Two Donkeys, One World
1 א
(ד) לֹא־תִרְאֶה֩ אֶת־חֲמ֨וֹר אָחִ֜יךָ א֤וֹ שׁוֹרוֹ֙ נֹפְלִ֣ים בַּדֶּ֔רֶךְ וְהִתְעַלַּמְתָּ֖ מֵהֶ֑ם הָקֵ֥ם תָּקִ֖ים עִמּֽוֹ׃ (ס)
(4) If you see your fellow’s ass or ox fallen on the road, do not ignore it; you must help him raise it.
2 ב
(ה) כִּֽי־תִרְאֶ֞ה חֲמ֣וֹר שֹׂנַאֲךָ֗ רֹבֵץ֙ תַּ֣חַת מַשָּׂא֔וֹ וְחָדַלְתָּ֖ מֵעֲזֹ֣ב ל֑וֹ עָזֹ֥ב תַּעֲזֹ֖ב עִמּֽוֹ׃ (ס)

(5) When you see the ass of your enemy lying under its burden and would refrain from raising it, you must nevertheless raise it with him.

3 ג

On Sources 1 and 2, what differences do you notice between the two verses? How might these differences be relevant?

How might you apply this mitzvah to your life?

4 ד
(ב) הקם תקים עמו. ולא לבדך כמו עזוב תעזוב עמו:
(2) you must certainly raise up with him but not alone. Compare, “you must certainly relieve with him” [Exodus 23: 5].
5 ה
(א) כי תראה חמור שנאך וגו'. הֲרֵי כִי מְשַׁמֵּשׁ לְשׁוֹן דִּלְמָא, שֶׁהוּא מֵאַרְבַּע לְשׁוֹנוֹת שֶׁל שִׁמּוּשֵׁי כִי, וְכֹה פִּתְרוֹנוֹ: שֶׁמָּא תִרְאֶה חֲמוֹרוֹ רֹבֵץ תַּחַת מַשָּׂאוֹ וחדלת מעזב לו, בִּתְמִיהָ:

(1) כי תראה חמור שנאך וגו׳ When you see the ass of your enemy lying under its burden and would refrain from raising it, etc.

כי here has the meaning of “possibly”, “perhaps”, which is one of the four meanings which the word כי serves to express.

The sense of the verse is accordingly the following: Can you possibly see his ass crouching beneath his burden and refrain from helping him?

6 ו

Give a title to Ibn Ezra's understanding of the difference between our Torah verses. Then give a title to Rashi's understanding of the difference. Give an example to explain.

Whose understanding do you relate to more (Rashi or Ibn Ezra)? Why?

7 ז
(א) [נא] לא תראה והוכפל בפ' משפטים בלשון כי תראה שיהיה בעשה ול"ת כמ"ש במכלתא (שם סי' ר), ושם אמר חמור שונאך ופה אמר חמור אחיך, כי אסור לשנאותו רק היצה"ר הטיל שנאה ביניהם כן פרשתי למעלה (סי' מג) ובמכלתא (שם סי' ר"א) ושם עוד פי' לזה:

(1) "You shall not see without...." (Deut 22:4), in parshat Mishpatim the language if the verse describes a positive commandment and a negative commandment, as it teaches in the Mechilta: "In Exodus it describes the donkey of someone whom you hate and here the donkey of your kinsman, because it is forbidden to hate him. Rather it is only the yetzer hara that brings about hatred between them...

8 ח

What does Malbim add to the discussion?

How might this teaching apply to your life?