The Aron's Trail of Destruction // Simply Tanach: Shmuel's "Book of Shmuel" (Shmuel I: Perakim 1-7) -- *Perek 5*
The Main Text:
1 א

(א) וּפְלִשְׁתִּים֙ לָֽקְח֔וּ אֵ֖ת אֲר֣וֹן הָאֱלֹקִ֑ים וַיְבִאֻ֛הוּ מֵאֶ֥בֶן הָעֵ֖זֶר אַשְׁדּֽוֹדָה׃ (ב) וַיִּקְח֤וּ פְלִשְׁתִּים֙ אֶת־אֲר֣וֹן הָאֱלֹקִ֔ים וַיָּבִ֥יאוּ אֹת֖וֹ בֵּ֣ית דָּג֑וֹן וַיַּצִּ֥יגוּ אֹת֖וֹ אֵ֥צֶל דָּגֽוֹן׃ (ג) וַיַּשְׁכִּ֤מוּ אַשְׁדּוֹדִים֙ מִֽמָּחֳרָ֔ת וְהִנֵּ֣ה דָג֗וֹן נֹפֵ֤ל לְפָנָיו֙ אַ֔רְצָה לִפְנֵ֖י אֲר֣וֹן יקוק וַיִּקְחוּ֙ אֶת־דָּג֔וֹן וַיָּשִׁ֥בוּ אֹת֖וֹ לִמְקוֹמֽוֹ׃ (ד) וַיַּשְׁכִּ֣מוּ בַבֹּקֶר֮ מִֽמָּחֳרָת֒ וְהִנֵּ֣ה דָג֗וֹן נֹפֵ֤ל לְפָנָיו֙ אַ֔רְצָה לִפְנֵ֖י אֲר֣וֹן יקוק וְרֹ֨אשׁ דָּג֜וֹן וּשְׁתֵּ֣י ׀ כַּפּ֣וֹת יָדָ֗יו כְּרֻתוֹת֙ אֶל־הַמִּפְתָּ֔ן רַ֥ק דָּג֖וֹן נִשְׁאַ֥ר עָלָֽיו׃ (ה) עַל־כֵּ֡ן לֹֽא־יִדְרְכוּ֩ כֹהֲנֵ֨י דָג֜וֹן וְכָֽל־הַבָּאִ֧ים בֵּית־דָּג֛וֹן עַל־מִפְתַּ֥ן דָּג֖וֹן בְּאַשְׁדּ֑וֹד עַ֖ד הַיּ֥וֹם הַזֶּֽה׃ (ס) (ו) וַתִּכְבַּ֧ד יַד־יקוק אֶל־הָאַשְׁדּוֹדִ֖ים וַיְשִׁמֵּ֑ם וַיַּ֤ךְ אֹתָם֙ בעפלים [בַּטְּחֹרִ֔ים] אֶת־אַשְׁדּ֖וֹד וְאֶת־גְּבוּלֶֽיהָ׃ (ז) וַיִּרְא֥וּ אַנְשֵֽׁי־אַשְׁדּ֖וֹד כִּֽי־כֵ֑ן וְאָמְר֗וּ לֹֽא־יֵשֵׁ֞ב אֲר֨וֹן אֱלֹקֵ֤י יִשְׂרָאֵל֙ עִמָּ֔נוּ כִּֽי־קָשְׁתָ֤ה יָדוֹ֙ עָלֵ֔ינוּ וְעַ֖ל דָּג֥וֹן אֱלֹקֵֽינוּ׃ (ח) וַיִּשְׁלְח֡וּ וַיַּאַסְפוּ֩ אֶת־כָּל־סַרְנֵ֨י פְלִשְׁתִּ֜ים אֲלֵיהֶ֗ם וַיֹּֽאמְרוּ֙ מַֽה־נַּעֲשֶׂ֗ה לַֽאֲרוֹן֙ אֱלֹקֵ֣י יִשְׂרָאֵ֔ל וַיֹּ֣אמְר֔וּ גַּ֣ת יִסֹּ֔ב אֲר֖וֹן אֱלֹקֵ֣י יִשְׂרָאֵ֑ל וַיַּסֵּ֕בּוּ אֶת־אֲר֖וֹן אֱלֹקֵ֥י יִשְׂרָאֵֽל׃ (ס) (ט) וַיְהִ֞י אַחֲרֵ֣י ׀ הֵסַ֣בּוּ אֹת֗וֹ וַתְּהִ֨י יַד־יקוק ׀ בָּעִיר֙ מְהוּמָה֙ גְּדוֹלָ֣ה מְאֹ֔ד וַיַּךְ֙ אֶת־אַנְשֵׁ֣י הָעִ֔יר מִקָּטֹ֖ן וְעַד־גָּד֑וֹל וַיִּשָּׂתְר֥וּ לָהֶ֖ם עפלים [טְחֹרִֽים׃] (י) וַֽיְשַׁלְּח֛וּ אֶת־אֲר֥וֹן הָאֱלֹקִ֖ים עֶקְר֑וֹן וַיְהִ֗י כְּב֨וֹא אֲר֤וֹן הָאֱלֹקִים֙ עֶקְר֔וֹן וַיִּזְעֲק֨וּ הָֽעֶקְרֹנִ֜ים לֵאמֹ֗ר הֵסַ֤בּוּ אֵלַי֙ אֶת־אֲרוֹן֙ אֱלֹקֵ֣י יִשְׂרָאֵ֔ל לַהֲמִיתֵ֖נִי וְאֶת־עַמִּֽי׃ (יא) וַיִּשְׁלְח֨וּ וַיַּאַסְפ֜וּ אֶת־כָּל־סַרְנֵ֣י פְלִשְׁתִּ֗ים וַיֹּֽאמְרוּ֙ שַׁלְּח֞וּ אֶת־אֲר֨וֹן אֱלֹקֵ֤י יִשְׂרָאֵל֙ וְיָשֹׁ֣ב לִמְקֹמ֔וֹ וְלֹֽא־יָמִ֥ית אֹתִ֖י וְאֶת־עַמִּ֑י כִּֽי־הָיְתָ֤ה מְהֽוּמַת־מָ֙וֶת֙ בְּכָל־הָעִ֔יר כָּבְדָ֥ה מְאֹ֛ד יַ֥ד הָאֱלֹקִ֖ים שָֽׁם׃ (יב) וְהָֽאֲנָשִׁים֙ אֲשֶׁ֣ר לֹא־מֵ֔תוּ הֻכּ֖וּ בעפלים [בַּטְּחֹרִ֑ים] וַתַּ֛עַל שַֽׁוְעַ֥ת הָעִ֖יר הַשָּׁמָֽיִם׃

(1) When the Philistines captured the Ark of God, they brought it from Eben-ezer to Ashdod. (2) The Philistines took the Ark of God and brought it into the temple of Dagon and they set it up beside Dagon. (3) Early the next day, the Ashdodites found Dagon lying face down on the ground in front of the Ark of the LORD. They picked Dagon up and put him back in his place; (4) but early the next morning, Dagon was again lying prone on the ground in front of the Ark of the LORD. The head and both hands of Dagon were cut off, lying on the threshold; only Dagon’s trunk was left intact. (5) That is why, to this day, the priests of Dagon and all who enter the temple of Dagon do not tread on the threshold of Dagon in Ashdod. (6) The hand of the LORD lay heavy upon the Ashdodites, and He wrought havoc among them: He struck Ashdod and its territory with hemorrhoids. (7) When the men of Ashdod saw how matters stood, they said, “The Ark of the God of Israel must not remain with us, for His hand has dealt harshly with us and with our god Dagon.” (8) They sent messengers and assembled all the lords of the Philistines and asked, “What shall we do with the Ark of the God of Israel?” They answered, “Let the Ark of the God of Israel be removed to Gath.” So they moved the Ark of the God of Israel [to Gath]. (9) And after they had moved it, the hand of the LORD came against the city, causing great panic; He struck the people of the city, young and old, so that hemorrhoids broke out among them. (10) Then they sent the Ark of God to Ekron. But when the Ark of God came to Ekron, the Ekronites cried out, “They have moved the Ark of the God of Israel to us to slay us and our kindred.” (11) They too sent messengers and assembled all the lords of the Philistines and said, “Send the Ark of the God of Israel away, and let it return to its own place, that it may not slay us and our kindred.” For the panic of death pervaded the whole city, so heavily had the hand of God fallen there; (12) and the men who did not die were stricken with hemorrhoids. The outcry of the city went up to heaven.

2 ב

SUPPORTING TEXTS:

First encounter with the SARNEI Phelishtim:
3 ג

(ג) מִֽן־הַשִּׁיח֞וֹר אֲשֶׁ֣ר ׀ עַל־פְּנֵ֣י מִצְרַ֗יִם וְעַ֨ד גְּב֤וּל עֶקְרוֹן֙ צָפ֔וֹנָה לַֽכְּנַעֲנִ֖י תֵּחָשֵׁ֑ב חֲמֵ֣שֶׁת ׀ סַרְנֵ֣י פְלִשְׁתִּ֗ים הָעַזָּתִ֤י וְהָאַשְׁדּוֹדִי֙ הָאֶשְׁקְלוֹנִ֣י הַגִּתִּ֔י וְהָעֶקְרוֹנִ֖י וְהָעַוִּֽים׃

(3) from the Shihor, which is close to Egypt, to the territory of Ekron on the north, are accounted Canaanite, namely, those of the five lords of the Philistines—the Gazites, the Ashdodites, the Ashkelonites, the Gittites, and the Ekronites—and those of the Avvim

The original location of Beit Dagon:
4 ד

(כא) וַיֹּאחֲז֣וּהוּ פְלִשְׁתִּ֔ים וַֽיְנַקְּר֖וּ אֶת־עֵינָ֑יו וַיּוֹרִ֨ידוּ אוֹת֜וֹ עַזָּ֗תָה וַיַּאַסְר֙וּהוּ֙ בַּֽנְחֻשְׁתַּ֔יִם וַיְהִ֥י טוֹחֵ֖ן בְּבֵ֥ית האסירים [הָאֲסוּרִֽים׃] (כב) וַיָּ֧חֶל שְׂעַר־רֹאשׁ֛וֹ לְצַמֵּ֖חַ כַּאֲשֶׁ֥ר גֻּלָּֽח׃ (פ) (כג) וְסַרְנֵ֣י פְלִשְׁתִּ֗ים נֶֽאֱסְפוּ֙ לִזְבֹּ֧חַ זֶֽבַח־גָּד֛וֹל לְדָג֥וֹן אֱלֹהֵיהֶ֖ם וּלְשִׂמְחָ֑ה וַיֹּ֣אמְר֔וּ נָתַ֤ן אֱלֹקֵ֙ינוּ֙ בְּיָדֵ֔נוּ אֵ֖ת שִׁמְשׁ֥וֹן אוֹיְבֵֽינוּ׃

(21) The Philistines seized him and gouged out his eyes. They brought him down to Gaza and shackled him in bronze fetters, and he became a mill slave in the prison. (22) After his hair was cut off, it began to grow back. (23) Now the lords of the Philistines gathered to offer a great sacrifice to their god Dagon and to make merry. They chanted, “Our god has delivered into our hands Our enemy Samson.”
5 ה
Three (of hundreds!) of examples of "v'henei" as a surprise:
6 ו

(יג) וַיִּשָּׂ֨א אַבְרָהָ֜ם אֶת־עֵינָ֗יו וַיַּרְא֙ וְהִנֵּה־אַ֔יִל אַחַ֕ר נֶאֱחַ֥ז בַּסְּבַ֖ךְ בְּקַרְנָ֑יו וַיֵּ֤לֶךְ אַבְרָהָם֙ וַיִּקַּ֣ח אֶת־הָאַ֔יִל וַיַּעֲלֵ֥הוּ לְעֹלָ֖ה תַּ֥חַת בְּנֽוֹ׃

(13) When Abraham looked up, his eye fell upon a ram, caught in the thicket by its horns. So Abraham went and took the ram and offered it up as a burnt offering in place of his son.

7 ז

(ב) וַ֠יֵּרָא מַלְאַ֨ךְ יקוק אֵלָ֛יו בְּלַבַּת־אֵ֖שׁ מִתּ֣וֹךְ הַסְּנֶ֑ה וַיַּ֗רְא וְהִנֵּ֤ה הַסְּנֶה֙ בֹּעֵ֣ר בָּאֵ֔שׁ וְהַסְּנֶ֖ה אֵינֶ֥נּוּ אֻכָּֽל׃

(2) An angel of the LORD appeared to him in a blazing fire out of a bush. He gazed, and there was a bush all aflame, yet the bush was not consumed.
8 ח

(יז) וַיֹּ֣אמֶר שָׁא֗וּל לָעָם֙ אֲשֶׁ֣ר אִתּ֔וֹ פִּקְדוּ־נָ֣א וּרְא֔וּ מִ֖י הָלַ֣ךְ מֵעִמָּ֑נוּ וַֽיִּפְקְד֔וּ וְהִנֵּ֛ה אֵ֥ין יוֹנָתָ֖ן וְנֹשֵׂ֥א כֵלָֽיו׃

(17) And Saul said to the troops with him, “Take a count and see who has left us.” They took a count and found that Jonathan and his arms-bearer were missing.
Examples of "ad hayom hazeh" in Tanach:
9 ט

(יד) יָאִ֣יר בֶּן־מְנַשֶּׁ֗ה לָקַח֙ אֶת־כָּל־חֶ֣בֶל אַרְגֹּ֔ב עַד־גְּב֥וּל הַגְּשׁוּרִ֖י וְהַמַּֽעֲכָתִ֑י וַיִּקְרָא֩ אֹתָ֨ם עַל־שְׁמ֤וֹ אֶת־הַבָּשָׁן֙ חַוֺּ֣ת יָאִ֔יר עַ֖ד הַיּ֥וֹם הַזֶּֽה׃

(14) Jair son of Manasseh received the whole Argob district (that is, Bashan) as far as the boundary of the Geshurites and the Maacathites, and named it after himself: Havvoth-jair—as is still the case.
10 י

(ט) וּשְׁתֵּ֧ים עֶשְׂרֵ֣ה אֲבָנִ֗ים הֵקִ֣ים יְהוֹשֻׁעַ֮ בְּת֣וֹךְ הַיַּרְדֵּן֒ תַּ֗חַת מַצַּב֙ רַגְלֵ֣י הַכֹּהֲנִ֔ים נֹשְׂאֵ֖י אֲר֣וֹן הַבְּרִ֑ית וַיִּ֣הְיוּ שָׁ֔ם עַ֖ד הַיּ֥וֹם הַזֶּֽה׃

(9) Joshua also set up twelve stones in the middle of the Jordan, at the spot where the feet of the priests bearing the Ark of the Covenant had stood; and they have remained there to this day.
11 יא

(יט) וַיִּבְקַ֨ע אֱלֹקִ֜ים אֶת־הַמַּכְתֵּ֣שׁ אֲשֶׁר־בַּלֶּ֗חִי וַיֵּצְא֨וּ מִמֶּ֤נּוּ מַ֙יִם֙ וַיֵּ֔שְׁתְּ וַתָּ֥שָׁב רוּח֖וֹ וַיֶּ֑חִי עַל־כֵּ֣ן ׀ קָרָ֣א שְׁמָ֗הּ עֵ֤ין הַקּוֹרֵא֙ אֲשֶׁ֣ר בַּלֶּ֔חִי עַ֖ד הַיּ֥וֹם הַזֶּֽה׃

(19) So God split open the hollow which is at Lehi, and the water gushed out of it; he drank, regained his strength, and revived. That is why it is called to this day “En-hakkore of Lehi.”
How long has this custom lasted??
12 יב

(ט) וּפָקַדְתִּ֗י עַ֧ל כָּל־הַדּוֹלֵ֛ג עַל־הַמִּפְתָּ֖ן בַּיּ֣וֹם הַה֑וּא הַֽמְמַלְאִ֛ים בֵּ֥ית אֲדֹנֵיהֶ֖ם חָמָ֥ס וּמִרְמָֽה׃ (ס)

(9) I will also punish on that day Everyone who steps over the threshold, Who fill their master’s palace With lawlessness and fraud.

Curious other Tanach sources about idols not having heads and hands:
13 יג

(טו) עֲצַבֵּ֣י הַ֭גּוֹיִם כֶּ֣סֶף וְזָהָ֑ב מַ֝עֲשֵׂ֗ה יְדֵ֣י אָדָֽם׃ (טז) פֶּֽה־לָ֭הֶם וְלֹ֣א יְדַבֵּ֑רוּ עֵינַ֥יִם לָ֝הֶ֗ם וְלֹ֣א יִרְאֽוּ׃ (יז) אָזְנַ֣יִם לָ֭הֶם וְלֹ֣א יַאֲזִ֑ינוּ אַ֝֗ף אֵין־יֶשׁ־ר֥וּחַ בְּפִיהֶֽם׃ (יח) כְּ֭מוֹהֶם יִהְי֣וּ עֹשֵׂיהֶ֑ם כֹּ֭ל אֲשֶׁר־בֹּטֵ֣חַ בָּהֶֽם׃

(15) The idols of the nations are silver and gold, the work of men’s hands. (16) They have mouths, but cannot speak; they have eyes, but cannot see; (17) they have ears, but cannot hear, nor is there breath in their mouths. (18) Those who fashion them, all who trust in them, shall become like them.
14 יד
(ד) עֲ‍ֽ֭צַבֵּיהֶם כֶּ֣סֶף וְזָהָ֑ב מַ֝עֲשֵׂ֗ה יְדֵ֣י אָדָֽם׃ (ה) פֶּֽה־לָ֭הֶם וְלֹ֣א יְדַבֵּ֑רוּ עֵינַ֥יִם לָ֝הֶ֗ם וְלֹ֣א יִרְאֽוּ׃ (ו) אָזְנַ֣יִם לָ֭הֶם וְלֹ֣א יִשְׁמָ֑עוּ אַ֥ף לָ֝הֶ֗ם וְלֹ֣א יְרִיחֽוּן׃ (ז) יְדֵיהֶ֤ם ׀ וְלֹ֬א יְמִישׁ֗וּן רַ֭גְלֵיהֶם וְלֹ֣א יְהַלֵּ֑כוּ לֹֽא־יֶ֝הְגּ֗וּ בִּגְרוֹנָֽם׃ (ח) כְּ֭מוֹהֶם יִהְי֣וּ עֹשֵׂיהֶ֑ם כֹּ֭ל אֲשֶׁר־בֹּטֵ֣חַ בָּהֶֽם׃
(4) Their idols are silver and gold, the work of men’s hands. (5) They have mouths, but cannot speak, eyes, but cannot see; (6) they have ears, but cannot hear, noses, but cannot smell; (7) they have hands, but cannot touch, feet, but cannot walk; they can make no sound in their throats. (8) Those who fashion them, all who trust in them, shall become like them.
15 טו
(ב) בֶּן־אָדָ֕ם בְּת֥וֹךְ בֵּית־הַמֶּ֖רִי אַתָּ֣ה יֹשֵׁ֑ב אֲשֶׁ֣ר עֵינַיִם֩ לָהֶ֨ם לִרְא֜וֹת וְלֹ֣א רָא֗וּ אָזְנַ֨יִם לָהֶ֤ם לִשְׁמֹ֙עַ֙ וְלֹ֣א שָׁמֵ֔עוּ כִּ֛י בֵּ֥ית מְרִ֖י הֵֽם׃
(2) O mortal, you dwell among the rebellious breed. They have eyes to see but see not, ears to hear but hear not; for they are a rebellious breed.
Head and hands as trophies:
16 טז

(כה) וַֽיִּלְכְּד֡וּ שְׁנֵֽי־שָׂרֵ֨י מִדְיָ֜ן אֶת־עֹרֵ֣ב וְאֶת־זְאֵ֗ב וַיַּהַרְג֨וּ אֶת־עוֹרֵ֤ב בְּצוּר־עוֹרֵב֙ וְאֶת־זְאֵב֙ הָרְג֣וּ בְיֶֽקֶב־זְאֵ֔ב וַֽיִּרְדְּפ֖וּ אֶל־מִדְיָ֑ן וְרֹאשׁ־עֹרֵ֣ב וּזְאֵ֔ב הֵבִ֙יאוּ֙ אֶל־גִּדְע֔וֹן מֵעֵ֖בֶר לַיַּרְדֵּֽן׃

(25) They pursued the Midianites and captured Midian’s two generals, Oreb and Zeeb. They killed Oreb at the Rock of Oreb and they killed Zeeb at the Winepress of Zeeb; and they brought the heads of Oreb and Zeeb from the other side of the Jordan to Gideon.
17 יז
(ו) וַיֹּ֙אמֶר֙ שָׂרֵ֣י סֻכּ֔וֹת הֲ֠כַף זֶ֧בַח וְצַלְמֻנָּ֛ע עַתָּ֖ה בְּיָדֶ֑ךָ כִּֽי־נִתֵּ֥ן לִֽצְבָאֲךָ֖ לָֽחֶם׃
(6) But the officials of Succoth replied, “Are Zebah and Zalmunna already in your hands, that we should give bread to your troops?”
18 יח

(נד) וַיִּקַּ֤ח דָּוִד֙ אֶת־רֹ֣אשׁ הַפְּלִשְׁתִּ֔י וַיְבִאֵ֖הוּ יְרוּשָׁלִָ֑ם וְאֶת־כֵּלָ֖יו שָׂ֥ם בְּאָהֳלֽוֹ׃ (ס)

(54) David took the head of the Philistine and brought it to Jerusalem; and he put his weapons in his own tent.
Making fun of avodah zara, a study of polemics in Tanach: A Gemarah TWO examples (one from Melachim and one from the Torah itself) Definition of the word "polemic"
19 יט

אמר רב נחמן כל ליצנותא אסירא בר מליצנותא דעבודת כוכבים דשריא דכתיב (ישעיהו מו, א) כרע בל קרס נבו וכתיב (ישעיהו מו, ב) קרסו כרעו יחדיו לא יכלו מלט משא וגו' ר' ינאי אמר מהכא (הושע י, ה) לעגלות בית און יגורו שכן שומרון כי אבל עליו עמו וכמריו עליו יגילו על כבודו כי גלה ממנו אל תקרי כבודו אלא כבידו

Similarly, Rav Naḥman said: All mockery and obscenity is forbidden except for mockery of idol worship, which is permitted, as it is written: “Bel bows down, Nevo stoops” (Isaiah 46:1). The prophet mocks these idols by describing them as crouching in order to defecate. Additionally, it is written: “They stoop, they bow down together; they could not deliver the burden” (Isaiah 46:2). Rabbi Yannai said: This principle that one is permitted to mock idol worship is derived from here: “The inhabitants of Samaria shall be in dread for the calves of Beth-aven; for its people shall mourn over it, and its priests shall tremble for it, for its glory, because it is departed from it” (Hosea 10:5). Do not read it is as “its glory [kevodo],” rather read it as its burden [keveido], meaning that it is unable to restrain itself from defecating.

20 כ

(ב) וַיִּפֹּ֨ל אֲחַזְיָ֜ה בְּעַ֣ד הַשְּׂבָכָ֗ה בַּעֲלִיָּת֛וֹ אֲשֶׁ֥ר בְּשֹׁמְר֖וֹן וַיָּ֑חַל וַיִּשְׁלַ֣ח מַלְאָכִ֔ים וַיֹּ֤אמֶר אֲלֵהֶם֙ לְכ֣וּ דִרְשׁ֗וּ בְּבַ֤עַל זְבוּב֙ אֱלֹקֵ֣י עֶקְר֔וֹן אִם־אֶחְיֶ֖ה מֵחֳלִ֥י זֶֽה׃ (ס)

(2) Ahaziah fell through the lattice in his upper chamber at Samaria and was injured. So he sent messengers, whom he instructed: “Go inquire of Baal-zebub, the god of Ekron, whether I shall recover from this injury.”
21 כא

From Wikipedia:

Alternatively, the deity's actual name could have been Ba'al Zəbûl, "lord of the (heavenly) dwelling", and Ba'al Zebub was a derogatory pun used by the Israelites. (1, 2, 3) In regard to the god of Ekron, the belief that zebub may be the original affix to Baal and that it is a substitute for an original zbl which, after the discoveries of Ras Shamra, has been connected with the title of "prince", frequently attributed to Baal in mythological texts. Ba'al Zebub was used in Hebrew as a pun with Ba'al Zebul, where Zebul meant "of the manor", and in a derogatory manner Ba'al Zebub was used to offend the enemies of the Israelites. (4)

  1. McIntosh (2002) [1988]. "Baal-Zebub". In Bromiley, G. W. (ed.). The International Standard Bible Encyclopedia. 1(Revised (381) ed.). Wm. B. Eerdmans. It is not as probable that b'l zbl, which can mean "lord of the (heavenly) dwelling" in Ugaritic, was changed to b'l zbb to make the divine name an opprobrius epithet. The reading Beelzebul in Mt. 10:25 would then reflect the right form of the name, a wordplay on "master of the house" (Gk oikodespótēs).
  2. ^ Lewis (1996). "Beelzebul". In Freedman, D. N. (ed.). The Anchor Yale Bible Dictionary. 1 (639 ed.). New York, NY: Doubleday. An alternative suggested by many is to connect zĕbûl with a noun meaning "(exalted) abode".
  3. ^ Bruce (1996). "Baal-Zebub, Beelzebul". In Wood, D. R. W.; Marshall, I. H. (eds.). New Bible dictionary (3rd (108) ed.). Leicester, England; Downers Grove, IL: InterVarsity Press. In contemporary Semitic speech it may have been understood as 'the master of the house'; if so, this phrase could be used in a double sense in Mt. 10:25b.
  4. Freedman, David Noel (2000). Eerdmans Dictionary of the Bible. Eerdmans. p. 137.
22 כב

(ט) עַל־כֵּ֞ן קָרָ֤א שְׁמָהּ֙ בָּבֶ֔ל כִּי־שָׁ֛ם בָּלַ֥ל יקוק שְׂפַ֣ת כָּל־הָאָ֑רֶץ וּמִשָּׁם֙ הֱפִיצָ֣ם יקוק עַל־פְּנֵ֖י כָּל־הָאָֽרֶץ׃ (פ)

(9) That is why it was called Babel, because there the LORD confounded the speech of the whole earth; and from there the LORD scattered them over the face of the whole earth.
23 כג

Akkadian -𒆍𒀭𒊏𒆠 (bāb ili, “gate of the gods”)

24 כד

A polemic (/pəˈlɛmɪk/) is contentious rhetoric that is intended to support a specific position by aggressive claims and undermining of the opposing position. Polemics are mostly seen in arguments about controversial topics. The practice of such argumentation is called polemics. A person who often writes polemics, or who speaks polemically, is called a polemicist. The word is derived from Ancient Greek πολεμικός(polemikos), meaning 'warlike, hostile', from πόλεμος (polemos), meaning 'war'.

Later (But-Not-Too-Much-Later) Examples of the same exact Kri/Chesiv:
25 כה

(ד) וַיֹּאמְר֗וּ מָ֣ה הָאָשָׁם֮ אֲשֶׁ֣ר נָשִׁ֣יב לוֹ֒ וַיֹּאמְר֗וּ מִסְפַּר֙ סַרְנֵ֣י פְלִשְׁתִּ֔ים חֲמִשָּׁה֙ עפלי [טְחֹרֵ֣י] זָהָ֔ב וַחֲמִשָּׁ֖ה עַכְבְּרֵ֣י זָהָ֑ב כִּֽי־מַגֵּפָ֥ה אַחַ֛ת לְכֻלָּ֖ם וּלְסַרְנֵיכֶֽם׃

(4) They asked, “What is the indemnity that we should pay to Him?” They answered, “Five golden hemorrhoids and five golden mice, corresponding to the number of lords of the Philistines; for the same plague struck all of you and your lords.

26 כו

(ה) וַעֲשִׂיתֶם֩ צַלְמֵ֨י עפליכם [טְחֹרֵיכֶ֜ם] וְצַלְמֵ֣י עַכְבְּרֵיכֶ֗ם הַמַּשְׁחִיתִם֙ אֶת־הָאָ֔רֶץ וּנְתַתֶּ֛ם לֵאלֹקֵ֥י יִשְׂרָאֵ֖ל כָּב֑וֹד אוּלַ֗י יָקֵ֤ל אֶת־יָדוֹ֙ מֵֽעֲלֵיכֶ֔ם וּמֵעַ֥ל אֱלֹקֵיכֶ֖ם וּמֵעַ֥ל אַרְצְכֶֽם׃

(5) You shall make figures of your hemorrhoids and of the mice that are ravaging your land; thus you shall honor the God of Israel, and perhaps He will lighten the weight of His hand upon you and your gods and your land.
Four examples of typical Kri/Ch'siv:
27 כז

(יג) וַיָּב֗וֹא וְהִנֵּ֣ה עֵ֠לִי יֹשֵׁ֨ב עַֽל־הַכִּסֵּ֜א יך [יַ֥ד] דֶּ֙רֶךְ֙ מְצַפֶּ֔ה כִּֽי־הָיָ֤ה לִבּוֹ֙ חָרֵ֔ד עַ֖ל אֲר֣וֹן הָאֱלֹקִ֑ים וְהָאִ֗ישׁ בָּ֚א לְהַגִּ֣יד בָּעִ֔יר וַתִּזְעַ֖ק כָּל־הָעִֽיר׃

(13) When he arrived, he found Eli sitting on a seat, waiting beside the road—his heart trembling for the Ark of God. The man entered the city to spread the news, and the whole city broke out in a cry.
28 כח

(ג) וְרָחַ֣צְתְּ ׀ וָסַ֗כְתְּ וְשַׂ֧מְתְּ שמלתך [שִׂמְלֹתַ֛יִךְ] עָלַ֖יִךְ וירדתי [וְיָרַ֣דְתְּ] הַגֹּ֑רֶן אַל־תִּוָּדְעִ֣י לָאִ֔ישׁ עַ֥ד כַּלֹּת֖וֹ לֶאֱכֹ֥ל וְלִשְׁתּֽוֹת׃

(3) So bathe, anoint yourself, dress up, and go down to the threshing floor. But do not disclose yourself to the man until he has finished eating and drinking.
29 כט

(ה) וַתֹּ֖אמֶר אֵלֶ֑יהָ כֹּ֛ל אֲשֶׁר־תֹּאמְרִ֥י [אֵלַ֖י] אֶֽעֱשֶֽׂה׃

(5) She replied, “I will do everything you tell me.”
Earlier Example of the same exact Kri/Chesiv:
30 ל

(כז) יַכְּכָ֨ה יקוק בִּשְׁחִ֤ין מִצְרַ֙יִם֙ ובעפלים [וּבַטְּחֹרִ֔ים] וּבַגָּרָ֖ב וּבֶחָ֑רֶס אֲשֶׁ֥ר לֹא־תוּכַ֖ל לְהֵרָפֵֽא׃

(27) The LORD will strike you with the Egyptian inflammation, with hemorrhoids, boil-scars, and itch, from which you shall never recover.

Another example of this "different" type of Kri/Chesiv:
31 לא

(ל) אִשָּׁ֣ה תְאָרֵ֗שׂ וְאִ֤ישׁ אַחֵר֙ ישגלנה [יִשְׁכָּבֶ֔נָּה] בַּ֥יִת תִּבְנֶ֖ה וְלֹא־תֵשֵׁ֣ב בּ֑וֹ כֶּ֥רֶם תִּטַּ֖ע וְלֹ֥א תְחַלְּלֶּֽנּוּ׃

(30) If you pay the bride-price for a wife, another man shall enjoy her. If you build a house, you shall not live in it. If you plant a vineyard, you shall not harvest it.