His creations” (Psalms 145:9) is written even with regard to sinners. Moreover, it is inappropriate to cause the punishment of another, as it is written: “Punishment, even for the righteous, is not good” (Proverbs 17:26), even for a righteous person, it is improper to punish another. Explaining the cause of God’s anger, it is taught in the name of Rabbi Meir: When the sun rises and the kings of the East and the West place their crowns on their heads and bow down to the sun, the Holy One, Blessed be He, immediately grows angry. Since this occurs in the early hours every day, God becomes angry at His world at that moment every day. And Rabbi Yoḥanan said in the name of Rabbi Yosei: A single regret or pang of guilt in one’s heart is preferable to many lashes administered by others that cause only physical pain, as it is stated: “And she chases her lovers, but she does not overtake them; she seeks them, but she will not find them; and she will say ‘I will go and return to my first husband; for it was better for me then than now’” (Hosea 2:9). Remorse is more effective than any externally imposed punishment listed in the verses that follow (Hosea 2:11–19). And Reish Lakish said that in the Bible, it seems that such remorse is preferable to one hundred lashes, as it is stated: “A rebuke enters deeper into a man of understanding than a hundred lashes to a fool” (Proverbs 17:10). And Rabbi Yoḥanan said in the name of Rabbi Yosei regarding Moses’ request that the Divine Presence rest upon Israel as it once had: Moses requested three things from the Holy One, Blessed be He, at that time, all of which were granted him. He requested that the Divine Presence rest upon Israel and not leave, and He granted it to him, as it is stated: “For how can it be known that I have found grace in Your sight, I and Your people? Is it not in that You go with us, so that we are distinguished, I and Your people, from all the people that are on the face of the earth?” (Exodus 33:16). The request: Is it not in that You go with us, refers to the resting of the Divine Presence upon Israel. Moses requested that the Divine Presence not rest upon the nations of the world, and He granted it to him, as it is stated: “So that we are distinguished, I and Your people, from all the people on the face of the earth” (Exodus 33:16). Lastly, Moses requested that the ways in which God conducts the world be revealed to him, and He granted it to him, as it is stated: “Show me Your ways and I will know You” (Exodus 33:13).
Moses said before God: Master of the Universe. Why is it that the righteous prosper, the righteous suffer, the wicked prosper, the wicked suffer?
God said to him: Moses, the righteous person who prospers is a righteous person, the son of a righteous person, who is rewarded for the actions of his ancestors. The righteous person who suffers is a righteous person, the son of a wicked person, who is punished for the transgressions of his ancestors. The wicked person who prospers is a wicked person, the son of a righteous person, who is rewarded for the actions of his ancestors. The wicked person who suffers is a wicked person, the son of a wicked person, who is punished for the transgressions of his ancestors. The Gemara expands upon these righteous and wicked individuals: The Master said: The righteous person who prospers is a righteous person, the son of a righteous person. The righteous person who suffers is a righteous person, the son of a wicked person. The Gemara asks: Is it so that one is always punished for his ancestors’ transgressions? Isn’t it written: “He visits iniquity of the fathers upon the children, and upon the children’s children, unto the third and fourth generations” (Exodus 34:7). And it is written elsewhere: “Fathers shall not die for their children, and children shall not be put to death for the fathers; every man shall die for his own transgression” (Deuteronomy 24:16). And the Gemara raises a contradiction between the two verses. The Gemara resolves the contradiction: This is not difficult. This verse from Exodus, which states that God punishes descendants for the transgressions of their ancestors, refers to a case where they adopt the actions of their ancestors as their own. While this verse from Deuteronomy, which states that descendants are not punished for the actions of their ancestors, refers to a case where they do not adopt the actions of their ancestors as their own, as it is stated: “I visit iniquity of the fathers upon the children, and upon the third and fourth generations of my enemies” (Exodus 20:5). A righteous person is clearly not punished for the transgressions of his ancestors. Rather, it must be that God said to Moses as follows:
The righteous person who prospers is a completely righteous person whose actions are entirely good and whose reward is entirely good both in this world and in the World-to-Come.
The righteous person who suffers is one who is not a completely righteous person. Because he does have some transgressions, he is punished in this world so that he will receive a complete reward in the World-to-Come.
The wicked person who prospers is one who is not a completely wicked person. God rewards him in this world for the good deeds that he performed, so that he will receive a complete punishment in the World-to-Come.
Finally, the wicked person who suffers is a completely wicked person. Since he performed absolutely no mitzvot and deserves no reward, he receives only punishment both in this world and in the World-to-Come (Maharsha). Rabbi Yoḥanan’s opinion, that God granted Moses all three of his requests, disagrees with that of Rabbi Meir, as Rabbi Meir said: Two of Moses’ requests were granted to him, and one was not granted to him. God granted him that the Divine Presence would rest upon Israel and not leave, and that the Divine Presence would not rest upon the nations of the world, but God did not reveal to Moses the ways in which He conducts the world. As it is said: “And I will be gracious to whom I will be gracious” (Exodus 33:19); in His mercy, God bestows His grace upon every person, even though he is not worthy. Similarly, God says: “And I will have mercy upon whom I will have mercy,” even though he is not worthy. According to Rabbi Meir, the way in which God conducts the world and bestows grace and mercy was not revealed even to Moses. The Gemara continues to cite the Sages’ explanation of verses that require clarification on the same topic. With regard to God’s statement to Moses, “And He said: ‘You cannot see My face, for man shall not see Me and live’” (Exodus 33:20), it was taught in the name of Rabbi Yehoshua ben Korḥa that the Holy One, Blessed be He, said to Moses as follows: When I wanted to show you My glory at the burning bush, you did not want to see it, as it is stated: “And Moses concealed his face, fearing to gaze upon God” (Exodus 3:6). But now that you want to see My glory, as you said: “Show me Your glory,” I do not want to show it to you. Rabbi Yehoshua ben Korḥa interprets Moses’ initial refusal to look upon God’s glory negatively, as he rebuffed God’s desire to be close to him. This disagrees with that which Rabbi Shmuel bar Naḥmani said that Rabbi Yonatan said, as Rabbi Shmuel bar Naḥmani said that Rabbi Yonatan said: Specifically as a reward for three acts of humility in averting his glance at the burning bush, Moses was privileged to experience three great revelations: Because “Moses concealed his face, fearing to gaze upon God” (Exodus 3:6), he was privileged to have his countenance [kelaster] glow.
Because he “feared,” he was privileged that “they feared to approach him” (Exodus 34:30).
Because he did not “gaze,” he was privileged to “behold the likeness of the Lord” (Numbers 12:8). What did Moses see? It is said: “And I will remove My hand, and you will see My back, but My face you will not see” (Exodus 33:23). Rav Ḥana bar Bizna said in the name of Rabbi Shimon Ḥasida, the expression: “And you will see My back,” should be understood as follows: This teaches that the Holy One, Blessed be He, Who, as mentioned above, wears phylacteries, showed him the knot of the phylacteries of His head, which is worn on the back of the head.
18יח
דיון
  • מה משותף לשלושת הקטעים מבחינת היחס בין ה' ובני אנוש?
  • איך ייתכן שה' מניח תפילין או מבקש מבן אנוש שיברך אותו?
  • מה מבקשים חז"ל בדברי אגדה אלו להשיג - האם הם מתארים מציאות עליונה או מנסים להעביר מסר חינוכי?
חזרו למילים של השיר וראו כיצד המחבר הסתמך על הקטעים המצוטטים (במיוחד שורה המתחילה ב-ק' וזו שלפני אחרונה, 'ובברכתי)'.
19יט
דיון
האדם הדתי כמהַ לקשר עם ה'. הוא רוצה בקרבתו והבנתו, בצורה מטפורית או חווייתית; הוא רוצה לראות אותו. לכמיהה זו שותף גם משה אך גם הוא לא יכול היה למלא אותה ולא יכול היה לראות את פני ה', רק את אחוריו. ה' מראה לו לפי המדרש את קשר התפילין המסמלות את הקשר עם עם ישראל, "ומי כעמך ישראל גוי אחד בארץ".
לאחר שבחלקו הראשון של הפיוט מובעת הכמיהה אל ה' ותחושת חוסר המסוגלות אפילו לתארו, מתחיל משורות ט'-י' מוטיב חדש: כמיהתו של הקב"ה לדובר בשיר. היחיד, המייצג כאן את כנסת ישראל, נכנס לנעליה של הרעיה משיר השירים: 'טללי אורות ראשו נמלא קווצתיו רסיסי לילה' (השוו: "פתחי לי רעייתי, יונתי, תמתי, שראשי נמלא טל קווצתיי רסיסי לילה", שיר השירים ה, א) ואמירה מפורשת יותר מופיעה בשורה י': "יתפאר בי כי חפץ בי"! (חז"ל דרשו את הפסק "פארך חבוש עליך" ביחזקאל כד, יז כמתייחס לתפילין). כמו בקטעים מהגמרא, מסתבר שהכמיהה של האדם לה' איננה חד-סטרית. כמו שישראל מניחים תפילין בהן הם מצהירים שה' הוא אחד, יחיד ומיוחד, כך הקב"ה "מניח" תפילין בהן הוא מצהיר על ייחודם של ישראל; כמו שישראל מבקשים שה' יברך אותם, גם ה' רוצה שישראל יברכו אותו.
20כ
דיון
ה. במקום סיכום -- המנגינה של מלאכי השרת
המילים האחרונות של הפיוט 'כי נפשי תערוג אליך' מזכירות את סוף השורה הראשונה 'כי אליך נפשי תערוג'. הכמיהה לה' שהניעה את המחבר, היא היא הסיבה לתקוותו שהשירה אמנם תערב לאזניו של ה'. כפי שנאמר בספר יצירה: 'סופו [של הפיוט] נעוץ בתחילתו'.
  • השתדלו להיזכר במנגינה ששמעתם בתחילת הלימוד (אפשר להאזין לה שוב) ולתחושות שהיא העלתה בכם. האם התחושה שלכם לגבי המנגינה השתנתה כעת?
על פי המסורת של חב"ד, הרבי האחרון, ר' מנחם מנדל שניאורסון, לימד את הניגון של 'אנעים זמירות' "בליל שמחת תורה אחרי הקפות וסעודת יום טוב - לפנות בוקר בשנת תשכ"ב":
21כא
מתוך חב"דפדיה, ערך: ניגון אנעים זמירות
על ניגון חב"ד לאנעים זמירות
הסדר הוא שלמחרת יום כיפור, הנקרא "בשם השם", מתפללים בהשכמה. בעיירה אחת קמו בבוקר וראו להפתעתם חסיד אחד רוקד סביב העמוד ובפיו ניגונו של "שיר הכבוד". הוא היה כל כך שקוע בכך, שבמשך כל הלילה שר ורקד עד ששכח לגמרי על צומו.
אגדה חסידית אחרת מוסיפה רקע לסיפור: היו היה אדם עשיר מאוד ובעל ממון מרובה. לפני יום כיפור נחטף יהודי והעשיר שגם היה יהודי רצה לקיים מצוות פדיון שבויים. אך היות ומחיר הפדיון היה למעלה מהמשוער נאלץ העשיר למכור את כל נכסיו המרובים והיקרים עבור מצוות הפדיון. היה זה יום הכיפורים האחרון של אותו שבוי.
לאחרי תקופה הגיע הבן אדם השבוי שנפדה אל העשיר בחלום ואמר לו לבקש משאלה אחת ומשמיים יקיימו לו אותה. העשיר ביקש לשמוע מה המלאכים שרים להקב"ה ביום כיפור. הבקשה התקיימה ומה שהוא שמע זה את הניגון הזה, מפי המלאכים.
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22כב
דיון
לסיום האזינו שוב לשיר הכבוד, הפעם בניגון חב"ד (כאן מתוך ניחו"ח - אוסף הניגונים של חב"ד, באתר חב"ד אינפו, כאן בביצוע 'המדרגות' וכאן בביצוע קצת יותר מעובד של 'האומן ח"י' - שניהם מאתר 'הזמנה לפיוט').
  • השוו בין התחושות העולות בכם למשמע מנגינה זאת לעומת המנגינה הראשונה ששמעתם.
23כג