"כבוד האדם וכבוד החברה"
1א
הדף מאת: דנה פולבר / גשר - מפעלים חינוכיים
2ב
בית המדרש לנושאי אזרחות מיועד לעורר דיון מעמיק בקרב מורים לאזרחות בנושאי אקטואליה וחברה דרך לימוד מקורות יהודיים. דף לימוד זה, פרי בית המדרש, עוסק בנושא כבוד האדם דרך לימוד מקורות בנושא. לימוד זה עוסק בשאלות מהי בושה ומהו כבוד, דרך אדם וחווה ומגילת אסתר. מהו כבודו של אדם חשוב, רב ומהו כבוד הציבור וכבוד הבריות.
3ג
הבגד הראשון
4ד
(ז) וַתִּפָּקַחְנָה עֵינֵי שְׁנֵיהֶם וַיֵּדְעוּ כִּי עֵירֻמִּם הֵם וַיִּתְפְּרוּ עֲלֵה תְאֵנָה וַיַּעֲשׂוּ לָהֶם חֲגֹרֹת: (ח) וַיִּשְׁמְעוּ אֶת קוֹל ה' אֱלֹהִים מִתְהַלֵּךְ בַּגָּן לְרוּחַ הַיּוֹם וַיִּתְחַבֵּא הָאָדָם וְאִשְׁתּוֹ מִפְּנֵי ה' אֱלֹהִים בְּתוֹךְ עֵץ הַגָּן: (ט) וַיִּקְרָא ה' אֱלֹהִים אֶל הָאָדָם וַיֹּאמֶר לוֹ אַיֶּכָּה: (י) וַיֹּאמֶר אֶת קֹלְךָ שָׁמַעְתִּי בַּגָּן וָאִירָא כִּי עֵירֹם אָנֹכִי וָאֵחָבֵא: (יא) וַיֹּאמֶר מִי הִגִּיד לְךָ כִּי עֵירֹם אָתָּה הֲמִן הָעֵץ אֲשֶׁר צִוִּיתִיךָ לְבִלְתִּי אֲכָל מִמֶּנּוּ אָכָלְתָּ: ... (כא) וַיַּעַשׂ ה' אֱלֹהִים לְאָדָם וּלְאִשְׁתּוֹ כָּתְנוֹת עוֹר וַיַּלְבִּשֵׁם: (כב) וַיֹּאמֶר ה' אֱלֹהִים הֵן הָאָדָם הָיָה כְּאַחַד מִמֶּנּוּ לָדַעַת טוֹב וָרָע וְעַתָּה פֶּן יִשְׁלַח יָדוֹ וְלָקַח גַּם מֵעֵץ הַחַיִּים וְאָכַל וָחַי לְעֹלָם: (כג) וַיְשַׁלְּחֵהוּ ה' אֱלֹהִים מִגַּן עֵדֶן לַעֲבֹד אֶת הָאֲדָמָה אֲשֶׁר לֻקַּח מִשָּׁם: (כד) וַיְגָרֶשׁ אֶת הָאָדָם וַיַּשְׁכֵּן מִקֶּדֶם לְגַן עֵדֶן אֶת הַכְּרֻבִים וְאֵת לַהַט הַחֶרֶב הַמִּתְהַפֶּכֶת לִשְׁמֹר אֶת דֶּרֶךְ עֵץ הַחַיִּים:
And the eyes of them both were opened, and they knew that they were naked; and they sewed fig-leaves together, and made themselves girdles. And they heard the voice of the LORD God walking in the garden toward the cool of the day; and the man and his wife hid themselves from the presence of the LORD God amongst the trees of the garden. And the LORD God called unto the man, and said unto him: ‘Where art thou?’ And he said: ‘I heard Thy voice in the garden, and I was afraid, because I was naked; and I hid myself.’ And He said: ‘Who told thee that thou wast naked? Hast thou eaten of the tree, whereof I commanded thee that thou shouldest not eat?’ And the man said: ‘The woman whom Thou gavest to be with me, she gave me of the tree, and I did eat.’ And the LORD God said unto the woman: ‘What is this thou hast done?’ And the woman said: ‘The serpent beguiled me, and I did eat.’ And the LORD God said unto the serpent: ‘Because thou hast done this, cursed art thou from among all cattle, and from among all beasts of the field; upon thy belly shalt thou go, and dust shalt thou eat all the days of thy life. And I will put enmity between thee and the woman, and between thy seed and her seed; they shall bruise thy head, and thou shalt bruise their heel.’ Unto the woman He said: ‘I will greatly multiply thy pain and thy travail; in pain thou shalt bring forth children; and thy desire shall be to thy husband, and he shall rule over thee.’ And unto Adam He said: ‘Because thou hast hearkened unto the voice of thy wife, and hast eaten of the tree, of which I commanded thee, saying: Thou shalt not eat of it; cursed is the ground for thy sake; in toil shalt thou eat of it all the days of thy life. Thorns also and thistles shall it bring forth to thee; and thou shalt eat the herb of the field. In the sweat of thy face shalt thou eat bread, till thou return unto the ground; for out of it wast thou taken; for dust thou art, and unto dust shalt thou return.’ And the man called his wife’s name Eve; because she was the mother of all living. And the LORD God made for Adam and for his wife garments of skins, and clothed them. And the LORD God said: ‘Behold, the man is become as one of us, to know good and evil; and now, lest he put forth his hand, and take also of the tree of life, and eat, and live for ever.’ Therefore the LORD God sent him forth from the garden of Eden, to till the ground from whence he was taken. So He drove out the man; and He placed at the east of the garden of Eden the cherubim, and the flaming sword which turned every way, to keep the way to the tree of life.
5ה
דיון
  • מהו בגד? אילו תפקידים יש לו בחברתנו?
  • הבגד הראשון מופיע בתנ"ך בהקשר של עירום, חטא, בושה, מחבוא.
  • האם זה תואם את התפישה שלנו אודות ייעודם של בגדים?
  • 6ו
    נימוסים בחצר מלוכה
    7ז
    (א) אַחַר הַדְּבָרִים הָאֵלֶּה גִּדַּל הַמֶּלֶךְ אֲחַשְׁוֵרוֹשׁ אֶת הָמָן בֶּן הַמְּדָתָא הָאֲגָגִי וַיְנַשְּׂאֵהוּ וַיָּשֶׂם אֶת כִּסְאוֹ מֵעַל כָּל הַשָּׂרִים אֲשֶׁר אִתּוֹ: (ב) וְכָל עַבְדֵי הַמֶּלֶךְ אֲשֶׁר בְּשַׁעַר הַמֶּלֶךְ כֹּרְעִים וּמִשְׁתַּחֲוִים לְהָמָן כִּי כֵן צִוָּה לוֹ הַמֶּלֶךְ וּמָרְדֳּכַי לֹא יִכְרַע וְלֹא יִשְׁתַּחֲוֶה: (ג) וַיֹּאמְרוּ עַבְדֵי הַמֶּלֶךְ אֲשֶׁר בְּשַׁעַר הַמֶּלֶךְ לְמָרְדֳּכָי מַדּוּעַ אַתָּה עוֹבֵר אֵת מִצְוַת הַמֶּלֶךְ: (ד) וַיְהִי בְּאָמְרָם אֵלָיו יוֹם וָיוֹם וְלֹא שָׁמַע אֲלֵיהֶם וַיַּגִּידוּ לְהָמָן לִרְאוֹת הֲיַעַמְדוּ דִּבְרֵי מָרְדֳּכַי כִּי הִגִּיד לָהֶם אֲשֶׁר הוּא יְהוּדִי: (ה) וַיַּרְא הָמָן כִּי אֵין מָרְדֳּכַי כֹּרֵעַ וּמִשְׁתַּחֲוֶה לוֹ וַיִּמָּלֵא הָמָן חֵמָה: (ו) וַיִּבֶז בְּעֵינָיו לִשְׁלֹח יָד בְּמָרְדֳּכַי לְבַדּוֹ כִּי הִגִּידוּ לוֹ אֶת עַם מָרְדֳּכָי וַיְבַקֵּשׁ הָמָן לְהַשְׁמִיד אֶת כָּל הַיְּהוּדִים אֲשֶׁר בְּכָל מַלְכוּת אֲחַשְׁוֵרוֹשׁ עַם מָרְדֳּכָי:
    After these things did king Ahasuerus promote Haman the son of Hammedatha the Agagite, and advanced him, and set his seat above all the princes that were with him. And all the king’s servants, that were in the king’s gate, bowed down, and prostrated themselves before Haman; for the king had so commanded concerning him. But Mordecai bowed not down, nor prostrated himself before him. Then the king’s servants, that were in the king’s gate, said unto Mordecai: ‘Why transgressest thou the king’s commandment?’ Now it came to pass, when they spoke daily unto him, and he hearkened not unto them, that they told Haman, to see whether Mordecai’s words would stand; for he had told them that he was a Jew. And when Haman saw that Mordecai bowed not down, nor prostrated himself before him, then was Haman full of wrath. But it seemed contemptible in his eyes to lay hands on Mordecai alone; for they had made known to him the people of Mordecai; wherefore Haman sought to destroy all the Jews that were throughout the whole kingdom of Ahasuerus, even the people of Mordecai.
    8ח
    (א) וּמָרְדֳּכַי יָדַע אֶת כָּל אֲשֶׁר נַעֲשָׂה וַיִּקְרַע מָרְדֳּכַי אֶת בְּגָדָיו וַיִּלְבַּשׁ שַׂק וָאֵפֶר וַיֵּצֵא בְּתוֹךְ הָעִיר וַיִּזְעַק זְעָקָה גְדֹלָה וּמָרָה: (ב) וַיָּבוֹא עַד לִפְנֵי שַׁעַר הַמֶּלֶךְ כִּי אֵין לָבוֹא אֶל שַׁעַר הַמֶּלֶךְ בִּלְבוּשׁ שָׂק: (ג) וּבְכָל מְדִינָה וּמְדִינָה מְקוֹם אֲשֶׁר דְּבַר הַמֶּלֶךְ וְדָתוֹ מַגִּיעַ אֵבֶל גָּדוֹל לַיְּהוּדִים וְצוֹם וּבְכִי וּמִסְפֵּד שַׂק וָאֵפֶר יֻצַּע לָרַבִּים: (ד) וַתָּבוֹאנָה נַעֲרוֹת אֶסְתֵּר וְסָרִיסֶיהָ וַיַּגִּידוּ לָהּ וַתִּתְחַלְחַל הַמַּלְכָּה מְאֹד וַתִּשְׁלַח בְּגָדִים לְהַלְבִּישׁ אֶת מָרְדֳּכַי וּלְהָסִיר שַׂקּוֹ מֵעָלָיו וְלֹא קִבֵּל.
    Now when Mordecai knew all that was done, Mordecai rent his clothes, and put on sackcloth with ashes, and went out into the midst of the city, and cried with a loud and a bitter cry; and he came even before the king’s gate; for none might enter within the king’s gate clothed with sackcloth. And in every province, whithersoever the king’s commandment and his decree came, there was great mourning among the Jews, and fasting, and weeping, and wailing; and many lay in sackcloth and ashes. And Esther’s maidens and her chamberlains came and told it her; and the queen was exceedingly pained; and she sent raiment to clothe Mordecai; and to take his sackcloth from off him; but he accepted it not.
    9ט
    (ב) "איש יהודי היה בשושן הבירה" ... וכי קנתרן היה ועובר על גזירת המלך?! אלא כשצוה אחשורוש להשתחוות להמן חקק עבודת כוכבים על לבו ונתכוון כדי שישתחוו לעבודת כוכבים וכשהיה רואה המן שאין מרדכי משתחוה לו נתמלא חימה. ומרדכי אומר לו: יש אדון המתגאה על כל גאים היאך אני מניחו ואשתחוה לעבודת כוכבים?! ולפי שייחד שמו של הקב"ה נקרא יהודי, לומר יהודי יחידי ... (ג) ... ר' לוי אמר כל מי שנאמר בו "היה" ראה עולם חדש ... מרדכי אתמול "וילבש שק ואפר" ועכשיו "יצא מלפני המלך בלבוש מלכות".
    "There was a Jewish man in Shushan the capital" -- [The word] 'man' (ish) teaches us that Mordechai was the equivalent of Moses in his generation as it says about [Moses] "and the man(ish) Moses was exceedingly humble." Just as Moses stood in the breach as it says (Psalm 106) "And He planned to destroy them if not for Moses who stood in the breach.." so to Mordechai as it says "He sought good for his nation and brought peace to all his people" Just as Moses taught Torah to Israel, so to Mordechai as it says [about Moses] "See, I have taught you laws," so to Mordechai as it says [that Mordechai sent out] "words of Peace and Truth" and it says "buy truth and sell it not" [about the Torah.] "And his name was Mordechai" -- When evil people are introduced in the text, they precede their names e.g. "Naval was his name" or "Sheba son of Bichri was his name." But the names of the righteous precede them e.g. "his name was Manoah," "his name was Kish," "his name was Saul," "his name was Elkana," "his name was Boaz," and in our text, "his name was Mordechai. This is to make them emulate their Creator as it says [about God] and My name, Jehovah, I did not make known to them. "Jewish" -- Why was he called 'Judean' if he was of Benjamin? Because he attested to the unity of God in the world as it says "[and Mordechai] would not kneel and would not bow] (therefore he was called a part of Judah which means 'to acknowledge God'). And [why] was he a contrarian that ignored the king's decree? Because when Ahasuerus decreed that everyone should bow to Haman, Haman started wearing an idol so that everyone would bow to the idol, and when he saw that Mordechai refused to bow he became very angry. Mordechai told him "there is a Lord who is above all the arrogant. How can I forsake him and bow to an idol?" Thus, because he attested to God's unity, he was called The Jew i.e. the only Jew. There are those who also compare him to Abraham. Just as Abraham threw himself into the furnace, came out alive, and caused people to recognize God -- this being what is referred to by the verse "and the souls they made in Haran" -- Mordechai also helped pepole recognize God in his own day as it says "And many people of the land converted to Judaism." [In conclusion] he attested to the unity of God and His holiness and was therefore called "the Jew".
    10י
    ילקוט שמעוני, אסתר ג, תתרנד
    "ומרדכי לא יכרע ולא ישתחוה", אמרו לו: הוי יודע שאתה מפילנו בחרב. מה ראית לבטל קלבסים של מלך?! אמר: שאני יהודי. אמרו לו: והרי מצינו אבותיך שהשתחוו לאבותיו, שנאמר "וישתחו ארצה שבע פעמים". אמר להם: בנימין אבי במעי אמו היה ולא השתחוה, ואני בן בנו, שנאמר "איש ימיני". וכשם שלא כרע אבי כך אני איני כורע ולא משתחוה.

    מושגים
    • ילקוט שמעוני - לקט מדרשי אגדה קדומים על התנ"ך. המדרשים הם אוסף מספרות המדרש הקדומה ביותר, ביניהם מתוך מדרשים קדומים שלא הגיעו לידינו. זמן חיבורו המדויק של הילקוט אינו ידוע, אך מניחים שאינו מוקדם מן המאה ה-11.
    11יא
    דיון
  • רובד חשוב במגילת אסתר הוא "סיפורי בגדים" וגינונים מלכותיים. כיצד משתלב מוטיב זה עם שיקולי כבוד אצל הדמויות השונות?
  • בקטעים לעיל מופיעות תגובות אמוציונאליות מאוד ביחס לקודים שונים של גינוני מלכות (לבוש, צורת התנהגות, יחס אל המלך).
  • על מה מעידות תגובות אלה?
  • חשבו על דוגמאות מקבילות בחיינו שבהן אנו מייחסים משקל מכריע לקונבנציות חברתיות.
  • 12יב
    רבי יוחנן קרא לבגדיו 'מכבדותי'
    On a related note, the Gemara cites what we learned with regard to the following passage: “If you keep your feet from breaking, from pursuing your affairs on My holy day, and you call Shabbat a delight, the Lord’s holy day honorable, and you honor it by not going your own way, from attending to your affairs and speaking idle words” (Isaiah 58:13). The Rabbis derived from the words “and you honor it” that your dress on Shabbat should not be like your dress during the week, as Rabbi Yoḥanan would refer to his clothing as my honor, indicating that appropriate clothing is a form of deference. The words “going your own way” mean that your walking on Shabbat should not be like your walking during the week. “From attending to your affairs” means it is prohibited to deal with your weekday affairs and to speak about them on Shabbat. However, affairs of Heaven, i.e., those pertaining to mitzvot, are permitted. “And speaking idle words”
    13יג
    כבוד הציבור לעומת כבוד הבריות
    14יד
    אמר רב יהודה אמר רב, המוצא כלאים בבגדו פושטן אפילו בשוק. מאי טעמא? [=מה הסיבה?] "אין חכמה ואין תבונה ואין עצה לנגד ה'" כל מקום שיש חלול השם אין חולקין כבוד לרב. ...

    תא שמע [=בוא ושמע]: גדול כבוד הבריות שדוחה לא תעשה שבתורה.
    We learned that some who come to console the bereaved are exempt from Shema as a means of honoring the deceased. The Gemara expands the discussion to raise the general question: To what degree does preserving human dignity takes precedence over mitzvot enumerated in the Torah? Rav Yehuda said that Rav said: One who discovers diverse kinds [kilayim], i.e., a prohibited mixture of wool and linen, in his garment, must remove them even in the public marketplace. He may not wait until he reaches home. What is the reason for this? As it is stated: “There is neither wisdom, nor understanding, nor counsel against the Lord” (Proverbs 21:30). From here, the general principle: Anywhere that there is desecration of the Lord’s name, one does not show respect to the teacher, is derived. The Gemara cites several sources to challenge this principle. The Gemara raised an objection from a baraita: After they buried the deceased and returned, and on their way there are two paths before them, one ritually pure and one ritually impure, e.g., it passes through a cemetery, if the mourner comes on the pure path, they come with him on the pure path; if he comes on the impure path, all of the funeral participants accompany him on the impure path in order to show him respect. Why would they do this? Let us say here too that, “There is neither wisdom, nor understanding…against the Lord!” Rabbi Abba explained that the baraita is referring to a path that passes through an area where there is uncertainty with regard to the location of a grave or a corpse [beit haperas]. For example, with regard to a field in which there is a grave that was plowed and no longer intact, the entire field is deemed impure due to concern that the plow scattered bones throughout the field. The field is impure only by rabbinic law but not according to Torah law. Since it is only prohibited by rabbinic law, one is permitted to walk through the field to show the mourner respect. The Gemara cites proof that the legal status of a beit haperas is unlike the legal status of impurity by Torah law: Rav Yehuda said that Shmuel said: One who passes through a beit haperas may blow on the dust before taking each step, so that if there is a bone beneath the dust, he will expose it, avoid it, and walk. One may not rely on that method of examination with regard to impurity by Torah law. And Rav Yehuda bar Ashi said in the name of Rav: A beit haperas that has been trodden underfoot, creating a path, is pure, and one no longer need be concerned about bones. Clearly, the entire prohibition is a stringency decreed by the Sages. The Gemara cites additional proof with regard to the extent to which human dignity overrides mitzvot in the Torah. Come and hear, as Rabbi Elazar bar Tzadok the priest said: I and my fellow priests would jump over coffins of the deceased in order to hurry towards kings of Israel to greet them. And they did not say this only towards kings of Israel, but they said this even towards kings of the nations of the world, so that if one will be privileged to witness the redemption of Israel, he will distinguish between kings of Israel and kings of the nations of the world. The priest violated the Torah prohibition to become ritually impure through contact with the dead, in order to show respect for a king. And why is this? Let us say here too: “There is neither wisdom, nor understanding, nor counsel against the Lord.” The Gemara responds to this challenge by saying that it must be understood in accordance with the opinion of Rava, as Rava said: By Torah law, a tent over a corpse, as long as there is a handbreadth of space between the corpse and the tent over it, constitutes a barrier before the spread of impurity and nothing above the tent can become ritually impure due to impurity imparted by the corpse. And when there is not a handbreadth of space between the corpse and the tent over it, the tent does not constitute a barrier before the spread of impurity and the “pressed” ritual impurity, can reach the heavens. Most coffins have a handbreadth of space. Consequently, their impurity does not spread above the coffin. However, the Sages issued a decree regarding coffins in which there is a handbreadth of space because of those coffins in which there is not. Nevertheless, due to respect for kings, the Sages did not issue a decree in a case involving them and the priests were permitted to jump over the coffins, as it is permitted by Torah law. Therefore, there is no proof from here regarding the question of whether or not human dignity overrides Torah law. The Gemara cites an additional proof from a baraita: Come and hear: Great is human dignity, as it overrides a prohibition in the Torah.
    15טו
    דיון
  • אילו שתי עמדות מוצגות כאן במקרים שבהם החוק הדתי עומד בסתירה לכבוד האנושי? חשבו על נימוקים לכל עמדה.
  • מה עשוי לקרות כשהכבוד האנושי יעמוד בסתירה לחוק האזרחי? האם גם כאן ניתן "לדחות" את החוק? נמקו
  • 16טז
    תנו רבנן: הכל עולין למניין שבעה אפילו קטן אפילו אישה, אבל אמרו חכמים: אישה לא תקרא בתורה מפני כבוד הציבור.
    § The Sages taught in a Tosefta (Megilla 3:11): All people count toward the quorum of seven readers, even a minor and even a woman. However, the Sages said that a woman should not read the Torah, out of respect for the congregation.
    17יז
    דין הראוי לירד לפני התיבה: ... (ו) אין ממנין אלא מי שנתמלא זקנו, מפני כבוד הציבור.
    THE LAWS OF WHO IS APPROPRIATE TO GO DOWN BEFORE THE ARK. AND THERE ARE 26 SECTIONS: The leader should say Yishtabach while standing. One should not say [i.e. lead] Yishtabach [i.e. Shacharit] unless he has also said Barukh She'Amar and some of P'sukei D'Zimra One should not say the bracha on the wrapping of the tzitzit [i.e. putting on a tallit] between P'sukei D'Zimra and Yishtabach [i.e. the closing blessing], rather, he should say it between Yishtabach and Yotzer [Ohr] (and see below 54:3). Gloss: if the leader did not have a tallit at the beginning, he should wrap in tzitzit before he begins Yishtabach so that he will say the Kaddish immediately after Yishtabach and not interrupt (Kol Bo 5), and similarly if there is no minyan in the synagogue the leader should wait at Yishtabach and be silent until the minyan comes and shall say Yishtabach and Kaddish (Maharil). The leader must be one who is fit. Who is "fit"? One who is free of sin; who has never had a poor reputation, even in his youth; who is humble; who is acceptable to the nation; who is skilled at [liturgical] chanting; whose voice is pleasant; who is accustomed to reading Torah, Prophets, and Writings (i.e. biblical text). If there is no person that fits these qualifications, we should pick the one that has the most knowledge and good deeds in the community. Gloss: And if there was here an ignoramus who is an elder and his voice is pleasant and the people want him and [also] a13 year old who knows what he is saying and his voice is not pleasant, the younger one takes precedent (Mordekhai, Chapter 1 of Chullin). One who has committed a sin unintentionally, for example, who killed a person accidentally and returned in repentance is permitted to be leader, but if he did it intentionally [he may] not, in that in any case a bad name has gone out regarding him prior to the repentance. We do not appoint anyone who does not have a full beard because of the honor of the congregation, but if by happenstance [something comes up], someone which has brought [i.e. grown] two hairs can go down before the Ark as long as he has not been appointed by the congregation or by the [regular] leader appointing him to relieve him to pray for him for defined occasions.
    18יח
    ספר חיי אדם, כלל ראשון, כט
    (י) אין ממנין אלא מי שנתמלא זקנו. ואע"פ שלא נתמלא זקנו, כל שניכר בו שהגיע לכלל שנים שראוי להתמלאות זקנו, כשר. הלכך, בן עשרים שנה אע"פ שאין לו זקן, ממנין אותו. או אפי' רק בן י"ח שנים ויש לו זקן מעט, כשר (שם). וכל זה מפני כבוד הצבור. ואפילו אם רצו הצבור למחול על כבודם, אין ראוי לעשות כן לכתחלה.

    מושגים
    • ספר חיי אדם - ספר הלכה ורעיונות שנכתב בסוף המאה ה-18, תחילת המאה ה-19, בידי רבי אברהם דנציג. הספר מביא את קיצור ההלכות הנהוגות ביום-יום ובשבתות וחגים.
    19יט
    דיון
  • כיצד אתם מבינים את הביטוי 'כבוד ציבור' בקטעים אלה? מה היחס המוצג כאן בין החוק לבין כבוד הציבור?
  • מה ההבדל בין כבוד הציבור לכבוד הבריות? האם תיתכן סתירה ביניהם?
  • 20כ
    של מי הכבוד הזה?
    אמר רב חסדא: האב שמחל על כבודו כבודו מחול;

    הרב שמחל על כבודו אין כבודו מחול.

    ורב יוסף אמר: אפילו הרב שמחל על כבודו כבודו מחול ...

    אמר רב אשי: ... נשיא שמחל על כבודו אין כבודו מחול.

    מיתיבי [משיבים = מביאים טיעון שסותר טענה אחרונה זו]:

    מעשה ברבי אליעזר ורבי יהושע ורבי צדוק שהיו מסובין בבית המשתה של בנו של רבן גמליאל.

    והיה רבן גמליאל עומד ומשקה עליהם. נתן הכוס לר' אליעזר ולא נטלו, נתנו לר' יהושע וקיבלו.

    אמר לו רבי אליעזר: מה זה, יהושע? אנו יושבין ורבן גמליאל ברבי עומד ומשקה עלינו?!

    אמר לו: מצינו גדול ממנו ששימש אברהם גדול הדור היה, וכתוב בו "והוא עומד עליהם". ושמא תאמרו כמלאכי השרת נדמו לו לא נדמו לו אלא לערביים. ואנו לא יהא רבן גמליאל ברבי עומד ומשקה עלינו?!

    אמר להם רבי צדוק: עד מתי אתם מניחים כבודו של מקום ואתם עוסקים בכבוד הבריות?! הקדוש ברוך הוא משיב רוחות ומעלה נשיאים ומוריד מטר ומצמיח אדמה, ועורך שולחן לפני כל אחד ואחד. ואנו לא יהא רבן גמליאל ברבי עומד ומשקה עלינו?!

    ... אפילו לפי דעתו של מי שאמר שנשיא שמחל על כבודו כבודו מחול, מלך שמחל על כבודו אין כבודו מחול, שנאמר "שום תשים עליך מלך" שתהא אימתו עליך:
    Rav Yitzḥak bar Sheila says that Rav Mattana says that Rav Ḥisda says: With regard to a father who forgoes his honor, his honor is forgone, and his son does not transgress if he does not treat him in the proper manner. By contrast, with regard to a rabbi who forgoes his honor, his honor is not forgone. And Rav Yosef says: Even with regard to a rabbi who forgoes his honor, his honor is forgone, as it is stated: “And the Lord went before them by day” (Exodus 13:21). God Himself, the Teacher of the Jewish people, had forgone the honor due Him and took the trouble to guide the people. Rava said: How can these cases be compared? There, with regard to the Holy One, Blessed be He, the world is His and the Torah is His, and therefore He can forgo His honor. By contrast, here, is it his Torah, that the teacher can forgo its honor? Rava then said: Yes, if he studies, it is his Torah, as it is written: “For his delight is the Torah of the Lord, and in his Torah he meditates day and night” (Psalms 1:2). This indicates that at first it is “the Torah of the Lord,” but after he studies, it becomes “his Torah.” The Gemara asks: Is that so? But Rava served drinks to the guests at his son’s wedding celebration, and he poured a cup for Rav Pappa and Rav Huna, son of Rav Yehoshua, and they stood before him when he approached them. When he poured a cup for Rav Mari and for Rav Pineḥas, son of Rav Ḥisda, they did not stand before him. Rava became angry and said: Are these Sages, i.e., Rav Mari and Rav Pineḥas, Sages, and are those Sages, who stood to honor me, not Sages? Do you think you are so great that you are not required to honor a Sage? And furthermore, it happened that Rav Pappa was serving drinks to the guests at the wedding celebration [hillula] of Abba Mar, his son, and he poured a cup for Rav Yitzḥak, son of Rav Yehuda, and he did not stand before him, and Rav Pappa became angry. These anecdotes indicate that even when a rabbi forgoes the honor due to him by serving drinks to his guests, his honor is not forgone. The Gemara answers: A rabbi can forgo the full measure of honor due to him, but even so, others are required to perform some act of reverence, such as preparing to stand before him. Rav Ashi said: Even according to the one who says that if a rabbi forgoes the honor due him, his honor is forgone, if a Nasi forgoes the honor due him, his honor is not forgone. The Gemara raises an objection: There was an incident involving Rabbi Eliezer and Rabbi Yehoshua and Rabbi Tzadok, who were reclining at the wedding of Rabban Gamliel’s son. And Rabban Gamliel, who was Nasi of the Sanhedrin at the time, was standing over them and serving them drinks. He gave the cup to Rabbi Eliezer and he would not accept it; he gave it to Rabbi Yehoshua and he accepted it. Rabbi Eliezer said to him: What is this, Yehoshua? We sit and the esteemed Rabban Gamliel stands over us and serves us drinks? Rabbi Yehoshua said to him: We found one greater than him who served his guests, as our forefather Abraham was greater than him and he served his guests. Abraham was the greatest man of his generation and it is written about him: “And he stood over them under the tree, and they ate” (Genesis 18:8). And lest you say: His guests appeared to him as ministering angels, and that is why he honored them, in fact they appeared to him only as Arabs. And if so, should not the esteemed Rabban Gamliel stand over us and serve us drinks? Rabbi Tzadok said to them: For how long will you ignore the honor due to the Omnipresent, and deal with the honor of people? You could cite a proof from God Himself. After all, the Holy One, Blessed be He, makes the winds blow, and raises the clouds, and brings the rain, and causes the earth to sprout, and sets a table before each and every creature. And should not the esteemed Rabban Gamliel stand over us and serve us drinks? This discussion indicates that even a Nasi may forgo the honor due him. Rather, if it was stated, it was stated as follows: Rav Ashi said: Even according to the one who says that if a Nasi forgoes the honor due him, his honor is forgone, if a king forgoes the honor due him, his honor is not forgone. As it is stated: “You shall set a king over you” (Deuteronomy 17:15), which indicates that his fear should be upon you. The people are commanded to fear a king, and therefore it is not permitted for him to forgo the honor due to him.
    21כא
    [ו] התוקע לחבירו נותן לו סלע. רבי יהודה אומר משום רבי יוסי הגלילי מנה. סטרו, נותן לו מאתים זוז. לאחר ידו, נותן לו ארבע מאות זוז. צרם באזנו, תלש בשערו, רקק והגיע בו רוקו, העביר טליתו ממנו, פרע ראש האשה בשוק - נותן ארבע מאות זוז. זה הכלל - הכל לפי כבודו. אמר רבי עקיבא: אפילו עניים שבישראל, רואין אותם כאילו הם בני חורין שירדו מנכסיהם שהם בני אברהם יצחק ויעקב. ומעשה באחד שפרע ראש האשה בשוק, באת לפני רבי עקיבא וחייבו ליתן לה ארבע מאות זוז. אמר לו: רבי, תן לי זמן. ונתן לו זמן. שמרה עומדת על פתח חצרה ושבר את הכד בפניה ובו כאיסר שמן. גלתה את ראשה והיתה מטפחת ומנחת ידה על ראשה. העמיד עליה עדים ובא לפני רבי עקיבא. אמר לו: רבי, לזו אני נותן ארבע מאות זוז?! אמר לו: לא אמרת כלום. החובל בעצמו, אף על פי שאינו רשאי - פטור, אחרים שחבלו בו חייבין. והקוצץ נטיעותיו, אף על פי שאינו רשאי- פטור, אחרים שקצצו את נטיעותיו- חייבים:
    If a man boxed the ear of his fellow, he must pay him a sela (four. Rabbi Judah says in the name of Rabbi Yose the Galilean: “A maneh (one hundred.” If he slapped him he must pay 200 zuz. If with the back of his hand, he must pay him 400 zuz. If he tore at his ear, plucked out his hair, spat at him and his spit touched him, or pulled his cloak from off him, or loosed a woman’s hair in the street, he must pay 400 zuz. This is the general rule: all is in accordance with the person’s honor. Rabbi Akiva said: “Even the poor in Israel are regarded as free people who have lost their possessions, for they are the children of Abraham, Isaac and Jacob. It once happened that a man unloosed a woman’s hair in the street and she came before Rabbi Akiva and he condemned him to pay her 400 zuz. He said, “Rabbi, give me time”. And he gave him time. He caught her standing at the entrance to her courtyard, and he broke a jug of one issar’s worth of oil in front of her. She unloosed her hair and scooped up the oil in her hand and laid her hand on her head. He had set up witnesses up against her and he came before Rabbi Akiva and said to him, “Rabbi, should I give one such as this 400 zuz?” He answered, “You have said nothing.” If a man injures himself, even though he has no right to do so, is not liable. But others who injure him are liable. If a man cuts down his own saplings, even though he has no right to do so, is not liable. But, if others cut them down, they are liable.
    22כב
    דיון
  • במה תלוי כבודו של אדם לפי הגישות השונות לעיל?
  • באילו מקרים ניתן לוותר על הכבוד או לשלול אותו, ובאילו לא? מדוע?
  • 24 כד