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What do we mean by 'Tikkun?'

Source Sheet by Getzel Davis
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Created May 21, 2015 · 2268 Views · נוצר 21 May, 2015 · 2268 צפיות ·

  1. (ט) וַיֹּאמֶר ה' אֶל מֹשֶׁה הִנֵּה אָנֹכִי בָּא אֵלֶיךָ בְּעַב הֶעָנָן בַּעֲבוּר יִשְׁמַע הָעָם בְּדַבְּרִי עִמָּךְ וְגַם בְּךָ יַאֲמִינוּ לְעוֹלָם וַיַּגֵּד מֹשֶׁה אֶת דִּבְרֵי הָעָם אֶל ה'. (י) וַיֹּאמֶר ה' אֶל מֹשֶׁה לֵךְ אֶל הָעָם וְקִדַּשְׁתָּם הַיּוֹם וּמָחָר וְכִבְּסוּ שִׂמְלֹתָם. (יא) וְהָיוּ נְכֹנִים לַיּוֹם הַשְּׁלִישִׁי כִּי בַּיּוֹם הַשְּׁלִישִׁי יֵרֵד ה' לְעֵינֵי כָל הָעָם עַל הַר סִינָי.

    (9) And God said unto Moses: ‘Lo, I come to you in a thick cloud, that the people may hear when I speak with you, and may also believe in you for ever.’ And Moses told the words of the people to God. (10) And God said to Moses: ‘Go to the people, and sanctify them to-day and to-morrow, and let them wash their garments, (11) and be ready on the third day; for on the third day God will come down in the sight of all the people upon mount Sinai.

  2. (א) והיו נכנים. אולי לא יישן אדם בהם בלילה. שישמעו קול ה' בבקר. כדרך כהן גדול ביום הכפורים:

    12th Century Spain 

    Be Ready: Perhaps a person shouldn't sleep on them at night, because they will hear the voice of God in the morning, like the way of the Kohen Gadol on Yom Kippur.

  3.  למלך שגזר ליום פלוני, אני נכנס למדינה, וישנו להם בני המדינה כל הלילה. וכשבא המלך ומצאם ישנים, העמיד עליהם בקלאנין בוקינס ושופר, והיה השר של אותה מדינה, מעוררן ומוציאן לאפנתי של מלך, והיה המלך מהלך לפניהם, עד שהגיע לפלטין שלו. כך הקדוש ברוך הוא הקדים, דכתיב: ויהי ביום השלישי בהיות הבקר. וכתיב: כי ביום השלישי ירד ה' לעיני כל העם. ישנו להם ישראל כל אותו הלילה, לפי ששינה של עצרת עריבה והלילה קצרה. אמר ר' יודן: אפילו פורטענא לא עקץ בם. 

    6th Century Israel

    ... It is like a king, who said that he is coming on a particular day, and the people slept on the night before the king arrived.  He found them sleeping, and sounded trumpets to wake them up...  So too, the people of Israel slept all of the night before the giving of Torah ... because the sleep of the season is sweet, and the night is short.  Rav Yudan says, even a flea didn't bite them ... 

  4. Sefer Ha-Zohar 1:9a

    13th Century Spain

    Rabbi Shimon would sit and study Torah all night when the bride was about to be united with her husband. As we have learned that the companions of the household in the bride’s palace are needed on that night when the bride is prepared for her meeting on the morrow with her husband under the bridal canopy.

    They need to be with her all that night and rejoice with her in the preparations with which she is adorned, studying Torah, from the Humash to the Prophets, and from the Prophets to the Writings, and then to the midrashic and mystical interpretations of the verses, for these are her adornments and her finery.

    And she enters with her maidens and stands above their heads, and she is made ready by them, and rejoices with them throughout the night. And on the morrow she does not enter the bridal canopy without them, and they are the ones called “the sons of the bridal canopy.” When she enters the bridal canopy the Holy One, blessed be He, inquires after them,and blesses them, and crowns them with the bridal crowns.Blessed is their portion.

    And Rabbi Shimon with all his companions would sing the song of the Torah, and they would produce, every one of them, new interpretations of Torah, and Rabbi Simon and all his companions would rejoice.

    Rabbi Shimon said to them: My children, blessed is your portion, because tomorrow the bride will not enter the bridal canopy without you, for all those who concern themselves with her adornments on this night and rejoice with her will be listed and inscribed in the Book of Remembrance, and the Holy One,blessed be He, will bless them with the seventy blessings and crowns of the supernal world...

    [9b] Sit dear ones, sit! Let us renew the adornment of the Bride tonight. For everyone joining Her on this night will be protected, above and below, that entire year and will live through the year in peace. Of them it is written,The angel of YHVH encamps around those in awe of Him and delivers them. Taste and see that YHVH is good Psalms 34:8.

  5. Excerpt from the letter of Rabbi Shlomo HaLevi Alkabetz 1533

    The pious one (Rabbi Yosef Caro) and I agreed to make a mighty effort on Shavuot night to keep sleep from our eyes, and not to stop learning for even one second. Thank God we were successful. Indeed, when you hear what transpired, it will enliven your souls...

    But what will be told next won't be believed. After all the verses [of Torah], we recited aloud all the Mishna's of Zera'im (the first of the Six Orders), and then we started again, learning it in the way of true learning, and we completed two tractates. At that moment, the Creator graced us and we heard a great voice coming from Rabbi Caro, the words unintelligible. The people nearby heard but could not understand. The voice was very pleasing but at the same time was growing continually stronger, and we fell on our faces from the great awe. No one dared to lift his eyes and face to see. The voice spoke:

    "Listen my beloved, those who most glorify the Creator, my loved ones, peace to you. Happy are you and happy those that bore you. Happy are you in this world and happy you will be in the World to Come, because you took it upon yourselves to crown Me on this night. It has been many years since my crown has fallen, and there has been no one to comfort Me. I had been cast to the dust embracing the filth, but now you have restored the crown...

    "Fortunate are you, my children. Return to your learning and do not stop one minute. Move to the Land of Israel, because not all times are equal, and there is no preventing salvation, whether by much or by a little. Do not value your belongings, for you will partake of the best of the supernal levels.

    And if you desire and will obey, the choicest of that land you will consume. Therefore, hurry and travel there for I am the cause that sustains you, and will continue to sustain you. Peace to you in your houses, and peace in all there is to you. Eternal G-d gives strength to His people and blesses them with peace'."

  6. (א) ביום חמישים לספירת העמר הוא חג השבועות. וסדר התפלה כמו ביום טוב של פסח, אלא שאומרים "את יום חג השבועות הזה זמן מתן תורתנו". וגומרים ההלל. ומוציאין שני ספרים, וקורין בראשון חמשה מ"מחדש השלישי" עד סוף הסדר, ומפטיר קורא בשני "וביום הבכורים" ומפטיר במרכבה דיחזקאל ומסים בפסוק "ותשאני רוח".

    (1565) Tzfat, Israel

    (1) The fiftieth day of the count of the Omer is the holiday of Shavuot. The order of prayer is like the holiday of Passover, rather we say "the Holiday of Shavuot, the time of the giving of our Torah". We say full Hallel. We take out two Torah scrolls and read in the first one five [sections] from "The third month" until the end of the order. The Maftir is read in the second scroll, "On the day of the first fruits". As Haftorah we read the chariot of Ezekiel, and end with the verse "and the wind took me up."

  7. מגן אברהם א׳:תצ״ד:א׳

    (א) איתא בזוהר שחסידים הראשונים היו נעורים כל הלילה ועוסקים בתורה. וכבר נהגו רוב הלומדים לעשות כן. ואפשר לתת טעם על פי (ה)פשוטו, לפי שישראל היו ישנים כל הלילה והוצרך הקב"ה להעיר אותם, כדאיתא במדרש, לכן אנו צריכים לתקן זה.

    Magen Avraham 1:494:1

    17th Century Poland

    It is stated in the Zohar that on Shavuot the pious of former times would stay awake all night and engage in Torah study. The majority of Torah students (rov halomdim) have already adopted this practice. A reason for this which is based on the simple explanation, that the children of Israel slept all night [before the Torah was given] and the Holy One, Blessed be He needed to wake them [to receive the Torah.] as it says in the midrash. Consequently we are required to make amends (litaken) for this.

  8. Philo: On A Contemplative Life

    1st Century Alexandria

    VII (65) In the first place, these men assemble at the end of seven weeks, venerating not only the simple week of seven days, but also its multiplied power, for they know it to be pure and always virgin; and it is a prelude and a kind of forefeast of the greatest feast, which is assigned to the number fifty, the most holy and natural of numbers, being compounded of the power of the right-angled triangle, which is the principle of the origination and condition of the whole...

    X. (75) These, then, are the first circumstances of the feast; but after the guests have sat down to the table in the order which I have been describing, and when those who minister to them are all standing around in order, ready to wait upon them, and when there is nothing to drink, the one [who presides] will speak, [after a general silence has been achieved -- one might ask when there is not silence,] but [now] even more so than before -- so that no one ventures to mutter, or even to breathe at all hard, and then he searches out some passage in the sacred writings, or explains some difficulty which is proposed by someone else, without any thoughts of display on his own part, for he is not aiming at reputation for cleverness and eloquence, but is only desirous to see some points more accurately, and is content when he has thus seen them himself not to bear ill will to others, who, even if they did not perceive the truth with equal acuteness, have at all events an equal desire of learning. (76) And he, indeed, follows a slower method of instruction, dwelling on and lingering over his explanations with repetitions, in order to imprint his conceptions deep in the minds of his hearers, for as the understanding of his hearers is not able to keep up with the interpretation of one who goes on fluently, without stopping to take breath, it gets behind-hand, and fails to comprehend what is said; (77) but the hearers, fixing their eyes and attention upon the speaker, remain in one and the same position listening attentively, indicating their attention and comprehension by their nods and looks, and the praise which they are inclined to bestow on the speaker by the cheerfulness and gentle manner in which they follow him with their eyes and with the fore-finger of the right hand. And the young men who are standing around attend to this explanation no less than the guests themselves who are sitting at meat. (78) And these explanations of the sacred writings are delivered by mystic expressions in allegories, for the whole of the law appears to these men to resemble a living animal, and its express commandments seem to be the body, and the invisible meaning concealed under and lying beneath the plain words resembles the soul, in which the rational soul begins most excellently to contemplate what belongs to itself, as in a mirror, beholding in these very words the exceeding beauty of the sentiments, and unfolding and explaining the symbols, and bringing the secret meaning naked to the light to all who are able by the light of a slight intimation to perceive what is unseen by what is visible.

    XI. (83) And after the feast they celebrate the sacred festival during the whole night; and this nocturnal festival is celebrated in the following manner: they all stand up together, and in the middle of the entertainment two choruses are formed at first, the one of men and the other of women, and for each chorus there is a leader and chief selected, who is the most honourable and most excellent of the band. (84) Then they sing hymns which have been composed in honour of God in many metres and tunes, at one time all singing together, and at another moving their hands and dancing in corresponding harmony, and uttering in an inspired manner songs of thanksgiving, and at another time regular odes, and performing all necessary strophes and antistrophes. (89) therefore, being intoxicated all night till the morning with this beautiful intoxication, without feeling their heads heavy or closing their eyes for sleep, but being even more awake than when they came to the feast, as to their eyes and their whole bodies, and standing there till morning, when they saw the sun rising they raised their hands to heaven, imploring tranquillity and truth, and acuteness of understanding. And after their prayers they each retired to their own separate abodes, with the intention of again practising the usual philosophy to which they had been wont to devote themselves.

     

  9. R’ Zaddok HaKohen of Lublin Pri Zaddik Shavu’ot, #1 (Translation by R. Ebn Leader)

    Regarding the custom to be awake all night on Shavu’ot, the Magen Avraham writes that this is to rectify the fact that our ancestors at the time of Sinai overslept before receiving the Torah. This is attested in the Midrash and in Pirkei D’Rabbi Eliezer. Actually, the language of the Midrash does not imply that there was anything negative about their sleeping that night....

    In the first year after leaving Egypt the people prepared themselves to receive Torah...They had forsaken all worldly matters as the prophet says: “you followed me in the desert”. (Jeremiah 2:2) This alludes to a (mental) place that is desolate and barren from all worldly matters. However, they did not yet have an Oral Torah. Their solution for this was to connect to God through sleep. This meant leaving themselves and all of their faculties in God’s hands. This is an even greater achievement than actually toiling in the study of Oral Torah. One who achieves this is known as God’s beloved, as it is indeed said of the generation of the desert – “I remember…your love as a bride”. (Jeremiah 2:2)... A person who is beloved of God will merit the same achievement through sleep. This was the case with Solomon as it is taught: “And he awoke, and it was a dream” (1 st Kings, 3:15) …and when a bird chirped, he understood its chirping. “And he made a feast for all his servants”; Rabbi Elazar said, this is the source for making a feast to celebrate finishing Torah. This was also the case with our patriarch Jacob as it says: “he dreamt… and God stood over him”. (Genesis, 28:12-13) This was the level the generation of the desert achieved just before the giving of Torah. They were able to cleave to God in sleep through a dream vision. This is referred to by the verse “If there be a prophet among you, I God, make Myself known to him in a vision, I speak with him in a dream”. (Numbers 12:6) At the actual moment of the giving of Torah they achieved the level of our teacher Moshe, may he rest in peace, of whom it is said – “With him I speak mouth to mouth”. (Numbers 12:8) The same is said regarding the people of Israel – “Face to face the Lord spoke to you, etc”. (Deuteronomy 5:4) (It is true that in the introduction to the Zohar it says that one should study the books of Torah, Prophets, and the Writings. This is related to a different matter – establishing the decorations of the bride with the twenty four books of the bible, as is known. However, the ultimate goal of purity is achieved by study of Oral Torah specifically, as explained previously.)

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