מי היא אשת החיל?
1א
הדף מאת: אביטל אנגלברג
2ב
מדרשים רבים מפרשים מיהי אותה אשת החיל בספר משלי. בשעור זה נביא שלוש אסכולות שונות של פרשנות. מטרת השעור - לחקור את הפרשנויות השונות ולראות מה אנו יכולים ללמוד מהגישות השונות של הדרשנים. אחרי שננתח את הפרשנויות השונות, ננסה להציע פרשנויות מעולמנו לאותו המזמור.
3ג
אשת חיל מי ימצא / משלי ל"א
(י) אֵשֶׁת חַיִל מִי יִמְצָא וְרָחֹק מִפְּנִינִים מִכְרָהּ:
(יא) בָּטַח בָּהּ לֵב בַּעְלָהּ וְשָׁלָל לֹא יֶחְסָר:
(יב) גְּמָלַתְהוּ טוֹב וְלֹא רָע כֹּל יְמֵי חַיֶּיהָ:
(יג) דָּרְשָׁה צֶמֶר וּפִשְׁתִּים וַתַּעַשׂ בְּחֵפֶץ כַּפֶּיהָ:
(יד) הָיְתָה כָּאֳנִיּוֹת סוֹחֵר מִמֶּרְחָק תָּבִיא לַחְמָהּ:
(טו) וַתָּקָם בְּעוֹד לַיְלָה וַתִּתֵּן טֶרֶף לְבֵיתָהּ וְחֹק לְנַעֲרֹתֶיהָ:
(טז) זָמְמָה שָׂדֶה וַתִּקָּחֵהוּ מִפְּרִי כַפֶּיהָ נָטְעָה כָּרֶם:
(יז) חָגְרָה בְעוֹז מָתְנֶיהָ וַתְּאַמֵּץ זְרוֹעֹתֶיהָ:
(יח) טָעֲמָה כִּי טוֹב סַחְרָהּ לֹא יִכְבֶּה בַלַּיְלָה נֵרָהּ:
(יט) יָדֶיהָ שִׁלְּחָה בַכִּישׁוֹר וְכַפֶּיהָ תָּמְכוּ פָלֶךְ:
(כ) כַּפָּהּ פָּרְשָׂה לֶעָנִי וְיָדֶיהָ שִׁלְּחָה לָאֶבְיוֹן:
(כא) לֹא תִירָא לְבֵיתָהּ מִשָּׁלֶג כִּי כָל בֵּיתָהּ לָבֻשׁ שָׁנִים:
(כב) מַרְבַדִּים עָשְׂתָה לָּהּ שֵׁשׁ וְאַרְגָּמָן לְבוּשָׁהּ:
(כג) נוֹדָע בַּשְּׁעָרִים בַּעְלָהּ בְּשִׁבְתּוֹ עִם זִקְנֵי אָרֶץ:
(כד) סָדִין עָשְׂתָה וַתִּמְכֹּר וַחֲגוֹר נָתְנָה לַכְּנַעֲנִי:
(כה) עוֹז וְהָדָר לְבוּשָׁהּ וַתִּשְׂחַק לְיוֹם אַחֲרוֹן:
(כו) פִּיהָ פָּתְחָה בְחָכְמָה וְתוֹרַת חֶסֶד עַל לְשׁוֹנָהּ:
(כז) צוֹפִיָּה הֲלִיכוֹת בֵּיתָהּ וְלֶחֶם עַצְלוּת לֹא תֹאכֵל:
(כח) קָמוּ בָנֶיהָ וַיְאַשְּׁרוּהָ בַּעְלָהּ וַיְהַלְלָהּ:
(כט) רַבּוֹת בָּנוֹת עָשׂוּ חָיִל וְאַתְּ עָלִית עַל כֻּלָּנָה:
(ל) שֶׁקֶר הַחֵן וְהֶבֶל הַיֹּפִי אִשָּׁה יִרְאַת ה' הִיא תִתְהַלָּל:
(לא) תְּנוּ לָהּ מִפְּרִי יָדֶיהָ וִיהַלְלוּהָ בַשְּׁעָרִים מַעֲשֶׂיהָ:

להסבר על הפיוט ולשמיעת לחניו באתר 'הזמנה לפיוט'
A woman of valour who can find? For her price is far above rubies. The heart of her husband doth safely trust in her, and he hath no lack of gain. She doeth him good and not evil all the days of her life. She seeketh wool and flax, and worketh willingly with her hands. She is like the merchant-ships; she bringeth her food from afar. She riseth also while it is yet night, and giveth food to her household, and a portion to her maidens. She considereth a field, and buyeth it; with the fruit of her hands she planteth a vineyard. She girdeth her loins with strength, And maketh strong her arms. She perceiveth that her merchandise is good; Her lamp goeth not out by night. She layeth her hands to the distaff, And her hands hold the spindle. She stretcheth out her hand to the poor; Yea, she reacheth forth her hands to the needy. She is not afraid of the snow for her household; For all her household are clothed with scarlet. She maketh for herself coverlets; Her clothing is fine linen and purple. Her husband is known in the gates, When he sitteth among the elders of the land. She maketh linen garments and selleth them; And delivereth girdles unto the merchant. Strength and dignity are her clothing; And she laugheth at the time to come. She openeth her mouth with wisdom; And the law of kindness is on her tongue. She looketh well to the ways of her household, And eateth not the bread of idleness. Her children rise up, and call her blessed; Her husband also, and he praiseth her: ’Many daughters have done valiantly, But thou excellest them all.’ Grace is deceitful, and beauty is vain; But a woman that feareth the LORD, she shall be praised. Give her of the fruit of her hands; And let her works praise her in the gates.
4ד
דיון
מתי שמעת את השיר בפעם הראשונה?

מתי שמת לב למילים שלו בפעם הראשונה?

מהם הפסוקים המשמחים / המטרידים אותך בשיר?
5ה
שלוש הסתכלויות- מיהי אשת החיל:
6ו
אשת חיל מי ימצא- זו היא התורה.
ורחוק מפנינים מכרה- שהיתה לפני לפנים,
וזכה משה והורידה למטה לארץ.
בטח בה לב בעלה ושלל לא יחסר. שלא חסר בה דבר.
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"A valiant woman, who can find" (Proverbs 31:10): That is the Torah; "and further than pearls (peninim) is her price" - as it was 'in front of Me and inside (lefanim)' and Moshe merited to bring it down to earth. "Her husband puts his confidence in her, and lacks no 'booty'" - that there is nothing lacking in it. Another explanation: "A valiant woman, who can find" - They said, "There was a story about Rabbi Meir who was sitting and expounding in the study hall on Shabbat afternoon, when two of his sons died. What did his mother do? She placed both of them on the bed and spread a sheet over them. At the end of Shabbat, Rabbi Meir came home from the study hall. He said to her, 'Where are my two sons?' She said [back], 'They went to the study hall.' He said to her, 'I scanned the study hall and I did not see them.' They gave him the cup of Havdalah and he separated [the days of the week with the closure of Shabbat]. He repeated and said, 'Where are my two sons?' She said, 'They went elsewhere and they are coming now.' She placed food in front of him and he ate and blessed. After he blessed, she said to him, 'I have a question to ask you.' He said to her, 'Say your question.' She said to him, 'Rabbi, before today, a man came and deposited something with me, and now he is coming to take it. Should we return it to him or not?' He said, 'My daughter, one who has a deposit with him must return it to its owner.' She said to him, 'Were it not for your consent, I would not have given it to him.' What did she do? She grabbed his hand, brought him up to that room, had him approach the bed and took off the sheet from upon them. When he saw both of them dead and laying upon the bed, he began to cry and say, 'My sons, my sons, my teachers, my teachers - my sons in the way of the world, my teachers in that they would enlighten my eyes with their Torah.' At that time, she said to Rabbi Meir, 'Rabbi, is this not what I told you - do I not need to return the deposit to its Owner?' He said, '"The Lord has given and the Lord has taken; may the name of the Lord be blessed"' (Job 1:21)." Rabbi Chanina said, "With this thing, she consoled him and his mind became composed - that is is why it states, 'A valiant woman, who can find.'" Rabbi Chama bar Chanina said, "On account of what did the sons of Rabbi Meir become liable and die at one time? Because they were accustomed to leaving the study hall to sit with food and drink." Rabbi Yochanan said, "Even with trifling matters - as when the Torah was given to Israel, he only warned them about the words of Torah, as it is stated (Deuteronomy 26:16), 'This day the Lord, your God, commands you to do.'"
7ז
דיון
למה מושווה המזמור?

מה דעתך על ההשוואה?
8ח
[יא] בטח בה לב בעלה. זו שרה אמנו, שהעשיר אברהם בשבילה, שנאמר ולאברם היטיב בעבורה (בראשית יב טז). [יב] גמלתהו טוב ולא רע. זו רבקה אמנו, שגמלה ליצחק בשעה שמתה שרה אמו. [יג] דרשה צמר ופשתים. זו לאה אמנו, שקבלה ליעקב בסבר פנים יפות, דכתיב ויבא יעקב מן השדה בערב ותצא לאה לקראתו ותאמר אלי תבוא כי שכר שכרתיך וגו' (בראשית ל טז), לפיכך זכתה ויצאו ממנה מלכים ונביאים. [יד] היתה כאניות סוחר. זו רחל אמנו, שהיתה מתביישת על הבנים בכל יום, לפיכך זכתה ויצא ממנה בן, שהוא דומה לספינה, שהיא מלאה כל טוב שבעולם, כך יוסף נתקיים כל העולם בזכותו, וכלכל את העולם בשני רעבון. [טו] ותקם בעוד לילה. זו בתיה בת פרעה, גויה היתה ונעשתה יהודיה, והזכירו שמה בין הכשרות, בשביל שעסקה במשה, לפיכך זכתה ונכנסה בחייה לגן עדן. [טז] זממה שדה ותקחהו. זו היא יוכבד, שיצא ממנה משה, שהוא שקול כנגד כל ישראל, שנקראו כרם, שנאמר כי כרם ה' צבאות בית ישראל (ישעי' ה). [יז] חגרה בעז מתניה. זו מרים שקודם שנולד משה אמרה עתידה אמי שתלד בן שמושיע את ישראל, כיון שנולד וכבד עליהם עול מלכות, עמד אביה וטפחה על ראשה, אמר לה היכן נבואתיך, ועמד וירק בפניה, ועם כל זאת היא מתאמצת בנבואתה, דכתיב ותתצב אחותו מרחוק (שמות ב ד). [יח] טעמה כי טוב סחרה. זו חנה שטעמה טעם תפלה, שנאמר ותתפלל חנה ותאמר עלץ לבי בה' וגו' (ש"א =שמואל א'= ב א), לפיכך זכתה ויצא ממנה בן שהיה זוג למשה ולאהרן, שהיו מאירין לישראל כנרות, דכתיב משה ואהרן בכהניו ושמואל בקראי שמו (תהלים צט ו), וכתיב ביה בשמואל ונר אלהים טרם יכבה ושמואל שוכב בהיכל ה' (ש"א =שמואל א'= ג ג)...
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Many women have done well (Proverbs 31:29): Adam, the first man, was commanded about six commandments. Noach [was additionally commanded] about [not eating] a limb from a live animal. Avraham about circumcision. Yitschak was educated with [these] eight [commandments]. Yaakov [was additionally commanded] about [not eating] the sciatic nerve. Yehudah about levirate marriage. [The people of] Israel about two hundred and forty-eight positive commandments corresponding to the two hundred and forty-eight limbs in a man - each and every limb says to man, "I plead of you to do this commandment with me" - and three hundred and sixty-five negative commandments corresponding to the three hundred and sixty-five days of the solar [year] - and each and every day says to man, "I plead of you not to do this sin on me." "Grace is false, beauty is illusory" (Proverbs 31:30) - the grace of Noach was false, as it states (Genesis 6:8), "But Noach found grace in the eyes of the Lord." Rabbi Levi said, "Only in his generation [did he find grace]." "Beauty is illusory" - illusory was the beauty of Adam, the first man. Rabbi Shimon ben Manassia said, "The ball of Adam, the first man's heel would dim the sun. And do not wonder - it is customary in the world that when a man makes two salver vessels, one for himself and one for his household, which does he make [nicer], is it not his? So [too], Adam, the first man, was created to serve in front of the Holy One, blessed be He; and the sun was created to make light for the creatures. And if the ball of his heel was such, the contour of his face, all the more so." "A woman that has fear of the Lord, she is to be praised" - this is Moshe. "Give of the fruit of her hand" (Proverbs 31:30) - Rabbi Yose bar Yirmiyah said, "Why did he compare the prophets to women? Rather, just like [a] woman is not embarrassed to claim the needs of the home from her husband, so [too] were the prophets not embarrassed to claim the needs of Israel from in front of the Holy One, blessed be He." The Holy One blessed be He said, "My sons, be involved in Torah [study] day and night, and I will count it for you as if you hold up the heavens and the earth," as it states (Joshua 1:8), "Let not this book of the Torah cease from your mouth, but meditate upon it day and night"; and it states (Joshua 1:9), “Did I not command you, 'Be strong and resolute; do not be terrified or dismayed'"; and it states (Ezra 3:11), "with praise and thanks to the Lord, for He is good, for His kindness upon Israel is forever, and the people raised a great shout with praise to the Lord, for the foundation of the House of the Lord had been laid"; (Proverbs 23:23) "Acquire truth"; (Proverbs 5:17) "They will be yours alone"; (Proverbs 9:9) "Give to a wise man, and he will grow wiser"; (Proverbs 9:11) "For through me your days will increase, and years of life be added." Another interpretation: "A woman of valor who can find?" - this is [the meaning] of what the verse states (Psalms 92:15), "In old age they still produce fruit, etc." - corresponding to Avraham and Sarah who were of the same measure concerning charity and acts of kindness; they were a good sign for the world. In this way, He does not prevent proper women from the righteous ones, [but] matches them. As so [too] do we find with the wife of Noach that her actions and his actions were of the same measure - that is why she merited with him and was rescued from the waters of the flood. "Her husband puts his confidence in her" - this is Sarah, our mother, as Avaraham grew rich on her account, as it states (Genesis 12:16), "And he benefited Avraham for her sake." "She bestows good to him, and not bad" - this is Rivkah, our mother, who bestowed [good] to Yitzchak at the time that Sarah, his mother died. "She seeks wool and flax" - this is Leah, our mother, who received Yaakov with a pleasant countenance, as it is written (Genesis 30:16), "And Yaakov came from the field in the evening, and Leah went out to meet him and said, 'You are to sleep with me, for I have hired you, etc.'" Therefore she merited and kings and prophets came from her. "She is like a merchant fleet" - this is Rachel, our mother, who was embarrassed about [her lack of] children every day. Therefore she merited and a son came from her who was similar to a ship that is filled will all the good [found] in the world - so [was it with] Yosef, that the whole world survived from his merit and he supported the world in the years of famine. "She rises while it is still night" - this is Batya, the daughter of Pharaoh. She was a gentile and became a Jewess and they mentioned her name among the proper [women], since she took care of Moshe. Therefore she merited and entered the Garden of Eden in her lifetime. "She sets her mind on a field and acquires it; [she plants a vineyard from the produce of her hand]" - this is Yocheved, that from her came Moshe who is equivalent to all of Israel, which is called a vineyard, as it states (Isaiah 5:7), "For the vineyard of the Lord of hosts is the House of Israel." "She girds her loins with strength" - this is Miriam, as before Moshe was born, she said, "In the future, my mother will give birth to the savior of Israel." Once he was born and the yoke upon them became heavier, her father got up and bopped her on the head. He said to her, "Where is your prophecy?" And he got up and spit in front of her face. And nonetheless, she exerted herself about her prophecy, as it is written (Exodus 2:4), "And his sister stood from a distance." "She advises (taamah) that her merchandise is good; [her lamp never goes out at night]" - this is Channah who tasted (taamah) the taste of prayer, as it states (I Samuel 2:1), "And Hannah prayed, 'My heart exults in the Lord, etc.'" Therefore she merited and a son came from her that was the match of Moshe and Aharon, which would bring light to Israel like lamps, as it is written (Psalms 99:6), "Moshe and Aharon among his priests, and Shmuel among the ones that call His name." And it is written about Shmuel (I Samuel 3:3), "The lamp of God had not yet gone out, and Shmuel was sleeping in the temple of the Lord." "She sets her hand to the distaff" - this is Yael, who did not kill Sisera with a weapon, but rather with a peg through the force of her hands. And because of what did she not kill him with a weapon? In order to fulfill that which it states (Deuteronomy 22:5), "There shall not be the vessel of a man on a woman." "Her palm she spreads out to the poor" - this is the widowed woman of Tsarfat, who supported Eliyahu with bread and water. "She is not worried for her home because of snow, for her whole home is dressed in crimson" - this is Rachav the prostitute. When Israel came to destroy Yericho, she did not fear from them, because they give her a sign - (Joshua 2:18) "this line of scarlet string." "She makes covers for herself; [her clothing is linen and purple]" - this is Batsheva, that from her came Shlomo, who was adorned with linen and purple and ruled from [one] end of the world to the [other] end. "Her husband is known in the gates," - this is Michal, who saved David from death. "She makes cloth and sells it" - this is the mother of Shimshon, that through him Israel was saved. "Strength and splendor are her clothing; [and she laughs to the last day]" - this is Elisheva, the daughter of Aminadav, who saw four joyful events in one day: her brother [became] a prince; her husband, high priest; the brother of her husband, king; and her two children, young priests. "She opens her mouth with wisdom" - this is the wise woman who said (II Samuel 20:16), “Listen, listen! Please tell Yoav, 'Come over here and I will speak to you,'” who saved the city with her wisdom; and this was Sarach the daughter of Asher. "She oversees the activities of her household" - this is the wife of Ovadiah, who rescued her sons and they did not worship idolatry with Achav. "Her children rise and declare her happy" - this is the Shunamite, who is called a great woman (II Kings 4:8). And because of what? Because she pressed upon Elisha to eat. “Many women have done well, but you surpass them all” - this is Ruth the Moabitess, who came under the wings of the Divine presence. "Grace is false, beauty is illusory" - as she left her mother and her forefathers and her wealth, and came with her mother-in-law and accepted all of the commandments: the domain of Shabbat - "to where you will walk, I will walk" (Ruth 1:16); the prohibition of isolation with a man - "and in that which you will lay, I will lay"; the six hundred and thirteen commandments - "your people is my people"; idolatry - "your God is my God"; the four death penalties of the court - "and in that which you will die, I will die"; "and there will I be buried" - these are the two graveyards arranged for the court, one for the stoned and the burned, and one for the killed and the strangled. Therefore, she merited and David came from her, who gave pleasure with songs and praises to the Holy One, blessed be He. Therefore it is stated, "Give of the fruit of her hand and let her works praise her in the gates." Be strong in ethical behavior, keep the Torah, and be rescued from the evil inclination.
9ט
דיון
מה ניתן ללמוד ממדרש זה?

איך מוצגות בו הנשים ופועלן שבזכותו הן נלמדות במזמור?

מה ניתן ללמוד מכך שכל אשה מייצגת שורה שונה במזמור?
10י
אשת חיל- הפרק במלואו מספר משלי:
(א) דִּבְרֵי לְמוּאֵל מֶלֶךְ מַשָּׂא אֲשֶׁר יִסְּרַתּוּ אִמּוֹ:(ב) מַה בְּרִי וּמַה בַּר בִּטְנִי וּמֶה בַּר נְדָרָי:(ג) אַל תִּתֵּן לַנָּשִׁים חֵילֶךָ וּדְרָכֶיךָ לַמְחוֹת מְלָכִין:(ד) אַל לַמְלָכִים לְמוֹאֵל אַל לַמְלָכִים שְׁתוֹ יָיִן וּלְרוֹזְנִים או אֵי שֵׁכָר:(ה) פֶּן יִשְׁתֶּה וְיִשְׁכַּח מְחֻקָּק וִישַׁנֶּה דִּין כָּל בְּנֵי עֹנִי:(ו) תְּנוּ שֵׁכָר לְאוֹבֵד וְיַיִן לְמָרֵי נָפֶשׁ:(ז) יִשְׁתֶּה וְיִשְׁכַּח רִישׁוֹ וַעֲמָלוֹ לֹא יִזְכָּר עוֹד:(ח) פְּתַח פִּיךָ לְאִלֵּם אֶל דִּין כָּל בְּנֵי חֲלוֹף:(ט) פְּתַח פִּיךָ שְׁפָט צֶדֶק וְדִין עָנִי וְאֶבְיוֹן: פ(י) אֵשֶׁת חַיִל מִי יִמְצָא וְרָחֹק מִפְּנִינִים מִכְרָהּ:(יא) בָּטַח בָּהּ לֵב בַּעְלָהּ וְשָׁלָל לֹא יֶחְסָר:(יב) גְּמָלַתְהוּ טוֹב וְלֹא רָע כֹּל יְמֵי חַיֶּיהָ:(יג) דָּרְשָׁה צֶמֶר וּפִשְׁתִּים וַתַּעַשׂ בְּחֵפֶץ כַּפֶּיהָ:(יד) הָיְתָה כָּאֳנִיּוֹת סוֹחֵר מִמֶּרְחָק תָּבִיא לַחְמָהּ:(טו) וַתָּקָם בְּעוֹד לַיְלָה וַתִּתֵּן טֶרֶף לְבֵיתָהּ וְחֹק לְנַעֲרֹתֶיהָ:(טז) זָמְמָה שָׂדֶה וַתִּקָּחֵהוּ מִפְּרִי כַפֶּיהָ נטע נָטְעָה כָּרֶם:(יז) חָגְרָה בְעוֹז מָתְנֶיהָ וַתְּאַמֵּץ זְרֹעוֹתֶיהָ:(יח) טָעֲמָה כִּי טוֹב סַחְרָהּ לֹא יִכְבֶּה בליל בַלַּיְלָה נֵרָהּ:(יט) יָדֶיהָ שִׁלְּחָה בַכִּישׁוֹר וְכַפֶּיהָ תָּמְכוּ פָלֶךְ:(כ) כַּפָּהּ פָּרְשָׂה לֶעָנִי וְיָדֶיהָ שִׁלְּחָה לָאֶבְיוֹן:(כא) לֹא תִירָא לְבֵיתָהּ מִשָּׁלֶג כִּי כָל בֵּיתָהּ לָבֻשׁ שָׁנִים:(כב) מַרְבַדִּים עָשְׂתָה לָּהּ שֵׁשׁ וְאַרְגָּמָן לְבוּשָׁהּ:(כג) נוֹדָע בַּשְּׁעָרִים בַּעְלָהּ בְּשִׁבְתּוֹ עִם זִקְנֵי אָרֶץ:(כד) סָדִין עָשְׂתָה וַתִּמְכֹּר וַחֲגוֹר נָתְנָה לַכְּנַעֲנִי:(כה) עֹז וְהָדָר לְבוּשָׁהּ וַתִּשְׂחַק לְיוֹם אַחֲרוֹן:(כו) פִּיהָ פָּתְחָה בְחָכְמָה וְתוֹרַת חֶסֶד עַל לְשׁוֹנָהּ:(כז) צוֹפִיָּה הֲלִיכוֹת בֵּיתָהּ וְלֶחֶם עַצְלוּת לֹא תֹאכֵל:(כח) קָמוּ בָנֶיהָ וַיְאַשְּׁרוּהָ בַּעְלָהּ וַיְהַלְלָהּ:(כט) רַבּוֹת בָּנוֹת עָשׂוּ חָיִל וְאַתְּ עָלִית עַל כֻּלָּנָה:(ל) שֶׁקֶר הַחֵן וְהֶבֶל הַיֹּפִי אִשָּׁה יִרְאַת יְקֹוָק הִיא תִתְהַלָּל:(לא) תְּנוּ לָהּ מִפְּרִי יָדֶיהָ וִיהַלְלוּהָ בַשְּׁעָרִים מַעֲשֶׂיהָ:
The words of king Lemuel; the burden wherewith his mother corrected him. What, my son? and what, O son of my womb? And what, O son of my vows? Give not thy strength unto women, Nor thy ways to that which destroyeth kings. It is not for kings, O Lemuel, it is not for kings to drink wine: Nor for princes to say: ‘Where is strong drink?’ Lest they drink, and forget that which is decreed, And pervert the justice due to any that is afflicted. Give strong drink unto him that is ready to perish, And wine unto the bitter in soul; Let him drink, and forget his poverty, and remember his misery no more. Open thy mouth for the dumb, in the cause of all such as are appointed to destruction. Open thy mouth, judge righteously, and plead the cause of the poor and needy. A woman of valour who can find? For her price is far above rubies. The heart of her husband doth safely trust in her, and he hath no lack of gain. She doeth him good and not evil all the days of her life. She seeketh wool and flax, and worketh willingly with her hands. She is like the merchant-ships; she bringeth her food from afar. She riseth also while it is yet night, and giveth food to her household, and a portion to her maidens. She considereth a field, and buyeth it; with the fruit of her hands she planteth a vineyard. She girdeth her loins with strength, And maketh strong her arms. She perceiveth that her merchandise is good; Her lamp goeth not out by night. She layeth her hands to the distaff, And her hands hold the spindle. She stretcheth out her hand to the poor; Yea, she reacheth forth her hands to the needy. She is not afraid of the snow for her household; For all her household are clothed with scarlet. She maketh for herself coverlets; Her clothing is fine linen and purple. Her husband is known in the gates, When he sitteth among the elders of the land. She maketh linen garments and selleth them; And delivereth girdles unto the merchant. Strength and dignity are her clothing; And she laugheth at the time to come. She openeth her mouth with wisdom; And the law of kindness is on her tongue. She looketh well to the ways of her household, And eateth not the bread of idleness. Her children rise up, and call her blessed; Her husband also, and he praiseth her: ’Many daughters have done valiantly, But thou excellest them all.’ Grace is deceitful, and beauty is vain; But a woman that feareth the LORD, she shall be praised. Give her of the fruit of her hands; And let her works praise her in the gates.
11יא
אמר ר' יצחק מנין שחזר שלמה והודה לאמו שנאמר כי בער אנכי מאיש מנח שכתוב בו איש האדמה ויטע כרם, ולא בינת אדם לי זה אדם הראשון ששמע לקול אשתו וכו' (כתוב בירמיה ברמז ש"כ), אמר ר' לוי מה עשתה בת פרעה נטלה סדין וקבעה בו כל מיני כוכבים ומזלות ופירשה אותו למעלה ממטתו, וכל זמן שהיה רוצה שלמה לעמוד היה רואה הכוכבים והמזלות והיה ישן עד ארבע שעות ובאותו יום נתקרב תמיד של שחר בד' שעות:

...

דברי למואל מלך, למה נקרא שלמה למואל, אמר ר' ישמעאל באותו הלילה שהשלים שלמה מלאכת בית המקדש נשא בתיה בת פרעה והיה שם צהלת שמחת בית המקדש וצהלת בת פרעה ועלתה צהלת שמחת בת פרעה יותר מצהלת בית המקדש, הוא דקאמר מתלא, כלא מחנפים למלכא, ולכך נקרא למואל שהשליך עול מלכות שמים מעליו כלומר למה לו אל, ובאותה שעה עלתה במחשבה לפני הקב"ה להחריב את ירושלים הדה הוא דכתיב: כי על אפי ועל חמתי וגו' (כדכתוב בירמיה ברמז ש"כ), אמר רבי לוי אותו היום נתקרב תמיד בארבע שעות והיו ישראל עצבים שהיה יום חנוכת בית המקדש ולא היו יכולין לעשות מפני שהיה שלמה ישן והיו מתיראים להקיצו מפני אימת המלכות, הלכו והודיעו לבת שבע אמו והלכה היא והקיצתו והוכיחתו הדה הוא דכתיב משא אשר יסרתו אמו, אמר ר' יוחנן מלמד שכפפתו אמו על העמוד וכו' (כדלעיל):

דברי למואל מלך משא אשר יסרתו אמו, אמר רבי יוחנן משום רשב"י מלמד שכפתו אמו על העמוד אמרה ליה מה ברי ומה בר בטני ומה בר נדרי, מה ברי הכל יודעים שאביך ירא שמים הוא, עכשו יאמרו אמו גרמה לו, ומה בר בטני כל נשים של בית אביך כיון שמתעברות שוב אינן רואות פני המלך ואני דחקתי ונכנסתי כדי שיהא לי בן זריז וממולא בתורה והגון לנביאות, ומה בר נדרי כל נשים של בית אביך היו נודרות ואומרות יהא לי בן הגון וראוי למלכות ואני נדרתי ואמרתי יהא לי בן מלובן ומזוקק והגון לנביאות, אל למלכים למואל אל למלכים שתו יין ולרוזנים אי שכר, אמרה לו בני מה לך אצל מלכים ששותים יין ומשתכרין ואומרין למה לנו אל, ולרוזנים אי שכר מי שכל רזי עולם גלויים לו לא ישתה יין וישתכר
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12יב
דיון
עפ"י המדרש והפרק במשלי- מה הרקע לפרק זה?

מה בת שבע מנסה להורות בו לשלמה?

איזו דמות של אשה המזמור מעלה על נס?
13יג
דיון
האם היום נוכל לפרש את אשת חיל בצורה נוספת?

אחרי לימוד הפרשנויות השונות הציעו פרשנות חדשה מעולמכם לאותו המזמור המושר בבתים רבים בערב שבת.