Sources for Rosh Hashanah
1א
(כד) דַּבֵּ֛ר אֶל־בְּנֵ֥י יִשְׂרָאֵ֖ל לֵאמֹ֑ר בַּחֹ֨דֶשׁ הַשְּׁבִיעִ֜י בְּאֶחָ֣ד לַחֹ֗דֶשׁ יִהְיֶ֤ה לָכֶם֙ שַׁבָּת֔וֹן זִכְר֥וֹן תְּרוּעָ֖ה מִקְרָא־קֹֽדֶשׁ׃
(24) Speak to the Israelite people thus: In the seventh month, on the first day of the month, you shall observe complete rest, a sacred occasion commemorated with loud blasts.
2ב
(כה) כָּל־מְלֶ֥אכֶת עֲבֹדָ֖ה לֹ֣א תַעֲשׂ֑וּ וְהִקְרַבְתֶּ֥ם אִשֶּׁ֖ה לַיהוָֽה׃ (ס)
(25) You shall not work at your occupations; and you shall bring an offering by fire to the LORD.
3ג
(א) וּבַחֹ֨דֶשׁ הַשְּׁבִיעִ֜י בְּאֶחָ֣ד לַחֹ֗דֶשׁ מִֽקְרָא־קֹ֙דֶשׁ֙ יִהְיֶ֣ה לָכֶ֔ם כָּל־מְלֶ֥אכֶת עֲבֹדָ֖ה לֹ֣א תַעֲשׂ֑וּ י֥וֹם תְּרוּעָ֖ה יִהְיֶ֥ה לָכֶֽם׃
(1) In the seventh month, on the first day of the month, you shall observe a sacred occasion: you shall not work at your occupations. You shall observe it as a day when the horn is sounded.
4ד
(יט) יָשׁ֣וּב יְרַֽחֲמֵ֔נוּ יִכְבֹּ֖שׁ עֲוֺֽנֹתֵ֑ינוּ וְתַשְׁלִ֛יךְ בִּמְצֻל֥וֹת יָ֖ם כָּל־חַטֹּאותָֽם׃
(19) He will take us back in love; He will cover up our iniquities, You will hurl all our sins Into the depths of the sea.
5ה

(א) וּנְתַנֶּה תֹּקֶף קְדֻשַּׁת הַיּוֹם כִּי הוּא נוֹרָא וְאָיֹם וּבוֹ תִּנָּשֵׂא מַלְכוּתֶךָ וְיִכּוֹן בְּחֶסֶד כִּסְאֶךָ וְתֵשֵׁב עָלָיו בְּאֱמֶת

(ב) אֱמֶת כִּי אַתָּה הוּא דַּיָּן וּמוֹכִיחַ וְיוֹדֵעַ וָעֵד וְכוֹתֵב וְחוֹתֵם וְסוֹפֵר וּמוֹנֶה וְתִזְכֹּר כָּל הַנִּשְׁכָּחוֹת וְתִפְתַּח אֶת סֵפֶר הַזִּכְרוֹנוֹת וּמֵאֵלָיו יִקָּרֵא וְחוֹתָם יַד כָּל אָדָם בּוֹ

(ג) וּבְשׁוֹפָר גָּדוֹל יִתָּקַע וְקוֹל דְּמָמָה דַקָּה יִשָׁמַע וּמַלְאָכִים יֵחָפֵזוּן וְחִיל וּרְעָדָה יֹאחֵזוּן וְיֹאמְרוּ הִנֵּה יוֹם הַדִּין לִפְקֹד עַל צְבָא מָרוֹם בַּדִּין כִּי לֹא יִזְכּוּ בְּעֵינֶיךָ בַּדִּין וְכָל בָּאֵי עוֹלָם יַעַבְרוּן לְפָנֶיךָ כִּבְנֵי מָרוֹן כְּבַקָּרַת רוֹעֶה עֶדְרוֹ מַעֲבִיר צֹאנוֹ תַּחַת שִׁבְטוֹ כֵּן תַּעֲבִיר וְתִסְפֹּר וְתִמְנֶה וְתִפְקֹד נֶפֶשׁ כָּל חָי וְתַחְתֹּךְ קִצְבָה לְכָל בְּרִיָּה וְתִכְתֹּב אֶת גְּזַר דִּינָם

(ד) בְּרֹאשׁ הַשָּׁנָה יִכָּתֵבוּן, וּבְיוֹם צוֹם כִּפּוּר יֵחָתֵמוּן. כַּמָּה יַעַבְרוּן, וְכַמָּה יִבָּרֵאוּן, מִי יִחְיֶה, וּמִי יָמוּת, מִי בְקִצּוֹ, וּמִי לֹא בְּקִצּוֹ, מִי בַמַּיִם, וּמִי בָאֵשׁ, מִי בַחֶרֶב, וּמִי בַחַיָּה, מִי בָרָעָב, וּמִי בַצָּמָא, מִי בָרַעַשׁ, וּמִי בַמַּגֵּפָה, מִי בַחֲנִיקָה, וּמִי בַסְּקִילָה, מִי יָנוּחַ, וּמִי יָנוּעַ, מִי יִשָּׁקֵט, וּמִי יְטֹּרֵף, מִי יִשָּׁלֵו, וּמִי יִתְיַסָּר, מִי יַעֲנִי, וּמִי יַעֲשִׁיר, מִי יֻשְׁפַּל, וּמִי יָרוּם.

וּתְשׁוּבָה וּתְפִלָּה וּצְדָקָה מַעֲבִירִין אֶת רֹעַ הַגְּזֵרָה.

(ה) כִּי כְּשִׁמְךָ כֵּן תְּהִלָּתֶךָ, קָשֶׁה לִכְעוֹס וְנוֹחַ לִרְצוֹת, כִּי לֹא תַחְפֹּץ בְּמוֹת הַמֵּת, כִּי אִם בְּשׁוּבוֹ מִדַּרְכּוֹ וְחָיָה, וְעַד יוֹם מוֹתוֹ תְּחַכֶּה לוֹ, אִם יָשׁוּב מִיַּד תְּקַבְּלוֹ. (אֱמֶת) כִּי אַתָּה הוּא יוֹצְרָם וְיוֹדֵעַ יִצְרָם, כִּי הֵם בָּשָׂר וָדָם.

(ו) אָדָם יְסוֹדוֹ מֵעָפָר וְסוֹפוֹ לֶעָפָר. בְּנַפְשׁוֹ יָבִיא לַחְמוֹ. מָשׁוּל כְּחֶרֶס הַנִּשְׁבָּר, כְּחָצִיר יָבֵשׁ, וּכְצִיץ נוֹבֵל, כְּצֵל עוֹבֵר, וּכְעָנָן כָּלָה, וּכְרוּחַ נוֹשָׁבֶת, וּכְאָבָק פּוֹרֵחַ, וְכַחֲלוֹם יָעוּף. וְאַתָּה הוּא מֶלֶךְ אֵל חַי וְקַיָּם.

(1) We lend power to the holiness of this day. For it is tremendous and awe filled, and on it your kingship will be exalted, your throne will be established in loving-kindness, and you will sit on that throne in truth.

(2) It is true that you are the one who judges, and reproves, who knows all, and bears witness, who inscribes, and seals, who reckons and enumerates. You remember all that is forgotten. You open the book of records, and from it, all shall be read. In it lies each person's insignia.

(3) And with a great shofar it is sounded, and a thin silent voice shall be heard. And the angels shall be alarmed, and dread and fear shall seize them as they proclaim: behold! the Day of Judgment on which the hosts of heaven shall be judged, for they too shall not be judged blameless by you, and all creatures shall parade before you as a herd of sheep. As a shepherd herds his flock, directing his sheep to pass under his staff, so do you shall pass, count, and record the souls of all living, and decree a limit to each persons days, and inscribe their final judgment.

(4) On Rosh Hashanah it is inscribed, and on Yom Kippur it is sealed - how many shall pass away and how many shall be born, who shall live and who shall die, who in good time, and who by an untimely death, who by water and who by fire, who by sword and who by wild beast, who by famine and who by thirst, who by earthquake and who by plague, who by strangulation and who by lapidation, who shall have rest and who wander, who shall be at peace and who pursued, who shall be serene and who tormented, who shall become impoverished and who wealthy, who shall be debased, and who exalted. But repentance, prayer and righteousness avert the severity of the decree.

(5) For your praise is just as your name. You are slow to anger and quick to be appeased. For you do not desire the death of the condemned, rather, that they turn from their path and live and you wait for them until the day of their death, and if they repent, you receive them immediately. (It is true -) [For] you are their Creator and You understand their inclination, for they are but flesh and blood.

(6) We come from dust, and return to dust. We labour by our lives for bread, we are like broken shards, like dry grass, and like a withered flower; like a passing shadow and a vanishing cloud, like a breeze that passes, like dust that scatters, like a fleeting dream. But You are the king who lives eternal.

6ו

יְהִי רָצוֹנִים

Yehi Ratzons

7ז

יְהִי רָצוֹן מִלְּפָנֶיךָ, יְיָ אֱלֹהֵינוּ וֵאלֹהֵי אֲבוֹתֵינוּ, שֶׁתְּחַדֵּשׁ עָלֵינוּ שָׁנָה טוֹבָה וּמְתוּקָה.

May it be Your will, Lord our God and God of our fathers, that You renew for us a good sweet year.

8ח

יְהִי רָצוֹן מִלְּפָנֶיךָ יְיָ אֱלֹהֵינוּ וֵאלֹהֵי אֲבוֹתֵינוּ שֶׁיִּרְבּוּ זְכֻיּוֹתֵינוּ.

May it be Your will, Lord our God and God of our fathers, that our merits increase.

9ט

יְהִי רָצוֹן מִלְּפָנֶיךָ יְיָ אֱלֹהֵינוּ וֵאלֹהֵי אֲבוֹתֵינוּ שֶׁיִּכָּרְתוּ שׂוֹנְאֵינוּ.

May it be Your will, Lord our God and God of our fathers, that our enemies be destroyed.

10י

יְהִי רָצוֹן מִלְּפָנֶיךָ יְיָ אֱלֹהֵינוּ וֵאלֹהֵי אֲבוֹתֵינוּ שֶׁיִּסְתַּלְקוּ אוֹיְבֵינוּ.

May it be Your will, Lord our God and God of our fathers, that our enemies be removed.

11יא

יְהִי רָצוֹן מִלְּפָנֶיךָ יְיָ אֱלֹהֵינוּ וֵאלֹהֵי אֲבוֹתֵינוּ שֶׁיִּתַּמוּ שׂוֹנְאֵינוּ.

May it be Your will, Lord our God and God of our fathers, that our enemies be consumed.

12יב

יְהִי רָצוֹן מִלְּפָנֶיךָ יְיָ אֱלֹהֵינוּ וֵאלֹהֵי אֲבוֹתֵינוּ שֶׁיִּקָרַע גְּזַר דִּינֵנוּ וְיִּקָרְאוּ לְפָנֶיךָ זְכֻיּוֹתֵינוּ.

May it be Your will, Lord our God and God of our fathers, that the decree of our sentence be torn up, and that our merits be called out before You.

13יג

יְהִי רָצוֹן מִלְּפָנֶיךָ יְיָ אֱלֹהֵינוּ וֵאלֹהֵי אֲבוֹתֵינוּ שֶׁנִּרְבֶּה זְכֻיּוֹת כְּרִמּוֹן.

May it be Your will, Lord our God and God of our fathers, that our merits increase like (the seeds of) a pomegranate.

14יד

(א) אַרְבָּעָה רָאשֵׁי שָׁנִים הֵם. בְּאֶחָד בְּנִיסָן רֹאשׁ הַשָּׁנָה לַמְּלָכִים וְלָרְגָלִים. בְּאֶחָד בֶּאֱלוּל רֹאשׁ הַשָּׁנָה לְמַעְשַׂר בְּהֵמָה. רַבִּי אֶלְעָזָר וְרַבִּי שִׁמְעוֹן אוֹמְרִים, בְּאֶחָד בְּתִשְׁרֵי. בְּאֶחָד בְּתִשְׁרֵי רֹאשׁ הַשָּׁנָה לַשָּׁנִים וְלַשְּׁמִטִּין וְלַיּוֹבְלוֹת, לַנְּטִיעָה וְלַיְרָקוֹת. בְּאֶחָד בִּשְׁבָט, רֹאשׁ הַשָּׁנָה לָאִילָן, כְּדִבְרֵי בֵית שַׁמַּאי. בֵּית הִלֵּל אוֹמְרִים, בַּחֲמִשָּׁה עָשָׂר בּוֹ:

(1) There are four new years:The first of Nisan is the new year for kings and for festivals. The first of Elul is the new year for the tithe of beasts. Rabbi Elazar and Rabbi Shimon say: the first of Tishri. The first of Tishri is the new year for years, for shmitta and jubilee years, for planting and for [tithe of] vegetables. The first of Shevat is the new year for trees, according to the words of Bet Shammai. Bet Hillel says: on the fifteenth of that month.

15טו

יְהִי רָצוֹן מִלְּפָנֶיךָ יְיָ אֱלֹהֵינוּ וֵאלֹהֵי אֲבוֹתֵינוּ שֶׁנִּפְרֶה וְנִרְבֶּה כְּדָגִים.

May it be Your will, Lord our God and God of our fathers, that we be fruitful and multiply like fish.

16טז
והרי יובלות ר' ישמעאל בנו של רבי יוחנן בן ברוקה היא ורב אשי אמר ארבע ראשי השנים הם שהן בארבע ראשי חדשים באחד בשבט כב"ש ה"ק שלשה לדברי הכל באחד בשבט מחלוקת ב"ש וב"ה: ר' אלעזר ור"ש אומרים באחד בתשרי: א"ר יוחנן ושניהם מקרא אחד דרשו שנאמר (תהלים סה, יד) לבשו כרים הצאן ועמקים יעטפו בר יתרועעו אף ישירו ר"מ סבר אימתי לבשו כרים הצאן בזמן שעמקים יעטפו בר ואימתי עמקים יעטפו בר באדר מתעברות באדר ויולדות באב ר"ה שלהן אלול ר' אלעזר ור"ש אומרים אימתי לבשו כרים הצאן בזמן שיתרועעו אף ישירו אימתי שבלים אומרות שירה בניסן מתעברות בניסן ויולדות באלול ר"ה שלהן תשרי ואידך נמי הא כתיב יתרועעו אף ישירו ההוא באפלתא דהויין בניסן ואידך נמי הכתיב ועמקים יעטפו בר ההוא בחרפייתא דאתיין מאדר בשלמא לר"מ כדכתיב לבשו כרים הצאן בזמן שעמקים יעטפו בר ואיכא נמי יתרועעו אף ישירו אלא לרבי אלעזר ור"ש איפכא מיבעי ליה לבשו כרים הצאן בזמן שיתרועעו אף ישירו ואיכא נמי דעמקים יעטפו בר אלא אמר רבא דכ"ע לבשו כרים הצאן בזמן שעמקים יעטפו בר באדר והכא בהאי קרא קמיפלגי (דברים יד, כב) עשר תעשר בשני מעשרות הכתוב מדבר אחד מעשר בהמה ואחד מעשר דגן ר"מ סבר מקיש מעשר בהמה למעשר דגן מה מעשר דגן סמוך לגמרו עישורו אף מעשר בהמה סמוך לגמרו עישורו ורבי אלעזר ור"ש סברי מקיש מעשר בהמה למעשר דגן מה מעשר דגן ר"ה שלו תשרי אף מעשר בהמה ר"ה שלו תשרי: באחד בתשרי ר"ה לשנים למאי הלכתא אמר רב פפא לשטרות דתנן שטרי חוב המוקדמין פסולין והמאוחרין כשירין והתנן באחד בניסן ר"ה למלכים ואמרינן למאי הלכתא ואמר רב חסדא לשטרות לא קשיא כאן למלכי ישראל כאן למלכי אומות העולם אלא הא דאמר רב חסדא לא שנו אלא למלכי ישראל אבל למלכי אומות העולם מתשרי מנינן רב חסדא מתניתין אתא לאשמועינן לא רב חסדא קראי אתא לאשמועינן ואיבעית אימא רב חסדא כרבי זירא מתני לה דרבי זירא אמר לתקופה ור"א היא דאמר בתשרי נברא העולם רב נחמן בר יצחק אמר לדין דכתיב (דברים יא, יב) מראשית השנה ועד אחרית שנה מראשית השנה נידון מה יהא בסופה ממאי דתשרי הוא דכתיב (תהלים פא, ד) תקעו בחדש שופר בכסה ליום חגנו איזהו חג
The Gemara asks further: But the New Year for the Jubilee depends upon a certain action, i.e., sounding the shofar, and nevertheless the tanna counts it. The Gemara answers: The mishna is in accordance with the opinion of Rabbi Yishmael, son of Rabbi Yoḥanan ben Beroka, who said that the Jubilee Year begins on Rosh HaShana, even without the shofar blast. The Gemara presents an alternative answer as to why the tanna did not include all the other New Years. Rav Ashi said: The tanna said that there are four New Years that fall on four New Moons. However, there are also other New Years that do not fall on New Moons. The Gemara raises a question: Does Rav Ashi count the first of Shevat as one of the New Years; but the first of Shevat is a New Year only according to Beit Shammai, and by the time of Rav Ashi, the halakha was known to be in accordance with the opinion of Beit Hillel? The Gemara answers that this is what Rav Ashi is saying: There are three New Years that all agree occur on the first of the month, and the first of Shevat is subject to a dispute between Beit Shammai and Beit Hillel. § The mishna teaches that Rabbi Elazar and Rabbi Shimon say: The New Year for animal tithes is on the first of Tishrei. Rabbi Yoḥanan said: And both of them, Rabbi Meir and Rabbi Elazar, expounded the same verse in different ways. As it is stated in the verse: “The flocks are clothed in the meadows, and the valleys are wrapped in grain; they shout for joy, they also sing” (Psalms 65:14). Rabbi Meir holds: When are the flocks clothed in the meadows, i.e., when do the rams impregnate the ewes and thereby clothe them? It is at the time when the valleys are wrapped in grain, i.e., when they are covered in grain. And when are the valleys wrapped in grain? It is in Adar. Therefore, the sheep conceive in Adar and give birth five months later in Av, and so it is fitting that their New Year is on the first of Elul, as most of the year’s lambs have been born by then. Rabbi Elazar and Rabbi Shimon say: When are the flocks clothed in the meadows? At the time that the stalks of grain “shout for joy, and also sing.” When do the stalks break out in song, i.e., when are they full, so that they rustle in the wind and create the whispering sounds of song? It is in Nisan. Therefore, the sheep conceive in Nisan and give birth in Elul, and so it is fitting that their New Year is on the first of Tishrei. The Gemara asks: And according to the other tanna, Rabbi Meir, as well, isn’t it written: “They shout for joy, they also sing”? The Gemara answers: That is referring to late sheep, which were conceived after the usual time, in Nisan. The Gemara asks: According to the other opinion of Rabbi Elazar and Rabbi Shimon as well, isn’t it written: “And the valleys wrapped in grain,” which is in Adar? The Gemara answers: That is referring to early sheep, which were conceived in Adar. The Gemara asks further: Granted, according to the opinion of Rabbi Meir, the verse can be understood as it is written: “The flocks are clothed in the meadows” at the time when “the valleys are wrapped in grain.” But there are also some that do not conceive until as late as when “they shout for joy, they also sing.” But according to the opinion of Rabbi Elazar and Rabbi Shimon, it should have been written in the reverse order: “The flocks are clothed in the meadows” at the time when “they shout for joy, they also sing,” but there are also some that conceive earlier, when “the valleys are wrapped in grain.” If so, according to them, the words in the verse were not written in their proper order. Rather, Rava said that the dispute must be explained as follows: Everyone is of the opinion that “the flocks are clothed in the meadows,” i.e., the sheep conceive, primarily at the time when “the valleys are wrapped in grain,” in the month of Adar. But here they disagree about the meaning of the following verse: “You shall tithe a tithe from all the increase of your seed that the field brings forth year by year. And you shall eat before the Lord your God, in the place which He shall choose to place His name there, the tithe of your grain, of your wine, and of your oil, and the firstborn of your herds, and of your flocks; that you may learn to fear the Lord your God always” (Deuteronomy 14:22–23). The verse speaks here about two tithes, one being the animal tithe and the other the grain tithe. They disagree about the following: Rabbi Meir holds that the verse juxtaposes the animal tithe to the grain tithe. Just as the grain tithe is set aside close to the grain’s completion, after it dries out in the field, so too, the animal tithe is set aside close to its completion, after the animals are born. Just as the grain is completed in Elul and is set aside the following month, which is Tishrei, so too, the animals are born in Av and therefore must be set aside in the following month, which is Elul. On the other hand, Rabbi Elazar and Rabbi Shimon hold: The verse juxtaposes the animal tithe to the grain tithe. Just as in the case of the grain tithe, its New Year is in Tishrei, so too, in the case of the animal tithe, its New Year is in Tishrei. § It is taught in the mishna: On the first of Tishrei is the New Year for counting years. The Gemara asks: With regard to which halakha is this stated? Rav Pappa said: It is stated for determining the validity of documents, as we learned in a mishna: Antedated promissory notes, which bear a date that is earlier than the date when the loan actually took place, are invalid. But postdated promissory notes, which bear a date that is later than the date when the loan actually took place, are valid. Therefore, it is essential to know the date on which the new year begins in order to determine whether or not a particular promissory note is valid. The Gemara asks: But didn’t we already learn in the mishna: On the first of Nisan is the New Year for kings; and we say about this: For what halakha is this stated? And Rav Ḥisda said: It is for determining the validity of documents. Therefore, the new year for documents begins in Nisan and not in Tishrei. The Gemara answers: This is not difficult; here, where the document is dated according to the reign of the Jewish kings, the year begins in Nisan; and there, where the document is dated to the reign of the gentile kings of the nations of the world, the year begins in Tishrei. The Gemara asks: But that which Rav Ḥisda said in explanation of the mishna, that they taught that the New Year for kings is in Nisan only with regard to the Jewish kings, but as for the gentile kings of the nations of the world we count from Tishrei, did Rav Ḥisda come to teach us what was already taught in the mishna itself? The Gemara answers: No, Rav Ḥisda came to teach us the meaning of certain biblical verses, i.e., that they should not be understood as was suggested at the beginning of this chapter but as teaching that the New Year for gentile kings is in Tishrei. And if you wish, say that Rav Ḥisda teaches the mishna as did Rabbi Zeira, and he maintains that when it says that the first of Tishrei is the New Year for years, it is not referring to documents, as Rabbi Zeira said: The first of Tishrei is the New Year for years with regard to calculating the cycles of the sun and the moon. And this is in accordance with the opinion of Rabbi Eliezer, who said: The world was created in the month of Tishrei, and all the calculations with regard to the sun and the moon are based on when they were created. § Rav Naḥman bar Yitzḥak said: When the mishna says that the first of Tishrei is the New Year for years, it is with regard to judgment, as on that day God judges the world for the whole year, as it is written: “A land that the Lord your God cares for; the eyes of the Lord your God are always upon it, from the beginning of the year until the end of the year” (Deuteronomy 11:12); from the beginning of the year judgment is passed as to what will happen at the end of the year. The Gemara raises a question: From where is it known that the day of judgment is in Tishrei? As it is written: “Blow a shofar at the New Moon, at the covered time for our Festival day” (Psalms 81:4). Which is the Festival day
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בר"ה בטלה עבודה מאבותינו במצרים בניסן נגאלו בתשרי עתידין ליגאל ר' יהושע אומר בניסן נברא העולם בניסן נולדו אבות בניסן מתו אבות בפסח נולד יצחק בר"ה נפקדה שרה רחל וחנה בר"ה יצא יוסף מבית האסורין בר"ה בטלה עבודה מאבותינו במצרים בניסן נגאלו בניסן עתידין ליגאל תניא ר"א אומר מנין שבתשרי נברא העולם שנאמר (בראשית א, יא) ויאמר אלהים תדשא הארץ דשא עשב מזריע זרע עץ פרי איזהו חדש שהארץ מוציאה דשאים ואילן מלא פירות הוי אומר זה תשרי ואותו הפרק זמן רביעה היתה וירדו גשמים וצימחו שנא' (בראשית ב, ו) ואד יעלה מן הארץ ר' יהושע אומר מנין שבניסן נברא העולם שנא' (בראשית א, יב) ותוצא הארץ דשא עשב מזריע זרע ועץ עושה פרי איזהו חדש שהארץ מליאה דשאים ואילן מוציא פירות הוי אומר זה ניסן ואותו הפרק זמן בהמה וחיה ועוף שמזדווגין זה אצל זה שנאמר (תהלים סה, יד) לבשו כרים הצאן וגו' ואידך נמי הא כתיב עץ עושה פרי ההוא לברכה לדורות הוא דכתיב ואידך נמי הא כתיב עץ פרי ההוא כדר' יהושע בן לוי דא"ר יהושע בן לוי כל מעשה בראשית (לקומתן) נבראו לדעתן נבראו לצביונן נבראו שנא' (בראשית ב, א) ויכלו השמים והארץ וכל צבאם אל תקרי צבאם אלא צביונם ר"א אומר מנין שבתשרי נולדו אבות שנא' (מלכים א ח, ב) ויקהלו אל המלך שלמה כל איש ישראל בירח האיתנים בחג ירח שנולדו בו איתני עולם מאי משמע דהאי איתן לישנא דתקיפי הוא כדכתיב (במדבר כד, כא) איתן מושבך ואומר (מיכה ו, ב) שמעו הרים את ריב ה' והאיתנים מוסדי ארץ ואומר (שיר השירים ב, ח) קול דודי הנה זה בא מדלג על ההרים מקפץ על הגבעות מדלג על ההרים בזכות אבות מקפץ על הגבעות בזכות אמהות ר' יהושע אומר מנין שבניסן נולדו אבות שנאמר (מלכים א ו, א) ויהי בשמונים שנה וארבע מאות שנה לצאת בני ישראל מארץ מצרים בשנה הרביעית בחדש זיו בירח שנולדו בו זיותני עולם (ואידך נמי הכתיב) בירח האיתנים התם דתקיפי במצות ואידך נמי הכתיב בחדש זיו ההוא דאית ביה זיוא לאילני דאמר רב יהודה האי מאן דנפק ביומי ניסן וחזי אילני דמלבלבי אומר ברוך שלא חיסר מעולמו כלום וברא בו בריות טובות ואילנות טובות להתנאות בהן בני אדם מ"ד בניסן נולדו בניסן מתו מ"ד בתשרי נולדו בתשרי מתו שנאמר (דברים לא, ב) ויאמר אליהם בן מאה ועשרים שנה אנכי היום שאין ת"ל היום ומה ת"ל היום היום מלאו ימי ושנותי ללמדך שהקב"ה יושב וממלא שנותיהם של צדיקים מיום ליום מחדש לחדש שנאמר (שמות כג, כו) את מספר ימיך אמלא בפסח נולד יצחק מנלן כדכתיב (בראשית יח, יד) למועד אשוב אליך אימת קאי אילימא בפסח וקאמר ליה בעצרת בחמשין יומין מי קא ילדה אלא דקאי בעצרת וקאמר ליה בתשרי אכתי בחמשה ירחי מי קא ילדה אלא דקאי בחג וקאמר לה בניסן אכתי בשיתא ירחי מי קא ילדה תנא אותה שנה מעוברת היתה סוף סוף כי מדלי מר יומי טומאה בצרי להו אמר מר זוטרא אפילו למ"ד יולדת לתשעה אינה יולדת למקוטעין יולדת לשבעה יולדת למקוטעין שנאמר (שמואל א א, כ) ויהי לתקופות הימים מיעוט תקופות שתים ומיעוט ימים שנים בראש השנה נפקדה שרה רחל וחנה מנלן א"ר אלעזר אתיא פקידה פקידה אתיא זכירה זכירה כתיב ברחל (בראשית ל, כב) ויזכור אלהים את רחל וכתיב בחנה (שמואל א א, יט) ויזכרה ה' ואתיא זכירה זכירה מראש השנה דכתיב (ויקרא כג, כד) שבתון זכרון תרועה פקידה פקידה כתיב בחנה (שמואל א ב, כא) כי פקד ה' את חנה וכתיב בשרה (בראשית כא, א) וה' פקד את שרה בראש השנה יצא יוסף מבית האסורין מנלן דכתיב (תהלים פא, ד) תקעו בחדש שופר (בכסא) ליום חגנו כי חק לישראל הוא וגו'
on Rosh HaShana our forefathers’ slavery in Egypt ceased; in Nisan the Jewish people were redeemed from Egypt; and in Tishrei in the future the Jewish people will be redeemed in the final redemption with the coming of the Messiah. Rabbi Yehoshua disagrees and says: In Nisan the world was created; in Nisan the Patriarchs were born; in Nisan the Patriarchs died; on Passover Isaac was born; on Rosh HaShana Sarah, Rachel, and Hannah were remembered by God and conceived sons; on Rosh HaShana Joseph came out from prison; on Rosh HaShana our forefathers’ slavery in Egypt ceased; in Nisan the Jewish people were redeemed from Egypt; and in Nisan in the future the Jewish people will be redeemed in the final redemption. The Gemara explains these matters in detail: It is taught in a baraita that Rabbi Eliezer says: From where is it derived that the world was created in the month of Tishrei? As it is stated: “And God said: Let the earth bring forth grass, herb yielding seed, and fruit tree yielding fruit after its kind” (Genesis 1:11). Which is the month in which the earth brings forth grass and the trees are full of ripe fruit? You must say that this is Tishrei. And a further proof that the world was created in Tishrei is that when the world was first created, it needed rain so that the plants would grow, and the period beginning with Tishrei is a time of rain, and rain fell and the plants grew, as it is stated: “But there went up a mist from the earth, and watered the whole face of the ground” (Genesis 2:6). Rabbi Yehoshua says: From where is it derived that the world was created in the month of Nisan? As it is stated: “And the earth brought forth grass, herb yielding seed after its kind, and tree yielding fruit” (Genesis 1:12). Which is the month in which the earth is full of grass and the trees begin to bring forth fruit? You must say that this is Nisan. And further proof that the world was created in Nisan is that when the world was first created, the animals had to breed in order to fill the world, and the period beginning with Nisan is a time when cattle, and beasts, and birds mate with one another, as it is stated: “The flocks are clothed in the meadows, and the valleys are wrapped in grain; they shout for joy, they also sing” (Psalms 65:14). The Gemara asks: And according to the opinion of the other tanna, Rabbi Eliezer, isn’t it written: “And tree yielding fruit,” indicating that the world was created at a time when the trees were just beginning to form their fruit? The Gemara answers: That verse is written as a blessing for future generations, that then too they will form their fruit. The Gemara continues to ask: And according to the opinion of the other tanna, Rabbi Yehoshua, isn’t it written: “Fruit tree,” indicating that the world was created in a season when the trees were already filled with their fruit? The Gemara answers: That verse may be understood in accordance with the statement of Rabbi Yehoshua ben Levi, as Rabbi Yehoshua ben Levi said: All the acts of Creation were created with their full stature, immediately fit to bear fruit; they were created with their full mental capacities; they were created with their full form. As it is stated: “And the heavens and the earth were finished, and all their host” (Genesis 2:1). Do not read it as “their host [tzeva’am]”; rather, read it as their form [tzivyonam], which implies that the trees were created filled with ripe fruit. The baraita continues: Rabbi Eliezer says: From where is it derived that in Tishrei the Patriarchs were born? As it is stated: “And all the men of Israel assembled themselves before King Solomon at the feast in the month of the mighty [eitanim], which is the seventh month” (I Kings 8:2), i.e., Tishrei. What is the meaning of the phrase: The month of the mighty? It is the month in which the mighty ones of the world, i.e., the Patriarchs, were born. The Gemara asks: From where may it be inferred that the term eitan denotes mighty? As it is written: “Strong [eitan] is Your dwelling place, and You put Your nest in a rock” (Numbers 24:21). And it says: “Hear, O mountains, the Lord’s controversy, and you strong [eitanim] foundations of the earth” (Micah 6:2), which is a call to the Patriarchs. And it says: “The voice of my beloved; behold, he comes leaping upon the mountains, skipping upon the hills” (Song of Songs 2:8): “Leaping upon the mountains” means that the redemption will arrive early in the merit of the Patriarchs, who are called mountains, and “skipping upon the hills” means that it will come in the merit of the Matriarchs. Rabbi Yehoshua says: From where is it derived that in Nisan the Patriarchs were born? As it is stated: “And it came to pass in the four hundred and eightieth year after the children of Israel were come out of the land of Egypt, in the fourth year, in the month of Ziv” (I Kings 6:1). This means in the month in which the radiant ones [zivtanei] of the world, the Patriarchs, were born. The Gemara asks: And according to the other tanna, Rabbi Yehoshua, isn’t it written: “In the month of the mighty,” which indicates that the Patriarchs were born in Tishrei? The Gemara answers: There, it means that the month is mighty in mitzvot, due to the many Festivals that occur in Tishrei. The Gemara asks further: And according to the other tanna, Rabbi Eliezer, isn’t it written: “In the month of Ziv”? The Gemara answers: Ziv is not an allusion to the Patriarchs. Rather, it means that Nisan is the month in which there is radiance [ziv] for the trees. As Rav Yehuda said: One who goes out during the days of Nisan and sees trees that are blossoming recites: Blessed…Who has withheld nothing from His world and has created in it beautiful creatures and beautiful trees for human beings to enjoy. The Gemara continues: The one who said that in Nisan the Patriarchs were born also holds that in Nisan they died. The one who says that in Tishrei they were born also holds that in Tishrei they died, as it is stated about Moses on the day of his death: “And he said to them: I am one hundred and twenty years old today” (Deuteronomy 31:2). As there is no need for the verse to state “today,” since it is clear that Moses was speaking on that day, what is the meaning when the verse states “today”? It is to teach that Moses was speaking precisely, as if to say: Today my days and years are exactly filled and completed. This comes to teach you that the Holy One, Blessed be He, sits and fills the years of the righteous from day to day and from month to month, as it is stated: “The number of your days I will fulfill” (Exodus 23:26). Similarly, the Patriarchs merited that their years be fulfilled to the day, and so they died on the same date they were born. It was taught in the baraita: On Passover Isaac was born. The Gemara asks: From where do we derive this? As it is written that the angel who informed Sarah that she would bear a son told Abraham: “At the appointed time [mo’ed] I will return to you, at this season, and Sarah shall have a son” (Genesis 18:14). This is understood to mean: At the time of the next Festival [mo’ed]. When did the angel say this? If we say that it was on Passover and he said to him that Sarah would have a son on Shavuot, can a woman give birth after only fifty days? Rather, say that it was Shavuot and he said that she would give birth on the Festival that occurs in the month of Tishrei, i.e., Sukkot. But still, can she give birth after only five months? Rather, you must say that it was Sukkot, and he spoke about the Festival that occurs in the month of Nisan, i.e., Passover. The Gemara asks further: But still, can a woman give birth after only six months? The Gemara answers: A Sage taught in a baraita: That year was a leap year, in which an additional month of Adar was added before Nisan, and a woman can indeed give birth after seven months. The Gemara raises another question: Ultimately, if one deducts Sarah’s days of ritual impurity, as when the angel spoke Sarah had not yet conceived, and there is a tradition that on that day she began menstruating, as is alluded to in the verse: “After I am grown old, shall I have pleasure” (Genesis 18:12), there are less than seven months. Mar Zutra said: Even according to the one who said that if a woman gives birth to a viable baby in her ninth month, she cannot give birth prematurely, and if she does not complete nine full months’ gestation the baby will not survive, nevertheless, if a woman gives birth in her seventh month, she may give birth early, before the seventh month is complete. As it is stated about the birth of Samuel: “And it came to pass after cycles of days that Hannah conceived and bore a son” (I Samuel 1:20), which is understood as follows: The minimum of “cycles,” seasons of three months, is two, and the minimum of “days” is two. Consequently, it is possible for a woman to give birth after a pregnancy of six months and two days. It was taught in the baraita: On Rosh HaShana, Sarah, Rachel, and Hannah were revisited by God and conceived children. The Gemara asks: From where do we derive this? Rabbi Elazar said: This is derived by means of a verbal analogy between one instance of the term revisiting [pekida] and another instance of the term revisiting, and by means of a verbal analogy between one instance of the term remembering [zekhira] and another instance of the word remembering. It is written about Rachel: “And God remembered Rachel” (Genesis 30:22), and it is written about Hannah: “And the Lord remembered her” (I Samuel 1:19). And the meaning of these instances of the term remembering is derived from another instance of the term remembering, with regard to Rosh HaShana, as it is written: “A solemn rest, memorial proclaimed with the blast of a shofar” (Leviticus 23:24). From here it is derived that Rachel and Hannah were remembered by God on Rosh HaShana. And the meaning of one instance of the term revisiting is derived from another instance of the term revisiting. It is written about Hannah: “And the Lord revisited Hannah” (I Samuel 2:21), and it is written about Sarah: “And the Lord revisited Sarah” (Genesis 21:1). From here it is derived that just as Hannah was revisited on Rosh HaShana, so too, Sarah was revisited on Rosh HaShana. It was further taught in the baraita: On Rosh HaShana Joseph came out of prison. The Gemara asks: From where do we derive this? As it is written: “Sound a shofar at the New Moon, at the covered time of our Festival day. For this is a statute for Israel, a judgment of the God of Jacob” (Psalms 81:4–5). This is a reference to Rosh HaShana, the only Festival that occurs at the time of the New Moon, when the moon is covered and cannot be seen.
18יח

יְהִי רָצוֹן מִלְּפָנֶיךָ יְיָ אֱלֹהֵינוּ וֵאלֹהֵי אֲבוֹתֵינוּ שֶׁנִּהְיֶה לְרֹאשׁ וְלֹא לְזָנָב.

May it be Your will, Lord our God and God of our fathers, that we be as the head and not as the tail.