רפואה ומאגיה בכתבי חז"ל
1א
הדף מאת: מני גל / תמורה – יהדות ישראלית
2ב
הגדרתה של המאגיה עמומה מאוד. מעשים דתיים המבוססים על אמונה באל שאינו מקובל עליך - נתפסו בעבר כמעשים מאגיים. מאוחר יותר, החלו לכנות גם פעולות מעשיות, שאינן מבוססות על ידע מדעי, כ'מאגיות'. הרפואה הקדומה שילבה הרבה מאגיה במעט ידע ניסיוני 'מהשטח'. אף שאצל היוונים, הידע הרפואי , הניסיוני והמדעי, החל להצטבר עוד לפני ימיהם של חז"ל, עדיין נפוץ גם בתלמוד השימוש במאגיה ברפואה, ולמעשה - עד ימינו. ננסה להכיר מעט מתחום מעניין זה, מתוך כבוד להיקף ידיעותיהם של אבותינו באותם ימים רחוקים.
3ג
שמואל קוטק, רפואה מאגית בתלמוד
...אפילו אם טיפול באמצעים מאגיים הוא הבל, האמון בהם היה מושרש בישראל וחז"ל גילו כלפיו גמישות רבה, תוך הצגת תנאי הכרחי שלא יגלוש לעבודה זרה, "כי אני ה' רפאך" (שמות טו, כו)...

...מטבע הדברים היינו מצפים למצוא עקבות רבים יותר של רפואה מאגית בתלמוד הבבלי. הרי ידוע שבתרבות הבבלית חלקה של המאגיה ברפואה היה מכריע, ואילו באזורים שבהשפעת המסורת ההלניסטית (כגון ארץ ישראל) שלטו דעות "הגיוניות" יותר המבוססות על תורת היפוקראטס וגאלינוס. אך מתברר שאין הבדל ניכר בין שתי הנוסחאות התלמודיות בתחום זה, והסיבות לכך הן שתיים. ראשית, בין שתי קבוצות החכמים היו תנועה מתמדת ותקשורת רצופה. שנית, התפיסות המאגיות רווחו בכל הסביבה הים תיכונית, כולל ארץ ישראל...
© כל הזכויות שמורות למחניים - במה למחקר, להגות ולתרבות יהודית
4ד
דיון
חקירת מקומה של החשיבה המאגית ברפואה אצל חז"ל לא נועדה להעביר ביקורת על רמתה של אותה רפואה, אלא להבין את הקשר המורכב שבין תרבות שהמדע עדיין אינו דומיננטי בה, לבין אמונות רוחניות ודתיות, והקשר שבין אלה לידע הרפואי שהיה מקובל באותם ימים. לחז"ל היתה הסתייגות כלפי החשיבה המאגית ברפואה, שאינה עולה בקנה אחד עם התפיסה שאלוהים הוא רופא הכול ונמצא מעל הכול, ועל כן הם מציעים לניגוד זה פתרונות מעניינים.
5ה
מהו הגורם לחולי?
מעשה במקום אחד, שהיה ערוד, והיה מזיק את הבריות. באו והודיעו לו לר' חנינא בן דוסא. אמר להם: הראו לי את חורו. הראוהו את חורו. נתן עקבו על פי החור. יצא, ונשכו, ומת אותו ערוד. נטלו על כתפו והביאו לבית המדרש. אמר להם: ראו, בני, אין ערוד ממית, אלא החטא ממית. באותה שעה אמרו: אוי לו לאדם שפגע בו ערוד, ואוי לו לערוד שפגע בו ר' חנינא בן דוסא!

הסברים
  • ר' חנינא מוכר בכתבי חז"ל כבעל יכולות לחולל ניסים.
With regard to the praise for one who prays and need not fear even a snake, the Sages taught: There was an incident in one place where an arvad was harming the people. They came and told Rabbi Ḥanina ben Dosa and asked for his help. He told them: Show me the hole of the arvad. They showed him its hole. He placed his heel over the mouth of the hole and the arvad came out and bit him, and died. Rabbi Ḥanina ben Dosa placed the arvad over his shoulder and brought it to the study hall. He said to those assembled there: See, my sons, it is not the arvad that kills a person, rather transgression kills a person. The arvad has no power over one who is free of transgression. At that moment the Sages said: Woe unto the person who was attacked by an arvad and woe unto the arvad that was attacked by Rabbi Ḥanina ben Dosa.
6ו
דיון
מה רוצה ר' חנינא ללמדנו באומרו: 'אין ערוד ממית אלא החטא ממית'?
מהו הקשר האפשרי בין החטא לחולי?
7ז
מה מְרַפֵּא?
מי שהכישו נחש, יקח עובר של אתון לבנה, ויקרענהו וישימנו עליו, ודברים אלו מועילים כשלא נמצאה האם טריפה [בעלת-מום או מחלה].
פקיד אחד יהודי היה בפומפדיתא שהכישו נחש. היו שלוש-עשרה אתונות לבנות בפומבדיתא, קרעו את כולן ונמצא טריפה.
הייתה עוד אחת בצד האחר של פומבדיתא, ועד שהגיעו אליה - אָכָלָהּ אריה.
אמר להם אביי : שמא נחש של חכמים נשכו ואין לו רפואה שנאמר: 'ופורץ גדר ישכנו נחש (קוהלת פרק י'/ח)? [=שמא פרץ גזירת חכמים וכעונש על כך נשכו הנחש ולנשיכה זו לא תימצא תרופה].
Say that they disagree over the status of the Mediterranean Sea with regard to impurity and purity, but with regard to Shabbat did you hear that they disagree? Rather, Rav Naḥman bar Yitzḥak said: The contradiction between the two baraitot is not difficult. This baraita, which prohibits bathing in the Mediterranean, is referring to a case where one remained in the water and thereby indicated that he bathed in the Mediterranean for its curative effects. That baraita, which permits bathing, is referring to a case where one did not remain in the water, and thereby indicated that he bathed in the Mediterranean for non-medical purposes. The Gemara asks: And how did you establish this last baraita? Do you say that it is referring to a case where one did not remain in the water? If it is referring to a case where one did not remain in the water, it would be permitted to bathe even in water in which flax was soaked, as it was taught in a baraita: One may bathe on Shabbat in the waters of Tiberias, and in water in which flax was soaked, and in the Sodom Sea, and this is even though one has wounds on his head that are healed by bathing in these waters. In what case is this statement said? In a case where one did not remain in the water, since it appears that he entered the water to cool himself. However, if one remained in the water it is prohibited. Rather, the contradiction between the baraita that permits bathing in the Great Sea on Shabbat and the baraita that prohibits bathing in the Great Sea on Shabbat is not difficult. There is a distinction between the two. This baraita, which permits doing so, is referring to the pure water in it, i.e., the area in the Great Sea in which one bathes for pleasure during the week. That baraita, which prohibits bathing, is referring to the polluted water in it, which people enter only for medicinal purposes. And with regard to the contradiction between one statement with regard to the water in which flax was soaked and the other statement about water in which flax was soaked, it is also not difficult. There is a distinction between the two statements. This baraita, which prohibits bathing on Shabbat in water in which flax was soaked, is referring to a case where one remained in the water and thereby indicated that he was bathing for medicinal purposes. That baraita, which permits bathing on Shabbat in water in which flax was soaked, is referring to a case where one did not remain there. It is permitted to bathe in that water for non-medical purposes. MISHNA: One may not eat eizoveyon on Shabbat because healthy people do not eat it, and therefore it is clear that anyone eating it is doing so for its medicinal value. However, one may eat a plant called yo’ezer and may drink abuvro’e. Furthermore, all types of food that healthy people eat may be eaten by a person even for medicinal purposes. And one may drink all drinks except for water from palm trees and a kos ikarin because they are known as a remedy for jaundice. Therefore, it is prohibited to drink them on Shabbat for curative purposes. However, one may drink palm tree water on Shabbat in order to quench his thirst, and one may smear ikarin oil on himself for non-medical purposes. GEMARA: Rav Yosef said: Unspecified hyssop mentioned in the Torah is called abarta bar hamag in Babylonia, and eizoveyon is called abarta bar hing. Ulla said: The hyssop mentioned in the Torah is white sage. The Gemara relates: Ulla happened to come to the house of Rav Shmuel bar Yehuda. They brought white sage before him. He said: This is the hyssop that is written in the Torah. Rav Pappi said: Hyssop is the root called shumeshuk. Rav Yirmeya of Difti said: In accordance with the opinion of Rav Pappi it is reasonable, as we learned in a mishna: The mitzva of hyssop is that one take three branches each with three stems, and shumeshuk is the species that is found with that configuration of three stems on each of its branches. The Gemara says: For what purpose do people eat it? It is eaten for curing intestinal worms. And with what is it eaten? It is eaten with seven black dates. From what do worms come into being in the intestines? They come into being from eating barley flour from a vessel that held the flour for forty days since it was ground. We learned in the mishna: However, one may eat the yo’ezer plant. The Gemara asks: What is yo’ezer? The Gemara answers: It is the vegetable known as potnak. For what is it eaten? It is eaten to cure liver worms. With what is it eaten? It is eaten with seven white dates. From what do worms come into being in the liver? From eating raw meat with water on an empty stomach, and from eating fatty meat on an empty stomach, and from eating ox meat on an empty stomach, and from eating nuts on an empty stomach, and from eating fenugreek shoots on an empty stomach and drinking water thereafter. And if one has liver worms but does not have any potnak handy, or if one has taken potnak and it did not help, he should swallow white cress. And if he does not have that or if it did not help him, he should sit in fast, and take fatty meat and place it on coals and suck the bone and swallow vinegar. And some say: One should not drink vinegar because it is harmful to the liver. And if none of those options are available, let one take the sawdust that was scraped from the shell of a thorn bush from top to bottom, and not from bottom to top, as perhaps then the worms will come out through his mouth. And let one then boil the scrapings in beer at twilight and the next day close his nostrils and drink it. And when he defecates, he should defecate on the trunk of a palm tree. We learned the mishna: And one may drink abuvro’e on Shabbat. The Gemara asks: What is abuvro’e? The Gemara answers: It is the plant known as ḥumtareya. The Gemara asks: What is ḥumtareya? It is that which is called the lonely staff. The Gemara asks: For what purpose is it used? It is used for one who drank exposed water from which we suspect a snake drank and left behind its venom. And if one does not have the lonely staff, or if it was ineffective, let him take five roses and five cups of beer and cook them together until there is a quarter of a log of liquid and then drink it. The Gemara relates: Rav Aḥadvoi bar Ami’s mother made this remedy for a certain man who had drunk exposed water suspected of having venom in it. She took one rose and one cup of beer and she boiled them. She gave it to him to drink, and lit the oven, and swept out the coals, and placed a brick inside it on which he could sit and not get burned. And something that appeared like a green leaf emerged, i.e., he vomited the venom. Rav Avya said: The remedy for one who has swallowed venom is to drink a quarter of a log of milk from a white goat. Rav Huna bar Yehuda said: Let one bring a sweet citron and make a hole in it, and fill it with honey, and place it among burning coals, and eat it. Rabbi Ḥanina said: Urine that is forty days old is an effective remedy for several maladies: A very small cupful is beneficial in treating a hornet sting. A quarter of a log is beneficial in treating a scorpion bite. Half a log is effective in treating one who drank exposed water. A log is even effective in counteracting witchcraft. Rabbi Yoḥanan said: Water in which spinach was boiled [anigron], and water in which banagri grass was boiled [avangar], and balsam are effective for both one who drank exposed water and as an antidote for witchcraft. One who swallowed a snake should be fed hops in salt, and then he should be made to run a distance of three mil. The Gemara relates: Rav Shimi bar Ashi saw a person who swallowed a snake, and Rav Ashi appeared to that person as a horseman. Rav Shimi fed him hops with salt and made him run in front of him for three mil, and the snake came out of him in pieces. Some say that Rav Shimi bar Ashi was the one who swallowed a snake, and Elijah came and appeared to Rav Ashi as a horseman. He fed him hops with salt and made him run in front of him for three mil, and the snake came out of him in pieces. One who was bitten by a snake should have the fetus of a white donkey brought to him, and it should be torn open and placed on the snakebite. The Gemara says: And this applies only when the mother does not have a condition that will cause it to die within twelve months [tereifa]. The Gemara relates: There was a certain
8ח
דיון
א. מהי התרופה המומלצת ע"י התלמוד, ומהו התנאי המגביל לשימוש בה?
ב. ומדוע לא נמצא המרפא ליהודי שנשכו הנחש?
ג. מה היה, להערכתכם, חטאו?
9ט
אבות דרבי נתן, פרק ל"ו, ו'
לחשים והשבעות
רבי יוחנן בן נורי אומר: אף ההוגה את השם באותיותיו אין לו חלק לעולם הבא. הוא היה אומר המנענע קולו בשיר השירים, והלוחש על המכה, והרוקק על המכה ואומר "כל המחלה" וגו' אין לו חלק לעולם הבא.
10י
מי שיש לו עצם בגרונו, מביא [עצם] מאותו המין [=דומה], ומניח לו על קודקודו ולומר כך: "חד, חד, נחית; בלע, בלע, נחית" [אחד אחד יורד ובולע, בולע ויורד אחד אחד]
The tanna recited the chapter of the Tosefta discussing the actions of the Amorites before Rabbi Ḥiyya bar Avin. Rabbi Ḥiyya bar Avin said to him: All those enumerated there contain an element of the prohibition against following the ways of the Amorite, except for these: One who has a bone in his throat brings a bone from the same species as the bone that is stuck in his throat, and places it on his skull, and says as follows: One by one descend and be swallowed, swallow and descend one by one. That does not contain an element of the prohibition against following the ways of the Amorite.
11יא
דיון
נראה שלחשים והשבעות היו מוכרים בתקופת התלמוד, אך היחס כלפיהם היה אמביוולנטי. מה היה מותר ומה אסור בשימוש בהם, על פי שני מקורות אלה?
12יב
שדים המזיקים לבריאות
שנו חכמים, לא ישתה אדם מים לא מן הנהרות ולא מן האגמים בלילה, ואם שתה - דמו בראשו, מפני הסכנה. מאי סכנה - סכנת שברירי.
ואם צמא מה תקנתו? [מה יעשה]
אם יש אדם אחר עמו יאמר לו: פלוני בן פלונית צמא אני למים, ואם אין אחר עמו יאמר הוא לעצמו: "אמרה לי אמי, הישמר משברירי, שברירי ברירי, רירי, ירי, רי , צמא אני למים בכוסות לבנות [שהוא סגולה למזיקים].

הסברים
  • הנזק שגורם השד הקרוי שברירי אינו ברור. הלחש מחליש את כוחו של השד על ידי הקטנה הדרגתית של שמו.
One who lets blood and does not wash his hands will be afraid for seven days. One who cuts his hair and does not wash his hands will be afraid for three days. One who cuts his nails and does not wash his hands will be afraid for one day, and he will not know what is frightening him. Placing one’s hand on his nostrils is a way to become afraid. Placing one’s hand on his forehead is a way to fall asleep. A Sage taught: If food and drink are under one’s bed, even if they are covered with iron vessels, an evil spirit rests upon them. The Sages taught: A person should not drink water on Tuesday nights or on Shabbat nights, i.e., Friday nights. And if he drinks water, his blood is upon his own head, due to the danger. The Gemara asks: What is this danger? The Gemara answers: The danger of the evil spirit that rules on these days. The Gemara asks: And if he is thirsty, what is his remedy? What should he drink? The Gemara answers: He should say the seven voices that David said over the water, and afterward he may drink. As it is stated: “The voice of the Lord is upon the waters; God of glory thunders, even the Lord upon many waters. The voice of the Lord is powerful; the voice of the Lord is full of majesty. The voice of the Lord breaks the cedars; the Lord breaks in pieces the cedars of Lebanon. He makes them also skip like a calf; Lebanon and Sirion like a young wild ox. The voice of the Lord hews out flames of fire. The voice of the Lord shakes the wilderness; the Lord shakes the wilderness of Kadesh. The voice of the Lord makes the hinds to calve, and strips the forests bare; and in His temple all say: Glory” (Psalms 29:3–9). And if he does not remember that verse, he should say as follows: Lul, Shafan, Anigron, Anirdafin, which are names of demons, I sit between the stars, I walk between thin and fat people, take any of them if you wish but leave me alone. And if he does not recall this incantation, if there is another person with him, he should wake him and say to him: So-and-so, son of so-and-so, I thirst for water; and then he may drink. And if there is no other person with him, he should knock the cover on the cup and then drink. And if he is not able to do this, he should throw some object in it and then drink. The Sages taught: A person should not drink water from rivers or from ponds at night. And if he drank, his blood is upon his own head due to the danger. The Gemara explains: What is this danger? The danger of blindness. The Gemara asks: And if he is thirsty, what is his remedy? If there is another person with him, he should say to him: So-and-so, son of so-and-so, I thirst for water. And if there is no one else with him, he should say to himself: So-and-so, my mother said to me to beware of shavrirei, the demon of blindness. He should continue to say the following incantation, in the first part of which the demon’s name gradually disappears: Shavrirei berirei rirei yiri ri; I thirst for water in white earthenware cups. This is an incantation against those demons. The Gemara returns to the statement of the mishna that on Passover one must drink no less than four cups of wine: And this halakha applies even if the poor person accepts funds from the charity plate. The Gemara asks: It is obvious that this is the case. If there is a mitzva to drink these four cups, they must be provided for him. The Gemara answers: The mishna is necessary only to teach that this halakha applies even according to the opinion of Rabbi Akiva, who said: Make your Shabbat like an ordinary weekday and do not be beholden to other beings. If one is unable to honor Shabbat without financial help from others, it is better for him to save money and eat his Shabbat meals as he would on a weekday rather than rely on other people. Here, in the case of the four cups, Rabbi Akiva concedes that it is appropriate for a poor person to request assistance from the community, due to the obligation to publicize the miracle. With regard to this issue, the school of Eliyahu taught that although Rabbi Akiva said: Make your Shabbat like a weekday and do not be beholden to other beings; however, one should nevertheless perform some small alteration in his house to distinguish Shabbat from a weekday. The Gemara asks: What is this alteration? Rav Pappa said: For example, one should serve small, fried fish. As we learned in a mishna: Rabbi Yehuda ben Teima says: Be bold like a leopard, light like an eagle, run like a deer, and be strong like a lion to perform the will of your Father in Heaven. This statement teaches that one should exert every effort to perform a mitzva. The Gemara cites the full source of Rabbi’s Akiva statement with regard to Shabbat preparations. The Sages taught: Rabbi Akiva commanded Rabbi Yehoshua, his son, about seven matters: My son, do not sit at the high point of a city, where many people pass, and study there, as the passersby will interrupt you. And do not live in a city whose leaders are Torah scholars, as they are too busy studying to govern properly. Rabbi Akiva continued: And do not enter your house suddenly, without knocking first; all the more so do not enter the house of another, as he might not be ready to receive you. And do not withhold shoes from your feet, as it is disgraceful to go barefoot. Wake up and eat, in the summer due to the heat, as it is best to eat before it grows hot, and in the winter due to the strength you will need to tolerate the cold. And make your Shabbat like a weekday and do not be beholden to other beings. And exert yourself to join together with a person upon whom the hour smiles, i.e., a successful person. Rav Pappa said in explanation of this last statement: Do not buy from him and do not sell to him. If he is the beneficiary of good fortune, he will profit from any business transaction and you will suffer from it. Rather, form a partnership with him. And now we have heard that Rav Shmuel bar Yitzḥak said: What is the meaning of that which is written: “You have blessed the work of his hands” (Job 1:10)? This means that anyone who took a peruta from Job would be blessed, even if he received it via a business transaction. This shows that one should engage in business with a person who is blessed, for even if he wishes to buy from him or to sell to him it is well, i.e., he will share in the good fortune of the other. The Gemara continues to cite similar advice dispensed by Rabbi Akiva. Rabbi Akiva commanded Rabbi Shimon ben Yoḥai to do five matters when Rabbi Akiva was imprisoned. Beforehand, Rabbi Shimon said to him: Rabbi, teach me Torah. Rabbi Akiva said to him: I will not teach you, as it is dangerous to do so at the present time. Rabbi Shimon said to him in jest: If you will not teach me, I will tell Yoḥai my father, and he will turn you over to the government. In other words, I have no means of persuading you; you are already in prison. Rabbi Akiva said: My son, know that more than the calf wishes to suck, the cow wants to suckle, but I am afraid of the danger. Rabbi Shimon said to him: And who is in danger? Isn’t the calf in danger, as you are in jail and I am the one at risk? Rabbi Akiva said to him: If so, I will tell you a few matters. First of all, if you wish to strangle yourself, hang yourself on a tall tree. This proverb means that if one wants others to accept what he has to say, he should attribute his statement to a great man. And when you teach your son, teach him from a corrected text. The Gemara asks: What is the meaning of that statement? Rava said, and some say Rav Mesharshiya said: Rabbi Akiva was referring to learning a new topic, for once a mistake enters one’s mind, it has entered there and is difficult to put right. Rabbi Akiva further told Rabbi Shimon ben Yoḥai: Do not cook in a pot in which your colleague cooked his food. The Gemara asks: What is the meaning of this statement? The Gemara explains: Rabbi Akiva is referring to marrying a divorced woman in the lifetime of her former husband. As the Master said: If a divorced man marries a divorced woman, there are four minds in the bed during intimacy. Each person thinks about his current and former spouse, which verges on illegitimacy. And if you wish, say instead that this advice holds true even with regard to marrying a widow, as
13יג
מי שאחזו קורדייקוס ואמר: כתבו גֵּט לאשתי--לא אמר כלום. אמר: כתבו גט לאשתי, ואחזו קורדייקוס, וחזר ואמר אל תכתובו--אין דבריו האחרונים כלום.

הסברים
  • קורדייקוס: כבר בדור הראשון של האמוראים שאלו חכמים: קורדייקוס מהו, והסיקו שזה שמוש של שד הגורם לטירוף הדעת לזמן-מה.
If a man is gripped by the kordiakos illness and says, “Write a get for my wife”, he has not said anything. If he says, “Write a get for my wife”, and is then gripped by kordiakos and then says, “Do not write it”, his latter words are of no effect. If he becomes mute, and they say to him, “Should we write a get for your wife”, and he nods his head, he is tested three times. If he answers ‘no’ and ‘yes’ properly each time, then they should write the get.
14יד
דיון
א. קיומם של יצורים 'על-טבעיים', או לא מוכרים המזיקים לאדם, היה מקובל מאוד בימי קדם. מה הקשר בינם לעניין הרפואה?
ב.מהי, על פי המקור הראשון, הדרך לשלוט בשדים ולנטרל את כוחם?
ג. מה מעמדו של אדם שאחז בו שד, על פי המקור השני?
15טו
שימוש בקמיעות למטרות ריפוי
יוצאין בביצת החרגול ובשן שועל ובמסמר מן הצלוב משום רפואה, דברי ר' יוסי. ר' מאיר אוסר אף בחול אסור משום דרכי האמורי. (משנה ,מסכת שבת, פרק ו, משנה י)

חרגול, מין ארבה, "את החרגל למינהו", וזה מועיל לחולשת גידי הירכיים בדרך הסגולה, ושן של שועל, משתמשים בו לשינה, אם לוקחים שן של שועל חי ותולים אותן על מי ששינתו מרובה - מתעורר, ואם לוקחים משועל מת - עושה ההיפך. וכן מדמים בעלי הסגולות שאם לוקחים מסמר מעץ הצלוב (מסמר עץ בצורת צלב?) ותולים על מי שיש לו קדחת תמידית - מועיל לו. והלכה כר' יוסי, לפי שהכלל אצלנו - כל שיש בו משום רפואה, אין בו משום דרכי האמורי, ולא עליו אמר הכתוב "ולא תלכו בחקות הגוי" וכו'.

הסברים
  • דרכי האמורי: אמונות טפלות שמקורן במנהגי הגויים, ויש להימנע מהן
16טז
ר' חיים יוסף דוד אזולאי, ' ברכי יוסף', המאה ה-18, ישראל, אורח חיים, סימן שא, ס"ק ו
מעשה באיש אחד, שמצא סגולה אחת בספר כ"י מאדם גדול מהראשונים, למי ששתה סם המות, לכתוב לו, ותכף מקיא האדם, וחוזר לבריאותו. ואירע כמה פעמים, שאיזה נער, או מר נפש בכעסו, שתה סם המות, וזה האיש כתב קמיעא זו, ועשה והצליח, שהקיאו אותו והבריאו. ויהי היום ליל שבת-קודש, אירע שנערה ישראלית שתתה סם המות, והתחילו לה דבקי מיתה, ובאו אצל האיש הלז בליל שבת, וקם וכתב הקמיעא לנערה, ותכף הקיאה ועמדה על בוריה. וביום השבת נודע בעיר כל אשר נעשה, ולעזה עליו המדינה, שחילל שבת בשאט נפש, וכתב ונתן בידה. והוא השיב דפקוח נפש דוחה שבת. והיו מגמגמין בדבר.

הסברים
  • סגולה: לחש או תרופה
  • סם המוות: רעל
17יז
דיון
לפנינו שני מקורות מתקופות מאוחרות הרבה יותר - הרמב"ם (המאה ה-12) ור' יוסף אזולאי (המאה ה-18).
א. האם האמונות בלחשים ובקמיעות דעכו אחרי תקופת התלמוד?
ב. מהו הקריטריון לשימוש באמצעים אלה, על פי הרמב"ם?
ג. בסיפור שמספר ר' יוסף אזולאי מוזכרות שתי בעיות שונות הקשורות בשימוש בקמע. מהן?
18יח
ת"ר: איזהו קמיע מומחה? כל שריפא ושנה ושלש, אחד קמיע של כתב, ואחד קמיע של עיקרין.

הסברים
  • מותר להשתמש בקמיע, אם כתבו מומחה, שכבר הצליח לרפא באמצעותו שלוש פעמים לפחות.
The Sages taught in the Tosefta: What is an effective amulet? It is any amulet that healed one person once, and healed him again, and healed him a third time. That is the criterion for an effective amulet, and it applies to both a written amulet and an amulet of herbal roots; both if it has proven effective in healing a sick person who is dangerously ill, and if it has proven effective in healing a sick person who is not dangerously ill. It is permitted to go out with these types of amulets on Shabbat.
19יט
דיון
מהי הבעיה המעשית בַּכְּלָל שמכתיב לנו המקור שמימין?
20כ
מעשה בבן דמא, בן אחותו של ר' ישמעאל, שהכישו נחש, ובא יעקב איש כפר סכניא לרפאותו, ולא הניחו ר' ישמעאל, ואמר לו ר' ישמעאל: אחי, הנח לו, וארפא ממנו, ואני אביא מקרא מן התורה שהוא מותר. ולא הספיק לגמור את הדבר, עד שיצתה נשמתו ומת. קרא עליו ר' ישמעאל: אשריך בן דמא, שגופך טהור, ויצתה נשמתך בטהרה, ולא עברת על דברי חביריך שהיו אומרים: 'ופורץ גדר ישכנו נחש' (קהלת י')

הסברים
  • יעקב איש סכניא – נקרא במקור אחר 'מין', כלומר מן הנוצרים הראשונים. נִסֵּי ריפוי מופיעים פעמים אחדות בסיפורי הנצרות הקדומה.
In any case, it is evident that Rav approves of one whose property is located near a city. How does this accord with his statement that there is concern for the evil eye when one’s field is viewed by people? The Gemara answers: This is not difficult. This statement is referring to a wall and an additional partition [ritka] that surround the plot and prevent it from being harmed by the evil eye. That statement is referring to a case where a wall and an additional partition do not surround it. § The Gemara returns to expounding the themes of blessings and the evil eye. The Torah states: “And the Lord will take away from you all sickness” (Deuteronomy 7:15). In interpreting this verse, Rav says: This verse is speaking about the evil eye. The Gemara comments: Rav conforms to his line of reasoning, as Rav went to a graveyard, and did what he did, i.e., he used an incantation to find out how those buried there died, and he said: Ninety-nine of these died by the evil eye, and only one died by entirely natural means. And Shmuel says: This term: “All sickness,” refers to the wind. The Gemara comments: Shmuel conforms to his line of reasoning, as Shmuel says: Every injury suffered by people is due to the wind that enters wounds and bodily cavities. The Gemara asks: But according to Shmuel, aren’t there those executed by the monarchy and others killed by traumatic injury and not the wind? The Gemara responds: With regard to these too, were it not for the wind, they would prepare a medicine for those injured people and they would be healed and live, but the wind prevents this from happening. Rabbi Ḥanina says: This phrase: “All sickness,” refers to the cold, as Rabbi Ḥanina says: All occurrences that befall man are at the hands of Heaven, except for excess cold and heat, as it is stated: “Cold and heat are on the path of the perverse; he who guards his soul shall keep far from them” (Proverbs 22:5). This indicates that cold and heat are forms of harm caused by man, from which one can protect himself. Rabbi Yosei bar Ḥanina says: This phrase: “All sickness,” refers to excrement, as the Master says: With regard to excrement of the nose, i.e., mucous, and excrement of the ear, i.e., earwax, if a large amount is emitted, having much of it is harmful, but having a bit of it is beneficial. Rabbi Elazar says: This term: “All sickness,” refers to the gall bladder. The Gemara adds: This is also taught in a baraita: With regard to the term: “Sickness,” this refers to the gall bladder. And why is the gall bladder called sickness? It is because it makes a person’s entire body ill. Alternatively, it is called sickness because eighty-three diseases, the numerical value of maḥala, sickness, are dependent on the gall bladder. The Gemara comments: And with regard to all of them, consuming bread in the morning with salt and drinking a large jug of water negates their ill effects, as a simple morning meal is beneficial to the body. § The Gemara cites a related baraita: The Sages taught that thirteen matters of praise were stated with regard to a meal of bread eaten in the morning: It protects the diner from the heat, and from the cold, and from the winds, and from the harmful spirits; and it makes the simple wise, and one who consumes it will be victorious in judgment, he will merit to learn Torah and to teach it, and his statements are heard, and his study will remain in his possession. In addition, his flesh does not generate excess sweat, and he engages in intercourse with his wife at the proper time, and he does not lust for another woman, and this meal is so advantageous that it even kills any louse in his intestines. And some say it even removes jealousy and brings in love. Since he is completely healthy, he is not inclined to be angered by others. In relation to the above baraita, Rabba said to Rava bar Mari: From where is this matter that people say derived: Sixty runners ran but could not catch the man who ate in the morning, and the Sages likewise said: Arise early and eat, in the summer due to the sun and in the winter due to the cold, so that one’s body should have the strength to withstand the climate. Rava bar Mari said to him: It is derived from a verse, as it is written: “They shall not hunger nor thirst, neither shall the heat nor sun smite them” (Isaiah 49:10). Why will the heat and the sun not smite them? Since they shall not hunger nor thirst, as they rose early to eat. Rava said to him: You said to me that it is derived from there, but I say to you that it is derived from here, a different verse: “And you shall serve the Lord your God, and He will bless your bread and your water” (Exodus 23:25), which he interprets as follows: “And you shall serve the Lord your God,” this refers to the recitation of Shema and the Amida prayer, both of which constitute daily service of God. “And He will bless your bread and your water,” this refers to bread with salt and a large jug of water consumed after morning prayers. From that point onward, the rest of the verse: “And I will take sickness away from your midst,” will be fulfilled. § Rav Yehuda said to Rav Adda the surveyor: Do not treat measuring lightly even for small areas of land, as each little bit is suitable for growing the cultivated [rishka] saffron, a very expensive product. Rav Yehuda further said to Rav Adda the surveyor: With regard to the four cubits measured adjacent to an irrigation channel, you may treat them lightly, and it is not necessary to provide an exact measurement of them when calculating the areas of fields. And as for the four cubits adjacent to a river, do not measure them at all, but simply estimate the size and include them in the larger measurement. The Gemara comments: In this regard, Rav Yehuda conforms to his line of reasoning, as Rav Yehuda says: The four cubits adjacent to a channel belong to the residents of the houses alongside the channel, while the four cubits adjacent to a river belong to everyone. Rabbi Ami would announce: Cut down the trees along the width of the full shoulders of the pullers of the boat on both sides of the river so that the trees should not interfere with the pulling of the boats. The Gemara relates: Rav Natan bar Hoshaya instructed people to cut down sixteen cubits on each side of the river, and the residents of Mashronya came upon him and beat him for issuing this directive. The Gemara explains: He holds that any pathway must be made as wide as like a public domain, which is sixteen cubits wide. But that is not so, as there, in the case of a public domain, we do require that much space; here, however, the space is necessary needs to be only enough to enable the stretching of the ropes to pull the boats. Therefore, the width of the full shoulders of the pullers is the sufficient measure of space needed in order not to interfere with the pulling of the boats. The Gemara relates another incident: Rabba bar Rav Huna had a certain forest on the bank of a river. They said to him: Let the Master cut down the trees on the riverbank in accordance with the above statement. Rabba bar Rav Huna said to them: Let those above and below me along the river cut down their trees first, and then I will cut down my trees. I will achieve nothing by cutting down my trees on my own. The Gemara asks: How can he do so, i.e., wait for others to act? But isn’t it written: “Gather yourselves together, and gather [hitkosheshu vakoshu]” (Zephaniah 2:1), and Reish Lakish says concerning this: Adorn [keshot] yourself and afterward adorn others. Therefore, one must first perform the required action himself before offering advice to others. The Gemara responds: There it was the forest of the house of Parzak, the general, and it was obvious that they would pay no attention to a Jewish scholar. Rabba bar Rav Huna therefore said: If the workers of the Persian officer cut down, I will cut down as well, and if they do not cut down, why should I cut down for no purpose? Since if the pullers can stretch their ropes they can go along this side of the river,
21כא
דיון
א. מה מקור ההתנגדות להיעזר במרפאים 'מינים'?
ב. העיקר שנשמתו של החולה יצאה בטהרה. על איזה סדר עדיפויות של ערכים מצביע הקטע? מה בנוגע ל'מבחן התוצאה' שהוזכר קודם לכן?
23 כג
24כד
קישורים לרקע והרחבה:
רפואה מאגית בתלמוד
25כה
דף הנחיות למנחה:
דף למנחה.rtf