Tu B'Shevat Seder HaggadahKabbalat ShabbatA Justice Seder
1 א
2 ב

Dr. Martin Luther King Jr., "Why I am Opposed to the War in Vietnam (1967)

Men will beat their swords into plowshares and their spears into pruning hooks. And nations will not rise up against nations, neither shall they study war anymore. And I don't know about you, I ain't gonna study war no more.

3 ג
(ד) וְשָׁפַט֙ בֵּ֣ין הַגּוֹיִ֔ם וְהוֹכִ֖יחַ לְעַמִּ֣ים רַבִּ֑ים וְכִתְּת֨וּ חַרְבוֹתָ֜ם לְאִתִּ֗ים וַחֲנִיתֽוֹתֵיהֶם֙ לְמַזְמֵר֔וֹת לֹא־יִשָּׂ֨א ג֤וֹי אֶל־גּוֹי֙ חֶ֔רֶב וְלֹא־יִלְמְד֥וּ ע֖וֹד מִלְחָמָֽה׃ (פ)

(4) Thus God will judge among the nations And arbitrate for the many peoples, And they shall beat their swords into plowshares And their spears into pruning hooks: Nation shall not take up Sword against nation; They shall never again know war.

4 ד

Lo yisa goy el goy kherev v'lo yilm'du od milkhamah.

5 ה

Tu b'Shevat is a time for us to remember our bond with the earth, and renew our covenant with God. Midrash teaches us that “There is no plant without an angel in Heaven tending it and telling it, 'Grow!'"(Genesis Rabbah 10:7). Tu b'Shevat is a time for us to live as angels, to recreate heaven here on earth. The Jewish name for heaven is Gan Eden, the Garden of Eden. Today, as we eat, sing, and pray together, let us envision a paradise that we are partners in, shaping, cultivating, and guarding.

-Marc Katz and Debra Eichenbaum (RAC Tu B'Shevat Seder)

6ו

בָּרוּךְ אַתָּה ה' אֱלֹהֵינוּ מֶלֶךְ הָעוֹלָם,
שֶׁהֶחֱיָנוּ וְקִיְּמָנוּ וְהִגִיעָנוּ לַזְּמַן הַזֶּה.

Praised be You, Eternal our God, Ruler of the universe, who has kept us alive, sustained us and permitted us to reach this season.

7 ז

Baruch Atah Adonai Eloheinu, Melech ha'olam shehechiyanu v'kiymanu v'higiyanu lazman hazeh.

8 ח

WHEN DOES CHANGE HAPPEN?

The tree goes through cycles in its life. The heavy-laden tree of summer empties itself of fruit in the autumn, and then slowly loses its leaves, one by one. By winter time, the tree stands shorn of its previous glory. For all purposes, it appears to have died.

But then comes Tu B'Shevat! In the midst of the cold winter days, when all vegetation seems frozen or dead, the sap of the tree starts to flow beneath the surface bark. Rising slowly from roots buried in the hardened soil, the sap pushes its way up, pumping new life into outstretched branches that reach towards the heavens.


In life, we too often go through cycles of growth. Periods of renewal and growth may alternate with times of stagnation or dormancy. Rabbi Shlomo Wolbe cites that this cycle is part of human nature. He adds that a person must not become disillusioned when spiritual growth seems halted; the "low" period will usually be followed by a "high" period that will yield new opportunities for growth.


That is the message of Tu B'Shevat: Even when we feel lethargic, in a rut, and seem to have lost the drive to achieve, we must not despair. Just as winter is an annual hiatus in the life cycle of trees, so bouts of lethargy and unproductivity are necessary phases in the human cycle. Just as with the coming of spring, life-giving sap moves imperceptibly through the trees to branches stretching to the sky, so we too will have renewed energy from deep within our spiritual reservoirs, so long as we set our goal heavenward. (- Rabbi Ephraim Nisenbaum)

9 ט

(1) שָׁלוֹם עֲלֵיכֶם מַלְאֲכֵי הַשָּׁרֵת‏‏ מַלְאֲכֵי עֶלְיוֹן מִמֶּלֶךְ מַלְכֵי הַמְּלָכִים הַקָּדוֹשׁ בָּרוּךְ הוּא

(2) בּוֹאֲכֶם לְשָׁלוֹם מַלְאֲכֵי הַשָּׁלוֹם מַלְאֲכֵי עֶלְיוֹן מִמֶּלֶךְ מַלְכֵי הַמְּלָכִים הַקָּדוֹשׁ בָּרוּךְ הוּא

(3) בָּרְכוּנִי לְשָׁלוֹם מַלְאֲכֵי הַשָּׁלוֹם מַלְאָכֵי עֶלְיוֹן מִמֶּלֶךְ מַלְכֵי הַמְּלָכִים הַקָּדוֹשׁ בָּרוּךְ הוּא

(4) צֵאתְכֶם לְשָׁלוֹם מַלְאֲכֵי הַשָּׁלוֹם מַלְאָכֵי עֶלְיוֹן מִמֶּלֶךְ מַלְכֵי הַמְּלָכִים הַקָּדוֹשׁ בָּרוּךְ הוּא

(1) Peace be with you, ministering angels, messengers of the Most High,

Messengers of the King of Kings, the Holy One, the Blessed One.

(2) Come in peace, messengers of peace, messengers of the Most High,Messengers of the King of Kings, the Holy One, the Blessed One.

(3) Bless me with peace, messengers of peace, messengers of the Most High, Messengers of the King of Kings, the Holy One, the Blessed One.

(4) Go in peace, messengers of peace, messengers of the Most High, Messengers of the King of Kings, the Holy One, the Blessed One.

10 י

Sha-lom a-lei-chem,

mal-a-chei ha-sha-reit,

mal-a-chei el-yon,

mi-me-lech ma-l'chei ha-m'la-chim,

ha-ka-dosh ba-ruch hu.
Bo-a-chem l'sha-lom,

mal-a-chei ha-sha-lom,

mal-a-chei el-yon,

mi-me-lech ma-l'chei ha-m'la-chim,

ha-ka-dosh ba-ruch hu.
Bar-chu-ni l'sha-lom,

mal-a-chei ha-sha-lom,

mal-a-chei el-yon,

mi-me-lech ma-l'chei ha-m'la-chim,

ha-ka-dosh ba-ruch hu.

Tsei-t'chem l'sha-lom,

mal-a-chei ha-sha-lom,

mal-a-chei el-yon,

mi-me-lech ma-l'chei ha-m'la-chim,

ha-ka-dosh ba-ruch hu.


-Transliteration provided by chabad.org

Just How Important is a Tree? We are taught...

11יא

אם היתה נטיעה בתוך ידך ויאמרו לך הרי לך המשיח. בוא ונטע את הנטיעה (ואח”כ צא והקביל).

Midrash Avot Derabbi Natan, Version B, Chapter 31

If you had a sapling in your hand and were told that the Messiah had come, first plant the sapling [and then go out to greet the Messiah].

12 יב

Rabbi David G. Winship

Here, during the seder of Tu b'Shevat, we are afforded an opportunity to eat, as is true of many of our sacred occasions. On other holidays we eat to mark a victory, our salvation, to live through great moments in our history and to rejoice in our triumph. Here, on the birthday of the trees, we eat not in order to celebrate, but rather in order to recenter ourselves in our holy work.

Much has been destroyed in this world from the time of the Tree of Knowledge to our own through mindless eating, consumption without intention. Rabbi Chaim Vital wrote that his teacher, the Ari z"l, explained that through the intentional eating of the fruits at the seder one could come to repair the world. By learning to eat and engage with our world while filled with holy intention, we can restore the Garden of Eden, Paradise.

As we move through our seder, let this be a time for you of resetting intentions. A tree does not appear to be growing this time of year, not in the diaspora and not in Israel. But, it does not lie fully dormant. At this time of year the sap is starting to flow, the energy needed for growth is stirring inside the tree. This is true for us as well.

Now, in these moments of cold, our energy is stirring within us, waiting for the right moment to burst forth in growth. Let us set our intentions to create and consume carefully in our world. Let these intentions, plans, and eventual actions help the world to grow and peace to blossom.

13 יג

Blowin' in the Wind

Songwriter: Bob Dylan

How many roads must a man walk down
Before you call him a man?
How many seas must a white dove sail
Before she sleeps in the sand?
Yes, 'n' how many times must the cannon balls fly
Before they're forever banned?
The answer, my friend, is blowin' in the wind
The answer is blowin' in the wind

Yes, 'n' how many years can a mountain exist
Before it's washed to the sea?
Yes, 'n' how many years can some people exist
Before they're allowed to be free?
Yes, 'n' how many times can a man turn his head
And pretend that he just doesn't see?
The answer, my friend, is blowin' in the wind
The answer is blowin' in the wind

Yes, 'n' how many times must a man look up
Before he can see the sky?
Yes, 'n' how many ears must one man have
Before he can hear people cry?
Yes, 'n' how many deaths will it take till he knows
That too many people have died?
The answer, my friend, is blowin' in the wind
The answer is blowin' in the wind

Blowin' in the Wind lyrics © Audiam, Inc

14 יד

Dr. Martin Luther King Jr. (Atlanta, January 27, 1965)

Anyone sensitive to the present moods, morals and trends in our nation must know that the time for racial justice has come. The issue is no longer whether segregation and discrimination will be eliminated but how they will pass from the American scene. The deep rumbling of discontent that we hear today is the thunder of disinherited masses, rising from dungeons of oppression to the bright hills of freedom.

Dr. Martin Luther King Jr. (Nobel Lecture, December 11, 1964)

Oppressed people cannot remain oppressed forever. The yearning for freedom eventually manifests itself. The Bible tells the thrilling story of how Moses stood in the Pharaoh’s court centuries ago and cried, ‘Let my people go.’ This is a kind of opening chapter in a continuing story. The present struggle in our country is a later chapter in the same unfolding story.

15 טו
(יב) יַעֲלֹ֣ז שָׂ֭דַי וְכָל־אֲשֶׁר־בּ֑וֹ אָ֥ז יְ֝רַנְּנ֗וּ כָּל־עֲצֵי־יָֽעַר׃

(12) The fields and everything in them exult; then shall all the trees of the forest shout for joy

16 טז

Ya'aloz Sadai, v'chol asher bo

Az yiraninu kol atsay ya'ar.

17 יז

A prayer from the original Tu Bish’vat haggadah, Pri Etz Hadar:

O God, who makes, forms, creates, and emanates the highest worlds! You made the trees and grasses grow from the ground in the shape and pattern of these highest worlds. And this full moon is the beginning of Your work to renew and ripen the fruit trees, to bring forth the fruit of ‘the Tree of Life in the midst of the garden.’ May it be Your will that our eating and blessing and meditating on these fruits will strengthen the flow of love and blessing over the trees, to make them grow and bloom, for good life, for blessing and for peace. May all Creation return to its original strength and may we see the rainbow rejoicing in its colors. And may all the sparks of divine energy, whether scattered by our hands, or by the hands of our ancestors, or by the sin of the first human against the fruit of the tree, be returned and included in the majestic might of the Tree of Life.

18 יח

עולם העשייה Olam Ha’Asiyah — The World of Action

We live in the world of assiyah, action and physicality. This is the tangible world of flesh, stone, wood. Here the spark of the Divine is hidden by the shell of appearance. We live in the world of assiyah. This is the world of tangible physicality. Each of the Four Worlds is associated with a season and an element; this world is associated with Winter and with earth. In winter the ground is frozen, but we know it contains the life of the spirit below. The white wine or juice we drink symbolizes winter’s pale light and white snow.

בָּרוּךְ אַתָּה יי אֱלֹהֵינוּ מֶלֶךְ הָעוֹלָם בּוֹרֵא פְּרִי הַגָּפֶן.

Baruch atah Adonai Eloheinu melech ha’olam, borei pri hagafen.

Blessed are You, Adonai our God, Source of all being, creator of the fruit of the vine.

In winter we layer ourselves in clothing, blanketing ourselves from the cold just as the earth is insulated by snow. The fruit we eat for the world of assiyah likewise has a protective outside and soft interior. Removing the hard shells of pomegranates, walnuts, almonds, coconuts, or pecans exposes a vulnerable inside.

The shell which conceals these fruits also protects. We know what that feels like. In the world of school, work, and everyday activity, our spiritual selves require protection and nurturing. Sometimes we wrap ourselves in a tough outer shell, to protect our feelings and our hearts. As we eat these fruits representing assiyah, may we find healing in our physical lives: in our relationships with our bodies, in our strength, in all matters physical and practical, in our environment.

We recite together the blessing for the fruits of assiyah:

בָּרוּךְ אַתָּה יי אֱלֹהֵינוּ מֶלֶךְ הָעוֹלָם בּוֹרֵא פְּרִי הָעֵץ.

Baruch atah Adonai Eloheinu melech ha’olam, borei pri ha’etz.

Blessed are You, Adonai our God, Source of all being, creator of the fruit of the tree.

Text by Rabbi Rachel Barenblat

19 יט

We Shall Overcome

Lyrics derived from Charles Tindley's gospel "I'll Overcome Some Day" (1900)

We shall overcome, we shall overcome

We shall overcome someday;

Oh, deep in my heart, I do believe,

We shall overcome someday.

We'll walk hand in hand, we'll walk hand in hand,

We'll walk hand in hand someday:

Oh, deep in my heart, I do believe,

We'll walk hand in hand someday.

We are not afraid, we are not afraid,

We are not afraid today;

Oh, deep in my heart, I do believe,

We are not afraid today.

The truth shall make us free, the truth shall make us free,

The truth shall make us free someday;

Oh, deep in my heart, I do believe,

The truth shall make us free someday.

We shall live in peace, we shall live in peace,

We shall live in peace someday;

Oh, deep in my heart, I do believe,

We shall live in peace someday.

20כ

ויקרא רבה פרשה כה:ג

ר”י ב”ר סימון פתח (דברים יג) אחרי ה’ א-להיכם תלכו, וכי אפשר לבשר ודם להלוך אחר הקב”ה… אלא מתחלת ברייתו של עולם לא נתעסק הקב”ה אלא במטע תחלה הדא הוא דכתיב (בראשית ב) ויטע ה’ א-להים גן בעדן, אף אתם כשנכנסין לארץ לא תתעסקו אלא במטע תחלה הדא הוא דכתיב כי תבאו אל הארץ.

Vayikra Rabbah 25:3

Rabbi Yehudah ben Shimon began his discourse with the text, “After Adonai your God shall you walk” (Deuteronomy 12:5). But can a person of flesh and blood walk after the Holy One of Blessing?… But in truth the Holy One, blessed be God, from the very beginning of the creation of the world, was before all else occupied with planting, as is proved by the text, “And the Adonai God planted a garden in Eden” (Genesis 2:8), and so do you also, when you enter into the land, occupy yourselves first with nothing else but planting; hence it is written, “And when you shall come into the land, you shall plant (Lev. 19:23).”

21 כא

A teaching from another tradition:

Have a look at these great blessed trees, who live only for the welfare of others, themselves facing the severity of stormy winds, heavy showers, heat and snow, all the while protecting us from them. The birth of trees is the most blessed in the world, as they contribute unreservedly to the well-being of all creatures. Just as no needy person ever returns disappointed from the house of a benevolent individual, similarly do these trees do for those who approach them for shelter. All of their many parts - leaves, flowers, fruits, shadow, roots, bark, wood and fragrance, are useful to others… A tree does not withdraw its cooling shade even from the one who has come to cut it. —Bhagavata Purana 10.22.32-35

22 כב

(א) לְכָה דוֹדִי לִקְרַאת כַּלָּה

(ב) פְּנֵי שַׁבָּת נְקַבְּלָה

(א) שָׁמוֹר וְזָכוֹר בְּדִבּוּר אֶחָד

(ב) הִשְׁמִיעָנוּ אֵל הַמְּיֻחָד

(ג) ה' אֶחָד וּשְׁמוֹ אֶחָד

(ד) לְשֵׁם וּלְתִפְאֶרֶת וְלִתְהִלָּה

(א) לִקְרַאת שַׁבָּת לְכוּ וְנֵלְכָה

(ב) כִּי הִיא מְקוֹר הַבְּרָכָה

(ג) מֵרֹאשׁ מִקֶּדֶם נְסוּכָה

(ד) סוֹף מַעֲשֶּׂה בְּמַחֲשָׁבָה תְּחִלָּה

(א) הִתְעוֹרְרִי הִתְעוֹרְרִי

(ב) כִּי בָא אורֵךְ קוּמִי אוֹרִי

(ג) עוּרִי עוּרִי שִׁיר דַּבֵּרִי

(ד) כְּבוֹד ה' עָלַיִךְ נִגְלָּה

(א) בֹּאִי בְשָׁלוֹם עֲטֶרֶת בַּעְלָהּ

(ב) גַּם בְּשִּׂמְחָה וּבְצָהֳלָה

(ג) תּוֹךְ אֱמוּנֵי עַם סְגֻלָּה

(ד) בּוֹאִי כַלָּה בּוֹאִי כַלָּה

(1) Come, lover, to welcome the bride

(2) The face of Shabbat we will receive

(1) "Keep" and "remember" in one saying

(2) We were caused to listen by the Unified God

(3) Adonai is One, and God's Name is One

(4) To God's name, and to glory and to praise!

(1) To greet the Sabbath, come and we'll go

(2) For she is a font of blessing

(3) From the first, from of old, she was chosen

(4) Made at the end, and planned from the start

(1) Awaken yourselves! Awaken yourselves!

(2) For your light has come! Get up, my light!

(3) Wake up! Wake up! A song, speak out!

(4) The glory of Adonai upon you is revealed!

(1) Come in peace, crown of her husband

(2) As well in joy and in jubilation

(3) The midst of the faithful precious nation

(4) Enter, bride! Enter, bride!

23 כג

Lecha dodi likrat kala, p’nei Shabbat n’kabelah!

Shamor v’zachor b’dibur echad,

Hishmi’anu el ha’meyuchad.

Adonai echad u’shmo echad;

L’shem ul’tiferet v’l’tehila.

Lecha dodi likrat kala, p’nei Shabbat n’kabelah!

Likrat Shabbat l’chu v’nelcha,

Ki hi m’kor ha’bracha.

Me’rosh mi’kedem n’sucha;

Sof ma’aseh b’mach’shava t’chila.

Lecha dodi likrat kala, p’nei Shabbat n’kabelah!

Hit’oreri, hit’oreri,

Ki va orech, kumi uri.

Uri, uri, shir daberi;

K’vod Adonai alai’yich nigla.

Lecha dodi likrat kala, p’nei Shabbat n’kabelah!

Bo’i v’shalom, ateret ba’ala,

Gam b’simcha uv’ tzhala.

Toch emunei am segula; Bo’i chala, bo’i chala.

Lecha dodi likrat kala, p’nei Shabbat n’kabelah!

24 כד

עולם היצירה Olam HaYetzirah — The World of Formation

We live in the world of yetzirah: change, emotion, transformation. In this world we turn clay into bricks, iron into plows, words into poetry. In this sphere we celebrate creative power: both ours, and God's. The world of yetzirah is the world of emotions and heart. In this realm we celebrate change and creativity, flux and flow. This world is associated with the season of Spring and the element of water. To symbolize this world, we drink white wine or juice with a dash of red. This gradual deepening of color parallels the reawakening of colors in nature as the sun brings the earth back to life. In spring the sun’s rays begin to thaw the frozen earth and the first flowers appear on the hillsides. As we drink the second cup of wine or juice, white with a dash of red, may we, like the flowers, blossom into our full potential.

We add a bit of red wine or juice to the white and recite together:

בָּרוּךְ אַתָּה יי אֱלֹהֵינוּ מֶלֶךְ הָעוֹלָם בּוֹרֵא פְּרִי הַגָּפֶן.

Baruch atah Adonai Eloheinu melech ha’olam, borei pri hagafen.

Blessed are You, Adonai our God, Source of all being, creator of the fruit of the vine.

The world of yetzirah is connected with springtime. We eat fruits without protective shells — olives, dates, apricots, peaches and plums — to symbolize how, in spring, we will forget our protective attire and expose our soft bodies to the sun. Still, these fruits contain pits, reminding us that we may still have hardness around our hearts. Despite the wondrous expressions of our spirit, each of us is still tied to the hard stone of ego. We still feel the need to protect what makes us vulnerable.

As we eat the fruit of yetzirah, may our hearts be open to the feelings and needs of ourselves and others, allowing the warmth of our care to extend to the whole the world. May we find healing in the realm of emotions; may we find healing in our hearts.

We recite together the blessing for the fruits of yetzirah:

בָּרוּךְ אַתָּה יי אֱלֹהֵינוּ מֶלֶךְ הָעוֹלָם בּוֹרֵא פְּרִי הָעֵץ.

Baruch atah Adonai Eloheinu melech ha’olam, borei pri ha’etz.

Blessed are You, Adonai our God, Source of all being, creator of the fruit of the tree.

Text by Rabbi Rachel Barenblat

25 כה

Lift Every Voice and Sing
James Weldon Johnson, 1871 - 1928

Lift every voice and sing,
Till earth and heaven ring,
Ring with the harmonies of Liberty;
Let our rejoicing rise
High as the list’ning skies,
Let it resound loud as the rolling sea.
Sing a song full of the faith that the dark past has taught us,
Sing a song full of the hope that the present has brought us;
Facing the rising sun of our new day begun,
Let us march on till victory is won.

Stony the road we trod,
Bitter the chast’ning rod,
Felt in the days when hope unborn had died;
Yet with a steady beat,
Have not our weary feet
Come to the place for which our fathers sighed?
We have come over a way that with tears has been watered.
We have come, treading our path through the blood of the slaughtered,
Out from the gloomy past,
Till now we stand at last
Where the white gleam of our bright star is cast.

God of our weary years,
God of our silent tears,
Thou who hast brought us thus far on the way;
Thou who hast by Thy might,
Led us into the light,
Keep us forever in the path, we pray.
Lest our feet stray from the places, our God, where we met Thee,
Lest our hearts, drunk with the wine of the world, we forget Thee;
Shadowed beneath Thy hand,
May we forever stand,
True to our God,
True to our native land.

26 כו

Beyond Vietnam

Dr. Martin Luther King Jr. (April 4, 1967)

A true revolution of values will lay hand on the world order and say of war, “This way of settling differences is not just.” This business of burning human beings with napalm, of filling our nation’s homes with orphans and widows, of injecting poisonous drugs of hate into the veins of peoples normally humane, of sending men home from dark and bloody battlefields physically handicapped and psychologically deranged, cannot be reconciled with wisdom, justice, and love. A nation that continues year after year to spend more money on military defense than on programs of social uplift is approaching spiritual death. [sustained applause]

America, the richest and most powerful nation in the world, can well lead the way in this revolution of values. There is nothing except a tragic death wish to prevent us from reordering our priorities so that the pursuit of peace will take precedence over the pursuit of war. There is nothing to keep us from molding a recalcitrant status quo with bruised hands until we have fashioned it into a brotherhood.

27 כז

(א) חזן: בָּרְכוּ אֶת ה' הַמְברָךְ:

(ב) קהל וחזן: בָּרוּךְ ה' הַמְברָךְ לְעולָם וָעֶד:

Bless Adonai who is blessed.

Blessed is Adonai who is blessed now and forever.

28 כח

Bar'chu et Adonai ham’vorach.

Baruch Adonai ham’vorach l’olam va-ed.

29 כט

"A man should work forever, doing full and honest labor in order to rise step by step in the service of HaShem. But do not look back every few minutes to see if you are progressing. For man is like a tree. And do you look at a tree continually to see how it is growing? If you did, you would see nothing and become tired of looking, unless you prune it and protect it, trim and fertilize and water it to protect it from damage and danger and strong winds. Then the tree will grow and prosper and become beautiful. So must man rid himself of all those things which spoil him, and tend all the qualities which aid him in the service of HaShem so that he will grow and prosper. It is, however, not a virtue to measure from hour to hour how much he has grown."---Rabbi Uri of Strelisk (1757–1826)

30 ל

עולם הבריאה Olam HaBriyah — The World of Creation

We live in the world of Briyah: air, thought, contemplation. We recall the words of Genesis: “Adonai formed a human from the dust of the Earth, and blew into its nostrils the breath of life, and the human became a living being…placed in the Garden of Eden, to cultivate and protect it.” The world of briyah is the ethereal realm of thought; it is associated with the season of Summer and the element of air. One name for God is “The Breath of Life.” We breathe out what the trees breathe in; God breathes in us and through us. Briyah is the world of the holy breath of creation. In the world of briyah, we drink red wine or juice with a dash of white, reminding us that as the land becomes warmer and the colors of the fruits deepen as they ripen, we too become warmer and more open.

We add a bit of white wine or juice to the red and recite together:

בָּרוּךְ אַתָּה יי אֱלֹהֵינוּ מֶלֶךְ הָעוֹלָם בּוֹרֵא פְּרִי הַגָּפֶן.

Baruch atah Adonai Eloheinu melech ha’olam, borei pri hagafen.

Blessed are You, Adonai our God, Source of all being, creator of the fruit of the vine.

We eat soft fruits to remind ourselves to relinquish both our shells and the stones we carry inside us. In our deepest relationships, may we be like the fruit of briyah, with no inner shell and no outer façade.

As we eat the fruits representing briyah, may we find healing in our intellectual lives: in our minds, in our thoughts, in the heat of passionate argument and the light of brilliant insight.

We recite together the blessing for the fruits of briyah:

בָּרוּךְ אַתָּה יי אֱלֹהֵינוּ מֶלֶךְ הָעוֹלָם בּוֹרֵא פְּרִי הָעֵץ.

Baruch atah Adonai Eloheinu melech ha’olam, borei pri ha’etz.

Blessed are You, Adonai our God, Source of all being, creator of the fruit of the tree.

Text by Rabbi Rachel Barenblat

31 לא

(א) בָּרוּךְ אַתָּה ה'. אֱלהֵינוּ מֶלֶךְ הָעולָם. אֲשֶׁר בִּדְבָרו מַעֲרִיב עֲרָבִים. בְּחָכְמָה פּותֵחַ שְׁעָרִים. וּבִתְבוּנָה מְשַׁנֶּה עִתִּים וּמַחֲלִיף אֶת הַזְּמַנִּים. וּמְסַדֵּר אֶת הַכּוכָבִים בְּמִשְׁמְרותֵיהֶם בָּרָקִיעַ כִּרְצונו. בּורֵא יום וָלָיְלָה. גּולֵל אור מִפְּנֵי חשֶׁךְ וְחשֶׁךְ מִפְּנֵי אור. וּמַעֲבִיר יום וּמֵבִיא לָיְלָה. וּמַבְדִּיל בֵּין יום וּבֵין לָיְלָה. ה' צְבָאות שְׁמו: אֵל חַי וְקַיָּם תָּמִיד יִמְלוךְ עָלֵינוּ לְעולָם וָעֶד: בָּרוּךְ אַתָּה ה', הַמַּעֲרִיב עֲרָבִים:

Blessed are You, Adonai our God, Ruler of the universe, who speaks the evening into being, skillfully opens the gates,
thoughtfully alters the time and changes the seasons, and arranges the stars in their heavenly courses according to plan. You are Creator of day and night, rolling light away from darkness and darkness from light, transforming day into night and distinguishing one from the other.
Adonai Tz’vaot is Your Name. Ever-living God, may You reign continually over us into eternity. Blessed are You, Adonai, who brings on evening.

32 לב

Baruch atah, Adonai Eloheinu, Melech haolam, asher bid’varo maariv aravim, b’chochmah potei-ach sh’arim, uvit’vunah m’shaneh itim umachalif et haz’manim, um’sadeir et hakochavim b’mishm’roteihem barakia kirtzono. Borei yom valailah, goleil or mipnei choshech, v’choshech mipnei or. Umaavir yom umeivi lailah, umavdil bein yom uvein lailah, Adonai Tz’vaot sh’mo. El chai v’kayam, tamid yimloch aleinu l’olam va-ed. Baruch atah, Adonai, hamaariv aravim.

33 לג

Turn Turn Turn

The Byrds from Kohelet

** To everything; turn, turn, turn,
There is a season; turn, turn,
turn,
And a time to every purpose
under
heaven.

A time to be born, a time to die,
A time to plant, a time to reap,
A time to kill, a time to heal,
A time to laugh...... a time to weep, **


A time to build up, a time to break down,
A time to dance, a time to mourn,
(REST) A time to cast away stones,
A time to gather stones together **


A time of war, a time of peace,
A time of love, a time of hate,
(REST) A time you may embrace,
A time to refrain from embracing **


A time to gain, a time to lose,
A time to rend, a time to sew,
A time of love, a time of hate,
A time of peace, I swear it's not too late. **

34 לד

(ב) שְׁמַע יִשרָאֵל ה' אֱלהֵינוּ ה' אֶחָד:

(ג) בלחש - בָּרוּךְ שֵׁם כְּבוד מַלְכוּתו לְעולָם וָעֶד:

(ד) וְאָהַבְתָּ אֵת ה' אֱלהֶיךָ בְּכָל לְבָבְךָ וּבְכָל נַפְשְׁךָ וּבְכָל מְאדֶךָ: וְהָיוּ הַדְּבָרִים הָאֵלֶּה אֲשֶׁר אָנכִי מְצַוְּךָ הַיּום עַל לְבָבֶךָ: וְשִׁנַּנְתָּם לְבָנֶיךָ וְדִבַּרְתָּ בָּם בְּשִׁבְתְּךָ בְּבֵיתֶךָ וּבְלֶכְתְּךָ בַדֶּרֶךְ וּבְשָׁכְבְּךָ וּבְקוּמֶךָ: וּקְשַׁרְתָּם לְאות עַל יָדֶךָ וְהָיוּ לְטטָפת בֵּין עֵינֶיךָ: וּכְתַבְתָּם עַל מְזֻזות בֵּיתֶךָ וּבִשְׁעָרֶיךָ:

לְמַעַן תִּזְכְּרוּ וַעֲשיתֶם אֶת כָּל מִצְותָי וִהְיִיתֶם קְדשִׁים לֵאלהֵיכֶם: אֲנִי ה' אֱלהֵיכֶם אֲשֶׁר הוצֵאתִי אֶתְכֶם מֵאֶרֶץ מִצְרַיִם לִהְיות לָכֶם לֵאלהִים אֲנִי ה' אֱלהֵיכֶם. אֱמֶת:

(ז) הש"ץ חוזר ואומר: ה' אֱלהֵיכֶם אֱמֶת:

Hear, O Israel, Adonai is our God, Adonai is One!

Blessed is God’s glorious majesty forever and ever.

You shall love Adonai your God with all your heart,
with all your soul, and with all your might.
Take to heart these instructions with which I charge you this day.
Impress them upon your children.
Recite them when you stay at home and when you are away,
when you lie down and when you get up.
Bind them as a sign on your hand and let them serve as a symbol on your forehead;
inscribe them on the doorposts of your house and on your gates.

Thus you shall remember to observe all My commandments
and to be holy to your God.
I am Adonai, your God, who brought you out of the land of Egypt to be your God:
I am Adonai your God.

35 לה

Sh’ma Yisrael, Adonai Eloheinu, Adonai Echad!

Baruch shem k’vod malchuto l’olam va-ed.

V’ahavta et Adonai Elohecha,

b’chol l’vavcha uv’chol nafsh’cha uv’chol

m’odecha. V’hayu had’varim ha-eileh

asher anochi m’tzav’cha hayom al

l’vavecha. V’shinantam l’vanecha v’dibarta

bam b’shivt’cha b’veitecha uv’lecht’cha

vaderech uv’shochb’cha uv’kumecha.

Uk’shartam l’ot al yadecha v’hayu

l’totafot bein einecha. Uch’tavtam

al m’zuzot beitecha uvish’arecha.

L’maan tizk’ru, vaasitem et

kol mitzvotai vih’yitem k’doshim

l’Eloheichem. Ani Adonai Eloheichem,

asher hotzeiti et-chem mei-eretz

Mitzrayim lih’yot lachem l’Elohim

ani Adonai Eloheichem

36 לו

Adamah v'shamayim (Earth and Heavens)

Adama Ve'shamayim,

Chom Ha'esh, Tzlil ha'mayim

Ani margish zot be'gufi, be'ruchi, be'nishmati.

Heya, heya, heya, heya heya, heya, heya, ho (2x)

Heya heya, heya heya, heya, heya, heya, ho.

Love the earth, love the sky

Heat of fire, Drop of water

I can feel it in my body

In my spirit, and in my soul

Heya, heya, heya, heya heya, heya, heya, ho (2x)

I can feel it in my body

In my spirit, and in my soul

(Original chant by Tony Wrench; adapted at the Rainbow Gathering; translated into Hebrew by Shimon Lev Tahor.)

37 לז

Rabbi Adin Even-Israel Steinsaltz. “Banishment from Eden”. In the Beginning.

God sent Adam forth from the Garden to till the soil from which he had been taken, work that requires sorting out, sowing, plowing, and harvesting. In order to be able to live from the earth, man has to keep digging, weeding and drawing forth from the ground. The point is that the work of weeding out the harmful and proliferating the good can be done only in and with the earth itself. The war of man against thorns and thistles, insects and rodents, is an incessant struggle, and it is part of his work of Tikun, correcting the world.

38 לח

בָּרוּךְ אַתָּה ה' הַפּורֵש סֻכַּת שלום עָלֵינוּ וְעַל כָּל עַמּו יִשרָאֵל וְעַל יְרוּשלָיִם:

Praised are you, Lord, who spreads the shelter of peace over us, over all G-d's people Israel, and over Jerusalem.

39 לט

Baruch atah, atah Adonai haporeis sukkat shalom

Shalom aleinu v'al kol amo yisrael

(repeat)

V'al yisrushalayim v'al kol amo

V'al yirushalayim shalom.

(repeat)

-Cantor Jeff Klepper

40 מ

עולם האצילות Olam Ha’atzilut — The World of Essence

We live in the world of atzilut, essence, divine emanation. Physics tells us that what seems solid is actually filled with impossibly small spaces. Atzilut affirms this knowing: what seems like creation is actually just God. The world of atzilut is the world of essence and spirit. This world is associated with the season of Fall and the element of fire. This is the world of that which is intangible. To represent atzilut, we drink deep red wine or juice. The pure red liquid represents the full bloom of nature before the cold winter. As nature expends its last bit of energy in an explosion of colorful leaves, a full cycle is completed. As we drink the fourth cup of pure red wine or juice, may we become strong, like healthy trees, with solid roots in the ground and with our arms open to the love that surrounds us.

We take up a cup of red wine or juice and recite together:

בָּרוּךְ אַתָּה יי אֱלֹהֵינוּ מֶלֶךְ הָעוֹלָם בּוֹרֵא פְּרִי הַגָּפֶן.

Baruch atah Adonai Eloheinu melech ha’olam, borei pri hagafen.

Blessed are You, Adonai our God, Source of all being, creator of the fruit of the vine.

In the world of atzilut we eat no fruit, for this world cannot be represented by any fruit. In this spiritual world, we become aware of God’s love, mercy, and wisdom perceived with our hearts, not our senses. Our hearts are full and we praise the Source that renews all creation. The Four Worlds (Action, Emotion, Thought, and Spirit) are each nested inside each of the others. We live in all four realms at once. Sometimes we have hard shells, like the nuts of assiyah. Sometimes we have a rock inside us, like the stone fruits of yetzirah. Sometimes we are soft all the way through, like the fruits of briyah. And sometimes we are so connected with the Holy One of Blessing that we melt beyond our bodies altogether, living in atzilut. May we find blessing in each of these four ways of being, each of these four seasons, each of these four worlds.

Text by Rabbi Rachel Barenblat

41 מא

Rav Kook

Every part of the vegetable world is singing a song and bringing forth a secret of the divine mystery of the creation.

42 מב

(א) אֲדנָי שפָתַי תִּפְתָּח וּפִי יַגִּיד תְּהִלָּתֶךָ:

(1) O Lord, open my lips and my mouth will declare Your praise.

43 מג

Adonai Sifatai Tiftach U'fee Yagid Ti'heelatecha

44 מד

רַבִּי שִׁמְעוֹן וְרַבִּי אֶלְעָזָר וְרִבִּי אַבָּא וְרִבִּי יוֹסִי, הֲווֹ יַתְבֵי יוֹמָא חַד, תְּחוֹת אִילָנֵי, בְּבִקְעָתָא גַּבֵּי יַמָּא דְּגִנּוֹסָר. אָמַר רַבִּי שִׁמְעוֹן, כַּמָּה יָאֶה צִלָּא דָּא, דְּחַפְיָא עֲלָן מִגּוֹ אִילָנֵי, וַאֲנָן צְרִיכִין לְאַעְטְּרָא הַאי אֲתָר בְּמִלֵּי דְּאוֹרַיְיתָא.

Rabbi Shimon, Rabbi Elazar, Rabbi Abba, and Rabbi Yossi were sitting under the trees in the valley of the Kinneret. Rabbi Shimon said, "How beautiful is the shade with which these trees protect us; Let us crown them with words of Torah."

45מה

בשעה שברא הקבה את אדם הראשון, נטלוֹ והחזירוֹ על כל אילני גן עדן ואמר לו: ראה מעשי כמה נאים ומשובחין הן וכל מה

שבראתי בשבילך בראתי; תן דעתך שלא תקלקל ותחריב את עולמי, שאם קלקלת, אין מי שיתקן אחריך.

Ecclesiastes Rabbah 7:13.

When God created the first human, God led the human around all the trees in the Garden of Eden. God said to the human, “See My works, how beautiful and praiseworthy they are. Everything I have created has been created for your sake. Think of this, and do not corrupt or destroy My world; for if you corrupt it, there will be no one to set it right after you.”

46 מו

.אמר רב נחמן בר יצחק למה נמשלו דברי תורה כעץ שנאמר (משלי ג, יח) עץ חיים היא למחזיקים בה לומר לך מה עץ קטן מדליק את הגדול אף תלמידי חכמים קטנים מחדדים את הגדולים והיינו דאמר ר' חנינא הרבה למדתי מרבותי ומחבירי יותר מרבותי ומתלמידי יותר מכולן

Rav Nachman bar Yitzchak said: Why was the Torah compared to a tree, as it says "for it is a tree of life for those who hold fast to it" (Proverbs 3:18)? To teach you that just as a small tree may set a larger tree on fire, so too is it with scholars, where the small sharpen the large. After all, Rabbi Chanania said "I have learnt much from my teachers, and more from my friends, but from my students more than anyone"

47 מז

עשה שָׁלום בעשי"ת - הַשָּׁלום בִּמְרומָיו. הוּא יַעֲשה שָׁלום עָלֵינוּ וְעַל כָּל יִשרָאֵל. וְאִמְרוּ אָמֵן:

May the One who makes peace in the high heavens make peace for all of us, and for all Israel, Amen.

48 מח

Oseh shalom bimromav,

hu yaaseh shalom aleinu,

v’al kol Yisrael, v’imru. Amen.

49 מט
(יג) וַיִּצְעַ֣ק מֹשֶׁ֔ה אֶל־יְהוָ֖ה לֵאמֹ֑ר אֵ֕ל נָ֛א רְפָ֥א נָ֖א לָֽהּ׃ (פ)
(13) So Moses cried out to the LORD, saying, “O God, pray heal her!”
50 נ

Ana El Na Rifah Nah Lah!

51 נא

Dr. Martin Luther King Jr. "A Challenge to the Churches and Synagogues" (January 14, 1963)

The churches and synagogues have an opportunity and a duty to lift up their voices like a trumpet and declare unto the people the immorality of segregation. We must affirm that every human life is a reflex of divinity, and every act of injustice mars and defaces the image of God in man. The undergirding philosophy of segregation is diametrically opposed to the undergirding philosophy of our Judeo-Christian heritage, and all the dialectics of the logicians cannot make them lie down together.

52 נב

RABBI ABRAHAM JOSHUA HESCHEL, “RELIGION AND RACE” (JANUARY 14, 1963)

At the first conference on religion and race, the main participants were Pharaoh and Moses. Moses’ words were: “Thus says the Lord, the God of Israel, let My people go that they may celebrate a feast to Me.” While Pharaoh retorted: “Who is the Lord, that I should heed this voice and let Israel go? I do not know the Lord, and moreover I will not let Israel go.”

The outcome of that summit meeting has not come to an end. Pharaoh is not ready to capitulate. The exodus began, but is far from having been completed...

Few of us seem to realize how insidious, how radical, how universal an evil racism is. Few of us realize that racism is man’s gravest threat to man, the maximum of hatred for a minimum of reason, the maximum of cruelty for a minimum of thinking.

Perhaps this Conference should have been called “Religion or Race.” You cannot worship God and at the same time look at man as if he were a horse.

Shortly before he died, Moses spoke to his people. “I call heaven and earth to witness against you this day: I have put before you life and death, blessing and curse. Choose life” (Deuteronomy 30:19). The aim of this conference is first of all to state clearly the stark alternative. I call heaven and earth to witness against you this day: I have set before you religion and race, life and death, blessing and curse. Choose life.

“Race prejudice, a universal human ailment, is the most recalcitrant aspect of the evil in man” (Reinhold Niebuhr), a treacherous denial of the existence of God.

What is an idol? Any god who is mine but not yours, any god concerned with me but not with you, is an idol.

Faith in God is not simply an afterlife insurance policy. Racial or religious bigotry must be recognized for what it is: satanism, blasphemy.

In several ways man is set apart from all beings created in six days. The Bible does not say, God created the plant or the animal; it says, God created different kinds of plants, different kinds of animals (Genesis 1: 11 12, 21-25). In striking contrast, it does not say, God created different kinds of man, men of different colors and races; it proclaims, God created one single man. From one single man all men are descended.

To think of man in terms of white, black, or yellow is more than an error. It is an eye disease, a cancer of the soul.

The redeeming quality of man lies in his ability to sense his kinship with all men. Yet there is a deadly poison that inflames the eye, making us see the generality of race but not the uniqueness of the human face. Pigmentation is what counts. The Negro is a stranger to many souls. There are people in our country whose moral sensitivity suffers a blackout when confronted with the black man’s predicament.

How many disasters do we have to go through in order to realize that all of humanity has a stake in the liberty of one person; whenever one person is offended, we are all hurt. What begins as inequality of some inevitably ends as inequality of all...

53 נג

What a Wonderful World

I see trees of green, red roses too
I see them bloom for me and you
And I think to myself what a wonderful world

I see skies of blue and clouds of white
The bright blessed day, the dark sacred night
And I think to myself what a wonderful world

The colors of the rainbow so pretty in the sky
Are also on the faces of people going by
I see friends shaking hands saying how do you do
They're really saying I love you

I hear babies crying, I watch them grow
They'll learn much more than I'll never know
And I think to myself what a wonderful world
Yes I think to myself what a wonderful world

Songwriters: George Weiss / Robert Thiele

What a Wonderful World lyrics © BMG Rights Management, Concord Music Publishing LLC, Carlin America Inc

54 נד

[A midrashic reading of Malachi for our generation:]
“Your planet is heating like a furnace. Already droughts scorch your continents, already your waters boil into typhoons and hurricanes, already the ice melts and your sea-coasts flood. Yet even now you can turn away from the fires of coal and oil, turn to the solar energy and the winged wind that rise from a sun of justice and tranquility to heal your planet. For God’s sake, you must all take on the mantle of Elijah! Turn your own hearts to the lives of your children and the children of your children, turn their hearts to learning from the deepest teachings of the Wisdom you inherited – that together you can yet avert the utter destruction of My earth.”

(Rabbi Arthur Waskow, “A Sun of Justice with Healing in its Wings”)

55 נה

Abraham, Martin And John

Has anybody here seen my old friend Abraham,
Can you tell me where he's gone?
He freed a lotta people, but it seems the good die young
But I just looked around and he's gone.


Has anybody here seen my old friend Martin,
Can you tell me where he's gone?

He freed a lotta people, but it seems the good die young
But I just looked around and he's gone.

Has anybody here seen my old friend John,
Can you tell me where he's gone?
He freed a lotta people, but it seems the good die young
But I just looked around and he's gone.


Didn't you love the things they stood for?
Didn't they try to find some good for you and me?
And we'll be free,
Someday soon it's gonna be one day.


Has anybody here seen my old friend Bobby,
Can you tell me where he's gone?
I thought I saw him walkin' up over the hill
With Abraham, Martin and John.

Songwriters: Richard Holler

Abraham, Martin And John lyrics © Stonehenge Music

56 נו

אבל: יִתְגַּדַּל וְיִתְקַדַּשׁ שְׁמֵהּ רַבָּא. [קהל: אמן]
בְּעָלְמָא דִּי בְרָא כִרְעוּתֵהּ וְיַמְלִיךְ מַלְכוּתֵהּ בְּחַיֵּיכון וּבְיומֵיכון וּבְחַיֵּי דְכָל בֵּית יִשרָאֵל בַּעֲגָלָא וּבִזְמַן קָרִיב, וְאִמְרוּ אָמֵן: [קהל: אמן]
קהל ואבל: יְהֵא שְׁמֵהּ רַבָּא מְבָרַךְ לְעָלַם וּלְעָלְמֵי עָלְמַיָּא:
אבל: יִתְבָּרַךְ וְיִשְׁתַּבַּח וְיִתְפָּאַר וְיִתְרומַם וְיִתְנַשּא וְיִתְהַדָּר וְיִתְעַלֶּה וְיִתְהַלָּל שְׁמֵהּ דְּקֻדְשָׁא. בְּרִיךְ הוּא. [קהל: בריך הוא:]
לְעֵלָּא מִן כָּל בִּרְכָתָא בעשי”ת: לְעֵלָּא לְעֵלָּא מִכָּל וְשִׁירָתָא תֻּשְׁבְּחָתָא וְנֶחֱמָתָא דַּאֲמִירָן בְּעָלְמָא. וְאִמְרוּ אָמֵן: [קהל: אמן]
יְהֵא שְׁלָמָא רַבָּא מִן שְׁמַיָּא וְחַיִּים עָלֵינוּ וְעַל כָּל יִשרָאֵל. וְאִמְרוּ אָמֵן: [קהל: אמן]
עושה שָׁלום בעשי”ת: הַשָּׁלום בִּמְרומָיו הוּא יַעֲשה שָׁלום עָלֵינוּ וְעַל כָּל יִשרָאֵל וְאִמְרוּ אָמֵן: [קהל: אמן]

Exalted and hallowed be God’s great name in the world which God created, according to plan. May God’s majesty be revealed in the days of our lifetime and the life of all Israel — speedily, imminently, to which we say: Amen.

Blessed be God’s great name to all eternity.

Blessed, praised, honored, exalted, extolled, glorified, adored, and lauded be the name of the Holy Blessed One, beyond all earthly words and songs of blessing, praise, and comfort. To which we say: Amen.

May there be abundant peace from heaven, and life, for us and all Israel. To which we say: Amen.

May the One who creates harmony on high, bring peace us and to all Israel. To which we say: Amen.

57 נז

Yitgadal v’yitkadash sh’mei raba. B’alma di v’ra chirutei, v’yamlich malchutei, b’chayeichon uv’yomeichon uv’chayei d’chol beit Yisrael,
baagala uviz’man kariv. V’im’ru: Amen.

Y’hei sh’mei raba m’varach l’alam ul’almei almaya.

Yitbarach v’yishtabach v’yitpaar v’yitromam v’yitnasei, v’yit’hadar v’yitaleh v’yit’halal sh’mei d’Kud’sha B’rich Hu, l’eila min kol birchata v’shirata, tushb’chata v’nechemata, daamiran b’alma. V’imru: Amen.

Y’hei sh’lama raba min sh’maya, v’chayim aleinu v’al kol Yisrael. V’imru: Amen.

Oseh shalom bimromav, Hu yaaseh shalom aleinu, v’al kol Yisrael. V’imru: Amen.

58 נח

A Prayer of Reb Nachman of Bratzlav:

Master of the Universe, grant me the ability to be alone; may it be my custom to go outdoors each day among the trees and grass — among all growing things and there may I be alone, and enter into prayer, to talk with the One to whom I belong. May I express there everything in my heart, and may all the foliage of the field — all grasses, trees, and plants — awake at my coming, to send the powers of their life into the words of my prayer so that my prayer and speech are made whole through the life and spirit of all growing things, which are made as one by their transcendent Source. May I then pour out the words of my heart before your Presence like water, O Lord, and lift up my hands to You in worship, on my behalf, and that of my children! May it be Your will, O God of our ancestors, that through our eating of the fruits You have created, the trees be filled with the glory of their ability to renew themselves for new blossoming, from the start of the year to its end, so that our lives too will be renewed and filled with goodness, blessings, and peace.

59 נט

IF I HAD A HAMMER

If I had a hammer,
I'd hammer in the morning
I'd hammer in the evening,
All over this land

I'd hammer out danger,
I'd hammer out a warning,
I'd hammer out love between my brothers and my sisters,
All over this land.

If I had a bell,
I'd ring it in the morning,
I'd ring it in the evening,
All over this land

I'd ring out danger,
I'd ring out a warning
I'd ring out love between my brothers and my sisters,
All over this land.

If I had a song,
I'd sing it in the morning,
I'd sing it in the evening,
All over this land

I'd sing out danger,
I'd sing out a warning
I'd sing out love between my brothers and my sisters,
All over this land.

Well I got a hammer,
And I got a bell,
And I got a song to sing, all over this land.

It's the hammer of Justice,
It's the bell of Freedom,
It's the song about Love between my brothers and my sisters,
All over this land.

It's the hammer of Justice,
It's the bell of Freedom,
It's the song about Love between my brothers and my sisters,
All over this land.

60 ס

Rabbi Abraham Joushua Heschel, “The White Man on Trial” (1964)

The tragedy of Pharaoh was the failure to realize that the exodus from slavery could have spelled redemption for both Israel and Egypt. Would that Pharaoh and the Egyptians had joined the Israelites in the desert and together stood at the foot of Sinai!

61 סא
62 סב
(ד) וְשָׁפַט֙ בֵּ֣ין הַגּוֹיִ֔ם וְהוֹכִ֖יחַ לְעַמִּ֣ים רַבִּ֑ים וְכִתְּת֨וּ חַרְבוֹתָ֜ם לְאִתִּ֗ים וַחֲנִיתֽוֹתֵיהֶם֙ לְמַזְמֵר֔וֹת לֹא־יִשָּׂ֨א ג֤וֹי אֶל־גּוֹי֙ חֶ֔רֶב וְלֹא־יִלְמְד֥וּ ע֖וֹד מִלְחָמָֽה׃ (פ)

(4) Thus God will judge among the nations And arbitrate for the many peoples, And they shall beat their swords into plowshares And their spears into pruning hooks: Nation shall not take up Sword against nation; They shall never again know war.

63 סג

Lo yisa goy el goy kherev v'lo yilm'du od milkhamah.