Alternatively, the deity's actual name could have been Ba'al Zəbûl, "lord of the (heavenly) dwelling", and Ba'al Zebub was a derogatory pun used by the Israelites. (1, 2, 3) In regard to the god of Ekron, the belief that zebub may be the original affix to Baal and that it is a substitute for an original zbl which, after the discoveries of Ras Shamra, has been connected with the title of "prince", frequently attributed to Baal in mythological texts. Ba'al Zebub was used in Hebrew as a pun with Ba'al Zebul, where Zebul meant "of the manor", and in a derogatory manner Ba'al Zebub was used to offend the enemies of the Israelites. (4)
- McIntosh (2002) . "Baal-Zebub". In Bromiley, G. W. (ed.). The International Standard Bible Encyclopedia. 1(Revised (381) ed.). Wm. B. Eerdmans. It is not as probable that b'l zbl, which can mean "lord of the (heavenly) dwelling" in Ugaritic, was changed to b'l zbb to make the divine name an opprobrius epithet. The reading Beelzebul in Mt. 10:25 would then reflect the right form of the name, a wordplay on "master of the house" (Gk oikodespótēs).
- ^ Lewis (1996). "Beelzebul". In Freedman, D. N. (ed.). The Anchor Yale Bible Dictionary. 1 (639 ed.). New York, NY: Doubleday. An alternative suggested by many is to connect zĕbûl with a noun meaning "(exalted) abode".
- ^ Bruce (1996). "Baal-Zebub, Beelzebul". In Wood, D. R. W.; Marshall, I. H. (eds.). New Bible dictionary (3rd (108) ed.). Leicester, England; Downers Grove, IL: InterVarsity Press. In contemporary Semitic speech it may have been understood as 'the master of the house'; if so, this phrase could be used in a double sense in Mt. 10:25b.
- Freedman, David Noel (2000). Eerdmans Dictionary of the Bible. Eerdmans. p. 137.
Akkadian -𒆍𒀭𒊏𒆠 (bāb ili, “gate of the gods”)
A polemic (/pəˈlɛmɪk/) is contentious rhetoric that is intended to support a specific position by aggressive claims and undermining of the opposing position. Polemics are mostly seen in arguments about controversial topics. The practice of such argumentation is called polemics. A person who often writes polemics, or who speaks polemically, is called a polemicist. The word is derived from Ancient Greek πολεμικός(polemikos), meaning 'warlike, hostile', from πόλεμος (polemos), meaning 'war'.