Good Touch, Bad Touch: Ritual Impurification as a means of Othering
1 א

(ז) וָאָב֖וֹא לִֽירוּשָׁלִָ֑ם וָאָבִ֣ינָה בָרָעָ֗ה אֲשֶׁ֨ר עָשָׂ֤ה אֶלְיָשִׁיב֙ לְט֣וֹבִיָּ֔ה לַעֲשׂ֥וֹת לוֹ֙ נִשְׁכָּ֔ה בְּחַצְרֵ֖י בֵּ֥ית הָאֱלֹהִֽים׃ (ח) וַיֵּ֥רַֽע לִ֖י מְאֹ֑ד וָֽאַשְׁלִ֜יכָה אֶֽת־כָּל־כְּלֵ֧י בֵית־טוֹבִיָּ֛ה הַח֖וּץ מִן־הַלִּשְׁכָּֽה׃ (ט) וָאֹ֣מְרָ֔ה וַֽיְטַהֲר֖וּ הַלְּשָׁכ֑וֹת וָאָשִׁ֣יבָה שָּׁ֗ם כְּלֵי֙ בֵּ֣ית הָאֱלֹהִ֔ים אֶת־הַמִּנְחָ֖ה וְהַלְּבוֹנָֽה׃ (פ) (י) וָאֵ֣דְעָ֔ה כִּֽי־מְנָי֥וֹת הַלְוִיִּ֖ם לֹ֣א נִתָּ֑נָה וַיִּבְרְח֧וּ אִישׁ־לְשָׂדֵ֛הוּ הַלְוִיִּ֥ם וְהַמְשֹׁרְרִ֖ים עֹשֵׂ֥י הַמְּלָאכָֽה׃

(7) When I arrived in Jerusalem, I learned of the outrage perpetrated by Eliashib on behalf of Tobiah in assigning him a room in the courts of the House of God. (8) I was greatly displeased, and had all the household gear of Tobiah thrown out of the room; (9) I gave orders to purify the rooms, and had the equipment of the House of God and the meal offering and the frankincense put back. (10) I then discovered that the portions of the Levites had not been contributed, and that the Levites and the singers who performed the [temple] service had made off, each to his fields.

2 ב

(טו) בַּיָּמִ֣ים הָהֵ֡מָּה רָאִ֣יתִי בִֽיהוּדָ֣ה ׀ דֹּֽרְכִֽים־גִּתּ֣וֹת ׀ בַּשַּׁבָּ֡ת וּמְבִיאִ֣ים הָעֲרֵמ֣וֹת וְֽעֹמְסִ֪ים עַל־הַחֲמֹרִ֟ים וְאַף־יַ֜יִן עֲנָבִ֤ים וּתְאֵנִים֙ וְכָל־מַשָּׂ֔א וּמְבִיאִ֥ים יְרוּשָׁלִַ֖ם בְּי֣וֹם הַשַּׁבָּ֑ת וָאָעִ֕יד בְּי֖וֹם מִכְרָ֥ם צָֽיִד׃ (טז) וְהַצֹּרִים֙ יָ֣שְׁבוּ בָ֔הּ מְבִיאִ֥ים דָּ֖אג וְכָל־מֶ֑כֶר וּמֹכְרִ֧ים בַּשַּׁבָּ֛ת לִבְנֵ֥י יְהוּדָ֖ה וּבִירוּשָׁלִָֽם׃ (יז) וָאָרִ֕יבָה אֵ֖ת חֹרֵ֣י יְהוּדָ֑ה וָאֹמְרָ֣ה לָהֶ֗ם מָֽה־הַדָּבָ֨ר הָרָ֤ע הַזֶּה֙ אֲשֶׁ֣ר אַתֶּ֣ם עֹשִׂ֔ים וּֽמְחַלְּלִ֖ים אֶת־י֥וֹם הַשַּׁבָּֽת׃ (יח) הֲל֨וֹא כֹ֤ה עָשׂוּ֙ אֲבֹ֣תֵיכֶ֔ם וַיָּבֵ֨א אֱלֹהֵ֜ינוּ עָלֵ֗ינוּ אֵ֚ת כָּל־הָרָעָ֣ה הַזֹּ֔את וְעַ֖ל הָעִ֣יר הַזֹּ֑את וְאַתֶּ֞ם מוֹסִיפִ֤ים חָרוֹן֙ עַל־יִשְׂרָאֵ֔ל לְחַלֵּ֖ל אֶת־הַשַּׁבָּֽת׃ (פ)

(15) At that time I saw men in Judah treading winepresses on the sabbath, and others bringing heaps of grain and loading them onto asses, also wine, grapes, figs, and all sorts of goods, and bringing them into Jerusalem on the sabbath. I admonished them there and then for selling provisions. (16) Tyrians who lived there brought fish and all sorts of wares and sold them on the sabbath to the Judahites in Jerusalem. (17) I censured the nobles of Judah, saying to them, “What evil thing is this that you are doing, profaning the sabbath day! (18) This is just what your ancestors did, and for it God brought all this misfortune on this city; and now you give cause for further wrath against Israel by profaning the sabbath!”

3 ג

(יט) וְאִשָּׁה֙ כִּֽי־תִהְיֶ֣ה זָבָ֔ה דָּ֛ם יִהְיֶ֥ה זֹבָ֖הּ בִּבְשָׂרָ֑הּ שִׁבְעַ֤ת יָמִים֙ תִּהְיֶ֣ה בְנִדָּתָ֔הּ וְכָל־הַנֹּגֵ֥עַ בָּ֖הּ יִטְמָ֥א עַד־הָעָֽרֶב׃ (כ) וְכֹל֩ אֲשֶׁ֨ר תִּשְׁכַּ֥ב עָלָ֛יו בְּנִדָּתָ֖הּ יִטְמָ֑א וְכֹ֛ל אֲשֶׁר־תֵּשֵׁ֥ב עָלָ֖יו יִטְמָֽא׃ (כא) וְכָל־הַנֹּגֵ֖עַ בְּמִשְׁכָּבָ֑הּ יְכַבֵּ֧ס בְּגָדָ֛יו וְרָחַ֥ץ בַּמַּ֖יִם וְטָמֵ֥א עַד־הָעָֽרֶב׃ (כב) וְכָל־הַנֹּגֵ֔עַ בְּכָל־כְּלִ֖י אֲשֶׁר־תֵּשֵׁ֣ב עָלָ֑יו יְכַבֵּ֧ס בְּגָדָ֛יו וְרָחַ֥ץ בַּמַּ֖יִם וְטָמֵ֥א עַד־הָעָֽרֶב׃ (כג) וְאִ֨ם עַֽל־הַמִּשְׁכָּ֜ב ה֗וּא א֧וֹ עַֽל־הַכְּלִ֛י אֲשֶׁר־הִ֥וא יֹשֶֽׁבֶת־עָלָ֖יו בְּנָגְעוֹ־ב֑וֹ יִטְמָ֖א עַד־הָעָֽרֶב׃ (כד) וְאִ֡ם שָׁכֹב֩ יִשְׁכַּ֨ב אִ֜ישׁ אֹתָ֗הּ וּתְהִ֤י נִדָּתָהּ֙ עָלָ֔יו וְטָמֵ֖א שִׁבְעַ֣ת יָמִ֑ים וְכָל־הַמִּשְׁכָּ֛ב אֲשֶׁר־יִשְׁכַּ֥ב עָלָ֖יו יִטְמָֽא׃ (פ) (כה) וְאִשָּׁ֡ה כִּֽי־יָזוּב֩ ז֨וֹב דָּמָ֜הּ יָמִ֣ים רַבִּ֗ים בְּלֹא֙ עֶת־נִדָּתָ֔הּ א֥וֹ כִֽי־תָז֖וּב עַל־נִדָּתָ֑הּ כָּל־יְמֵ֞י ז֣וֹב טֻמְאָתָ֗הּ כִּימֵ֧י נִדָּתָ֛הּ תִּהְיֶ֖ה טְמֵאָ֥ה הִֽוא׃ (כו) כָּל־הַמִּשְׁכָּ֞ב אֲשֶׁר־תִּשְׁכַּ֤ב עָלָיו֙ כָּל־יְמֵ֣י זוֹבָ֔הּ כְּמִשְׁכַּ֥ב נִדָּתָ֖הּ יִֽהְיֶה־לָּ֑הּ וְכָֽל־הַכְּלִי֙ אֲשֶׁ֣ר תֵּשֵׁ֣ב עָלָ֔יו טָמֵ֣א יִהְיֶ֔ה כְּטֻמְאַ֖ת נִדָּתָֽהּ׃ (כז) וְכָל־הַנּוֹגֵ֥עַ בָּ֖ם יִטְמָ֑א וְכִבֶּ֧ס בְּגָדָ֛יו וְרָחַ֥ץ בַּמַּ֖יִם וְטָמֵ֥א עַד־הָעָֽרֶב׃ (כח) וְאִֽם־טָהֲרָ֖ה מִזּוֹבָ֑הּ וְסָ֥פְרָה לָּ֛הּ שִׁבְעַ֥ת יָמִ֖ים וְאַחַ֥ר תִּטְהָֽר׃

(19) When a woman has a discharge, her discharge being blood from her body, she shall remain in her impurity seven days; whoever touches her shall be unclean until evening. (20) Anything that she lies on during her impurity shall be unclean; and anything that she sits on shall be unclean. (21) Anyone who touches her bedding shall wash his clothes, bathe in water, and remain unclean until evening; (22) and anyone who touches any object on which she has sat shall wash his clothes, bathe in water, and remain unclean until evening. (23) Be it the bedding or be it the object on which she has sat, on touching it he shall be unclean until evening. (24) And if a man lies with her, her impurity is communicated to him; he shall be unclean seven days, and any bedding on which he lies shall become unclean. (25) When a woman has had a discharge of blood for many days, not at the time of her impurity, or when she has a discharge beyond her period of impurity, she shall be unclean, as though at the time of her impurity, as long as her discharge lasts. (26) Any bedding on which she lies while her discharge lasts shall be for her like bedding during her impurity; and any object on which she sits shall become unclean, as it does during her impurity: (27) whoever touches them shall be unclean; he shall wash his clothes, bathe in water, and remain unclean until evening. (28) When she becomes clean of her discharge, she shall count off seven days, and after that she shall be clean.

4 ד

(ב) לֹֽא־יָבֹ֧א פְצֽוּעַ־דַּכָּ֛א וּכְר֥וּת שָׁפְכָ֖ה בִּקְהַ֥ל יְהוָֽה׃ (ס) (ג) לֹא־יָבֹ֥א מַמְזֵ֖ר בִּקְהַ֣ל יְהוָ֑ה גַּ֚ם דּ֣וֹר עֲשִׂירִ֔י לֹא־יָ֥בֹא ל֖וֹ בִּקְהַ֥ל יְהוָֽה׃ (ס) (ד) לֹֽא־יָבֹ֧א עַמּוֹנִ֛י וּמוֹאָבִ֖י בִּקְהַ֣ל יְהוָ֑ה גַּ֚ם דּ֣וֹר עֲשִׂירִ֔י לֹא־יָבֹ֥א לָהֶ֛ם בִּקְהַ֥ל יְהוָ֖ה עַד־עוֹלָֽם׃ (ה) עַל־דְּבַ֞ר אֲשֶׁ֨ר לֹא־קִדְּמ֤וּ אֶתְכֶם֙ בַּלֶּ֣חֶם וּבַמַּ֔יִם בַּדֶּ֖רֶךְ בְּצֵאתְכֶ֣ם מִמִּצְרָ֑יִם וַאֲשֶׁר֩ שָׂכַ֨ר עָלֶ֜יךָ אֶת־בִּלְעָ֣ם בֶּן־בְּע֗וֹר מִפְּת֛וֹר אֲרַ֥ם נַהֲרַ֖יִם לְקַֽלְלֶֽךָּ׃

(2) No one whose testes are crushed or whose member is cut off shall be admitted into the congregation of Adonai. (3) No one misbegotten shall be admitted into the congregation of Adonai; none of his descendants, even in the tenth generation, shall be admitted into the congregation of Adonai. (4) No Ammonite or Moabite shall be admitted into the congregation of Adonai; none of their descendants, even in the tenth generation, shall ever be admitted into the congregation of Adonai, (5) because they did not meet you with food and water on your journey after you left Egypt, and because they hired Balaam son of Beor, from Pethor of Aram-naharaim, to curse you.—

5 ה
"Gag Rule for Gentiles" May 5, 2010 The New York Jewish Week
http://jewishweek.timesofisrael.com/gag-rule-for-gentiles/
A few months ago, I attended a Federation of Jewish Men's Clubs workshop for the Conservative movement's Jewish Theological Seminary students, where the Federation’s executive director, Rabbi Charles Simon, noted that the restrictions many synagogues debate about where non-Jews can stand or if they can touch the Torah are “minhag,” or tradition, rather than Jewish law. “It’s about perception, culture, how do you create a sacred space,” he said. “It’s not necessarily a halachic issue. How you handle this is up to you, but don’t get stuck thinking that Jewish law prohibits things it does not actually prohibit."