1 א

שֵׁ֣שֶׁת יָמִים֮ תֵּעָשֶׂ֣ה מְלָאכָה֒ וּבַיּ֣וֹם הַשְּׁבִיעִ֗י יִהְיֶ֨ה לָכֶ֥ם קֹ֛דֶשׁ שַׁבַּ֥ת שַׁבָּת֖וֹן לַיהוָ֑ה כָּל־הָעֹשֶׂ֥ה ב֛וֹ מְלָאכָ֖ה יוּמָֽת׃

On six days work may be done, but on the seventh day you shall have a sabbath of complete rest, holy to the LORD; whoever does any work on it shall be put to death.

2 ב

(י) וַיֹּ֨אמֶר יְהוָ֤ה אֶל־מֹשֶׁה֙ לֵ֣ךְ אֶל־הָעָ֔ם וְקִדַּשְׁתָּ֥ם הַיּ֖וֹם וּמָחָ֑ר וְכִבְּס֖וּ שִׂמְלֹתָֽם׃ (יא) וְהָי֥וּ נְכֹנִ֖ים לַיּ֣וֹם הַשְּׁלִישִׁ֑י כִּ֣י ׀ בַּיּ֣וֹם הַשְּׁלִישִׁ֗י יֵרֵ֧ד יְהוָ֛ה לְעֵינֵ֥י כָל־הָעָ֖ם עַל־הַ֥ר סִינָֽי׃ (יד) וַיֵּ֧רֶד מֹשֶׁ֛ה מִן־הָהָ֖ר אֶל־הָעָ֑ם וַיְקַדֵּשׁ֙ אֶת־הָעָ֔ם וַֽיְכַבְּס֖וּ שִׂמְלֹתָֽם׃ (טו) וַיֹּ֙אמֶר֙ אֶל־הָעָ֔ם הֱי֥וּ נְכֹנִ֖ים לִשְׁלֹ֣שֶׁת יָמִ֑ים אַֽל־תִּגְּשׁ֖וּ אֶל־אִשָּֽׁה׃

(10) and the LORD said to Moses, “Go to the people and warn them to remain holy (sometimes translated as pure) today and tomorrow. Let them wash their clothes. (11) Let them be ready for the third day; for on the third day the LORD will come down, in the sight of all the people, on Mount Sinai.

(14) Moses came down from the mountain to the people and warned the people to stay pure, and they washed their clothes. (15) And he said to the people, “Be ready for the third day: do not go near a woman.”

3 ג

(י) איש איש אשר יחלל את היום הזה אשר ישכב עם אשה...מות יומת:

(10) whoever desecrates that day, whoever lies with a woman .. shall surely die.


ברית דמשק-ממדבר יהודה

[… או יק]רב אל אשתו ביום...

4Q270, fragment 2, col. 1

[or who app]roaches his wife on the day of [the sabbath]


אשכול הכופר

תשמיש המטה שהוא חפץ תאות האדם, אסור מכח תורתך, כי זכור יום השבת לקדשו, ולא לטמאו בכל חפצץ.

Eshkol Hakofer (12th century Karaite)

Sexual intercourse, which is the object of man’s desire, is forbidden (on the Sabbath) from the Torah, for (it says), “Remember the Sabbath day to keep it holy”, and not to pollute it with all of your desires.


תאזז סנבט

כל המטמא את היום הזה יומת. השוכב עם אשתו בשבת יומת

Taazaz Sanbat, Ethiopia, 15th century

Anyone who defiles this day shall die. One who has intercourse with his wife on the sabbath shall die.

7 ז

עשרה תקנות תיקן עזרא ... ואוכלין שום בערב שבת ושיהו אוכלין שום בע"ש משום עונה דכתיב (תהלים א, ג) אשר פריו יתן בעתו וא"ר יהודה ואיתימא רב נחמן ואיתימא רב כהנא ואיתימא ר' יוחנן זה המשמש מטתו מע"ש לע"ש ת"ר חמשה דברים נאמרו בשום משביע ומשחין ומצהיל פנים ומרבה הזרע והורג כנים שבבני מעיים וי"א מכניס אהבה ומוציא את הקנאה:

§ The Sages taught that Ezra the Scribe instituted ten ordinances.... and one eats garlic on Shabbat eve. .. And that one should eat garlic Shabbat eve. This is due to the fact that garlic enhances sexual potency, and Friday night is an appropriate time for conjugal relations. As it is written concerning the righteous: “And he shall be like a tree planted by streams of water, who brings forth his fruit in his season” (Psalms 1:3); and Rabbi Yehuda says, and some say it was Rav Naḥman, and some say it was Rav Kahana, and some say it was Rabbi Yoḥanan who said: This is referring to one who engages in sexual intercourse every Shabbat eve. The Sages taught in a baraita that five matters were stated with regard to garlic: It satisfies; it warms the body; it causes one’s countenance to shine; it increases one’s sperm, and it kills lice that are in the intestines. And some say that it also instills love into those who eat it and removes jealousy from them.

8 ח
נותן לה מעה כסף וכו': מאי אוכלת רב נחמן אמר אוכלת ממש רב אשי אמר תשמיש

§ The mishna teaches that she eats with him from one Shabbat evening to the next. The Gemara asks: What is the meaning of the phrase: She eats, in this context? Rav Naḥman said: It means literally that she eats with him once a week. Rav Ashi said: This is referring to sexual relations.

9 ט
(א) וַתְּדַבֵּ֨ר מִרְיָ֤ם וְאַהֲרֹן֙ בְּמֹשֶׁ֔ה עַל־אֹד֛וֹת הָאִשָּׁ֥ה הַכֻּשִׁ֖ית אֲשֶׁ֣ר לָקָ֑ח כִּֽי־אִשָּׁ֥ה כֻשִׁ֖ית לָקָֽח׃ (ב) וַיֹּאמְר֗וּ הֲרַ֤ק אַךְ־בְּמֹשֶׁה֙ דִּבֶּ֣ר יְהוָ֔ה הֲלֹ֖א גַּם־בָּ֣נוּ דִבֵּ֑ר וַיִּשְׁמַ֖ע יְהוָֽה׃ (ג) וְהָאִ֥ישׁ מֹשֶׁ֖ה ענו [עָנָ֣יו] מְאֹ֑ד מִכֹּל֙ הָֽאָדָ֔ם אֲשֶׁ֖ר עַל־פְּנֵ֥י הָאֲדָמָֽה׃ (ס)
(1) Miriam and Aaron spoke against Moses because of the Cushite woman he had married: “He married a Cushite woman!” (2) They said, “Has the LORD spoken only through Moses? Has He not spoken through us as well?” The LORD heard it. (3) Now Moses was a very humble man, more so than any other man on earth.
10 י
ויאמרו הרק אך במשה. והלא אף עם אבותינו דבר הקב"ה, ולא פירשו מפריה ורביה: והלא גם בנו דבר. ולא פירשנו מפריה ורביה: וישמע ה'. מלמד שלא היתה שם ברייה, אלא בינו לבין עצמו דברו בו, וישמע ה'. ר' נתן אומר: אף בפניו של משה דברו בו, שנאמר וישמע ה' והאיש משה, אלא שכבש משה על הדבר:
(Bamidbar 12:2) "And they said: Is it only with Moses that the L-rd has spoken?" Did He not also speak with our forefathers? And they did not separate from their wives! "Has He not spoken also with us?": And we have not separated from our spouses! "And the L-rd heard": We are hereby apprised that no one else was there, but they spoke thus between themselves. R. Nathan says: They also spoke thus to Moses' face, it being written "And the L-rd heard and the man Moses" — but Moses suppressed it.
11 יא

(א) ותדבר מרים ואהרן במשה. מנין היתה מרים יודעת שפירש משה מפריה ורביה? אלא שראתה צפורה שאינה מתקשטת בתכשיטי נשים. אחרה לה: מה לך שאין את מתקשטת בתכשיטי נשים? אמרה לה: אין אחיך מקפיד בדבר. לכך ידעה מרים, ואמרה לאחיה, ושניהם דברו בו.

[ר' נתן אומר מרים היתה בצד צפורה בשעה שנא' וירץ הנער כיון ששמעה צפורה אמרה אוי לנשותיהם של אלו בכך ידעה מרים ואמרה לאחיה

(1) (Bamidbar 12:1) "And Miriam and Aaron spoke against Moses" How did Miriam know that Moses had ceased from marital relations (with his wife Tzipporah)? Seeing that Tzipporah did not adorn herself as other (married) women did, she asked her for the cause and was told: "Your brother is not 'particular' about this thing" (intercourse, [being constantly "on call" for the word of G-d]). Thus Miriam learned of the matter. She apprised Aaron of it and they both spoke of it.

Rabbi Nathan says Miriam was beside Zipporah at the moment that it was said, “And the youth ran [and told to Moses and said that Eldad and Medad were prophesying in the camp (Num 11.27)]” because she [Miriam] heard Zipporah say, “Oy for the wives of those men!” And thus Miriam knew.

12 יב

Philo, On the Life of Moses, 2:68-69

But, in the first place [before assuming that office of priest], it was necessary for him [Moses] to purify not only his soul but also his body, so that it should be connected with and defiled by no passion, but should be pure from everything which is of a mortal nature, from all meat and drink, and from any connection with women. And this last thing, indeed, he had despised for a long time, almost from the moment when he began to prophesy and to feel divine inspiration thinking that it was proper that he should at all times be ready to give his whole attention to God’s commands.

13 יג

זה אחד מהדברים שעשה משה מדעתו (דין ק״ו) והסכימה דעתו לדעת המקום. פי' מן האשה והסכימה דעתו לדעת המקום כיצד אמר מה אם ישראל שלא נתקדשו אלא לפי שעה ולא נזדמנו אלא כדי לקבל עליהם עשרת הדברות מהר סיני אמר לי הקדוש ברוך הוא לך אל העם וקדשתם היום ומחר ואני שאני מזומן לכך בכל יום ויום ובכל שעה ואיני יודע אימתי מדבר עמי או ביום או בלילה על אחת כמה וכמה שאפרוש מן האשה והסכימה דעתו לדעת המקום.

רבי יהודה בן בתירא אומר לא פירש משה מן האשה אלא שנאמרה לו מפי הגבורה שנאמר (במדבר י״ב:ח׳) פה אל פה אדבר בו פה אל פה אמרתי לו פרוש מן האשה ופירש.

י׳׳א לא פירש משה מן האשה עד שנאמר לו מפי הגבורה שנאמר (דברים ה׳:כ״ח) לך אמור להם שובו לכם לאהליכם וכתיב בתריה ואתה פה עמוד עמדי חזר לאחוריו ופירש והסכימה דעתו לדעת המקום.

This is one of the things that Moses did on his own and his opinion matched the opinion of God ... He separated from his wife, and his opinion agreed with the opinion of God. How so? [Moses] said, "What if Israel, who are not נתקדשו [nitqadshu] except for the hour שעה לפי [lefi sha’ah], and are not called but in order to receive upon themselves the ten commandments from Sinai (for the Holy Blessed One, said to me, 'go to the people and sanctify them (וקדשתם) today and tomorrow’; and I, who am called to this every day at every hour and I do not know when God will speak with me -- in the morning or in the night -- isn't it more important for me to separate from my wife?" And his opinion agreed with the opinion of God.

R. Yehudah ben Batera said: Moses did not separate from his wife until he was told so by the Almight, as it says, "I will speak with him mouth to mouth." Mouth to mout I said to him "Separate from your wife" and he separated.

There are those who say that Moses did not separate from his wife until it was told to him from the mouth of the Almighty as it is said, “Go tell them: ‘Return to your tents,’” and it is written afterwards, “And you stand here by me.” (Deut V, 27-28). He returned back and separated from his wife. And his opinion agreed with the opinion of God.

14 יד

Aphrahat, Demonstration 18:4-5

And concerning virginity and [qaddishutha] I will persuade you that even in that nation [Israel] they [virginity and qaddishutha] were more loved before God and even among that earlier people it [qaddishutha] was better than a great number of births that bring no success. Moses, the man, the great prophet, leader of all Israel, from the time that his Lord spoke to him he loved qaddushutha and he served the Holy One. And he abstained from the world and from procreating and he remained by himself in order to please his Lord.....for if he had performed the duties of marriage he would not have been able perform the greater duties of his Lord. [For] Israel was not able to receive the holy text and the living words that the Holy One spoke to Moses on the mountain until he had [qaddshe] the people for three days. And only then the Holy One spoke to them. ...

If the people of Israel, with whom God spoke only one hour [de-hada sha’ah balhud], were unable to hear the voice of God until [Israel] had [etqaddash] itself three days, even though [Israel] did not go up the mountain and did not go into the heavy cloud; how then could Moses, the man, the prophet, the enlightened eye of all the people, who stood all the time before God, and spoke with him mouth to mouth [min pum apum], How was it possible that he be living in the married state? And if with Israel, that had [etqaddash] itself for only three days, God spoke, how much better and desirable are those who all their days are [meqaddashin], alert, prepared and standing before God. Should not God all the more love them and his spirit dwell among them?

I write you my beloved concerning virginity and holiness [qaddishutha] because I have heard from a Jewish man who insulted one of the brothers, members of our congregation, by saying to him: You are impure [tame’in] you who do not marry women; but we are holy [qaddishin] and better, [we] who procreate and increase progeny in the world.

15 טו
(י) כִּֽי־תֵצֵ֥א מַחֲנֶ֖ה עַל־אֹיְבֶ֑יךָ וְנִ֨שְׁמַרְתָּ֔ מִכֹּ֖ל דָּבָ֥ר רָֽע׃ (יא) כִּֽי־יִהְיֶ֤ה בְךָ֙ אִ֔ישׁ אֲשֶׁ֛ר לֹא־יִהְיֶ֥ה טָה֖וֹר מִקְּרֵה־לָ֑יְלָה וְיָצָא֙ אֶל־מִח֣וּץ לַֽמַּחֲנֶ֔ה לֹ֥א יָבֹ֖א אֶל־תּ֥וֹךְ הַֽמַּחֲנֶֽה׃ (יב) וְהָיָ֥ה לִפְנֽוֹת־עֶ֖רֶב יִרְחַ֣ץ בַּמָּ֑יִם וּכְבֹ֣א הַשֶּׁ֔מֶשׁ יָבֹ֖א אֶל־תּ֥וֹךְ הַֽמַּחֲנֶה׃ (יג) וְיָד֙ תִּהְיֶ֣ה לְךָ֔ מִח֖וּץ לַֽמַּחֲנֶ֑ה וְיָצָ֥אתָ שָׁ֖מָּה חֽוּץ׃ (יד) וְיָתֵ֛ד תִּהְיֶ֥ה לְךָ֖ עַל־אֲזֵנֶ֑ךָ וְהָיָה֙ בְּשִׁבְתְּךָ֣ ח֔וּץ וְחָפַרְתָּ֣ה בָ֔הּ וְשַׁבְתָּ֖ וְכִסִּ֥יתָ אֶת־צֵאָתֶֽךָ׃ (טו) כִּי֩ יְהוָ֨ה אֱלֹהֶ֜יךָ מִתְהַלֵּ֣ךְ ׀ בְּקֶ֣רֶב מַחֲנֶ֗ךָ לְהַצִּֽילְךָ֙ וְלָתֵ֤ת אֹיְבֶ֙יךָ֙ לְפָנֶ֔יךָ וְהָיָ֥ה מַחֲנֶ֖יךָ קָד֑וֹשׁ וְלֹֽא־יִרְאֶ֤ה בְךָ֙ עֶרְוַ֣ת דָּבָ֔ר וְשָׁ֖ב מֵאַחֲרֶֽיךָ׃ (ס)
(10) When you go out as a troop against your enemies, be on your guard against anything untoward. (11) If anyone among you has been rendered unclean by a nocturnal emission, he must leave the camp, and he must not reenter the camp. (12) Toward evening he shall bathe in water, and at sundown he may reenter the camp. (13) Further, there shall be an area for you outside the camp, where you may relieve yourself. (14) With your gear you shall have a spike, and when you have squatted you shall dig a hole with it and cover up your excrement. (15) Since the LORD your God moves about in your camp to protect you and to deliver your enemies to you, let your camp be holy; let Him not find anything unseemly among you and turn away from you.
16 טז

(יב) הזבין והזבות והנדות והיולדות מותרין לקרות בתורה ולשנות במשנה במדרש בהלכות ובאגדות ובעלי קריין אסורין בכולן

(12) Zavim, Zavot, Niddot, and women who gave birth are permitted to read the Torah and to learn Mishna, Midrash, laws, and Aggadot. But men who had a seminal emission (Baalei Keraim) are forbidden in all of them.

17 יז

(ד) בַּעַל קֶרִי מְהַרְהֵר בְּלִבּוֹ וְאֵינוֹ מְבָרֵךְ, לֹא לְפָנֶיהָ וְלֹא לְאַחֲרֶיהָ. וְעַל הַמָּזוֹן מְבָרֵךְ לְאַחֲרָיו, וְאֵינוֹ מְבָרֵךְ לְפָנָיו. רַבִּי יְהוּדָה אוֹמֵר, מְבָרֵךְ לִפְנֵיהֶם וּלְאַחֲרֵיהֶם:

(4) A Ba'al Keri [someone subject to a certain form of ritual impurity] should recite Shema in his mind and should not bless [its blessings whatsoever], not before and not after it. And on food he should bless after it and not bless before it. Rabbi Yehudah says: He should bless before and after them [Shema and food].

18 יח
תניא רבי יהודה בן בתירא היה אומר אין דברי תורה מקבלין טומאה מעשה בתלמיד אחד שהיה מגמגם למעלה מרבי יהודה בן בתירא אמר ליה בני פתח פיך ויאירו דבריך שאין דברי תורה מקבלין טומאה שנאמר הלא כה דברי כאש נאם ה׳ מה אש אינו מקבל טומאה אף דברי תורה אינן מקבלין טומאה

It was taught that Rabbi Yehuda ben Beteira would say: Matters of Torah do not become ritually impure and therefore one who is impure is permitted to engage in Torah study. It happened with a student who was reciting mishnayot and baraitot hesitantly before the study hall of Rabbi Yehuda ben Beteira. The student experienced a seminal emission, and when he was asked to recite he did so in a rushed, uneven manner, as he did not want to utter the words of Torah explicitly. Rabbi Yehuda said to him: My son, open your mouth and let your words illuminate, as matters of Torah do not become ritually impure, as it is stated: “Is not my word like fire, says the Lord” (Jeremiah 23:29). Just as fire does not become ritually impure, so too matters of Torah do not become ritually impure.

19 יט

תנו רבנן בעל קרי שנתנו עליו תשעה קבין מים טהור נחום איש גם זו לחשה לרבי עקיבא ורבי עקיבא לחשה לבן עזאי ובן עזאי יצא ושנאה לתלמידיו בשוק פליגי בה תרי אמוראי במערבא רבי יוסי בר אבין ורבי יוסי בר זבידא חד תני שנאה וחד תני לחשה מאן דתני שנאה משום בטול תורה ומשום בטול פריה ורביה ומאן דתני לחשה שלא יהו תלמידי חכמים מצויים אצל נשותיהם כתרנגולים

The Sages taught: One who experienced a seminal emission who had nine kav of drawn water poured over him, that is sufficient to render him ritually pure and he need not immerse himself in a ritual bath. Naḥum of Gam Zo whispered this halakha to Rabbi Akiva, and Rabbi Akiva whispered it to his student ben Azzai, and ben Azzai went out and taught it to his students publicly in the marketplace. Two amora’im in Eretz Yisrael, Rabbi Yosei bar Avin and Rabbi Yosei bar Zevida, disagreed: One taught: Ben Azzai taught it to his students in the market. And the other taught: Ben Azzai also whispered it. The Sage who taught that ben Azzai taught the law openly in the market held that the leniency was due to concern that the halakhot requiring ritual immersion would promote dereliction in the study of Torah and derliction in the commandment to procreate, as one might abstain from marital relations to avoid the immersion required thereafter. And the Sage, who taught that ben Azzai only whispered this halakha to his students, held that he did so in order that Torah scholars would not be with their wives like roosters.

20 כ

From Tablet Magazine, Benjamin Brown, The Kedushah Crisis, February 19, 2019

These ordinances are known to many, even outside Gur, and, as I was able to verify in conversation with a number of Gerer Hasidim, they consist of the following:

• The couple shall have sexual intercourse only once a month, on leil tevilah (the night after the wife’s immersion in the mikveh at the end of her halachically prescribed menstrual period).

• The couple shall refrain from sexual intercourse from as early as the seventh month of pregnancy.

• After the wife has given birth, the couple shall refrain from sexual intercourse for a further period of six months.

• During intercourse, the couple shall aim to minimize physical contact. The husband shall wear some of his clothes, including his tsitsit (considered a segulah—supernatural remedy—against the sexual drive) and will not hug or kiss his wife or engage in any behavior that is not required for the performance of the act of intercourse itself.

• The husband shall direct his thoughts as far away as possible from the sexual act.

Beside these ordinances, the couple’s conduct in everyday life is governed by certain additional norms that relate to the ordinances without fully belonging to them. For instance, the husband should never walk alongside his wife in public but must always keep a distance of at least four cubits (about two meters) between them; the husband should not address his wife by her first name; etc.

Notably, the ordinances are all addressed to men. In Gur, only men are full-fledged Hasidim, and the Hasidic religious endeavor (avodah, commonly pronounced avoyde) is their duty alone.

21 כא


There are three degrees of membership within the Proud Boys, and to become a first degree in the “pro-West fraternal organization” a prospective member simply has to declare “I am a western chauvinist, and I refuse to apologize for creating the modern world.” To enter the second degree, a Proud Boy has to endure a beating until they can yell out the names of five breakfast cereals (in order to demonstrate “adrenaline control”) and give up masturbation because, in theory, it will leave them more inclined to go out and meet women. Those who enter the third degree have demonstrated their commitment by getting a Proud Boys tattoo. Any man — no matter his race or sexual-orientation — can join the fraternal organization as long as they “recognize that white men are not the problem.” Women have their own contingent called the Proud Boys’ Girls.