Sheep and Judaism
Shatnez
1 א
(ג) וַֽיְהִ֖י מִקֵּ֣ץ יָמִ֑ים וַיָּבֵ֨א קַ֜יִן מִפְּרִ֧י הָֽאֲדָמָ֛ה מִנְחָ֖ה לַֽיהוָֽה׃ (ד) וְהֶ֨בֶל הֵבִ֥יא גַם־ה֛וּא מִבְּכֹר֥וֹת צֹאנ֖וֹ וּמֵֽחֶלְבֵהֶ֑ן וַיִּ֣שַׁע ה' אֶל־הֶ֖בֶל וְאֶל־מִנְחָתֽוֹ׃ (ה) וְאֶל־קַ֥יִן וְאֶל־מִנְחָת֖וֹ לֹ֣א שָׁעָ֑ה וַיִּ֤חַר לְקַ֙יִן֙ מְאֹ֔ד וַֽיִּפְּל֖וּ פָּנָֽיו׃ (ו) וַיֹּ֥אמֶר ה' אֶל־קָ֑יִן לָ֚מָּה חָ֣רָה לָ֔ךְ וְלָ֖מָּה נָפְל֥וּ פָנֶֽיךָ׃ (ז) הֲל֤וֹא אִם־תֵּיטִיב֙ שְׂאֵ֔ת וְאִם֙ לֹ֣א תֵיטִ֔יב לַפֶּ֖תַח חַטָּ֣את רֹבֵ֑ץ וְאֵלֶ֙יךָ֙ תְּשׁ֣וּקָת֔וֹ וְאַתָּ֖ה תִּמְשָׁל־בּֽוֹ׃ (ח) וַיֹּ֥אמֶר קַ֖יִן אֶל־הֶ֣בֶל אָחִ֑יו וַֽיְהִי֙ בִּהְיוֹתָ֣ם בַּשָּׂדֶ֔ה וַיָּ֥קָם קַ֛יִן אֶל־הֶ֥בֶל אָחִ֖יו וַיַּהַרְגֵֽהוּ׃

(3) And in process of time it came to pass, that Cain brought of the fruit of the ground an offering unto the LORD. (4) And Abel, he also brought of the firstlings of his flock and of the fat thereof. And the LORD had respect unto Abel and to his offering; (5) but unto Cain and to his offering He had not respect. And Cain was very wroth, and his countenance fell. (6) And the LORD said unto Cain: ‘Why art thou wroth? and why is thy countenance fallen? (7) If thou doest well, shall it not be lifted up? and if thou doest not well, sin coucheth at the door; and unto thee is its desire, but thou mayest rule over it.’ (8) And Cain spoke unto Abel his brother. And it came to pass, when they were in the field, that Cain rose up against Abel his brother, and slew him.

2 ב

"Rabbeinu Bachya writes that the prohibition of shatnes is related to Kayin and Hevel, the first naturally born human beings who each represented opposite extremes of good and evil. Wool, which represents the sacrifice brought by the shepherd Hevel from sheep, and linen or flax seeds, which the Medrash tells us was the species offered by Kayin, cannot be mingled, as it ultimately led to the destruction of both Kayin and Hevel. Thus according to Rabbeinu Bachya, the Torah precludes the use of shatnes because the combination of wool and linen is symbolic of the joining together of two opposing forces which allow certain celestial powers to exert destructive forces on the world. If, however, we make a conscious effort to keep wool and linen totally separate and distinct, we counteract these forces and actually help generate greater peace in the world."

Shatnez
3 ג

(א) אין אסור משום כלאים אלא צמר ופשתים. ואינו מטמא בנגעים אלא צמר ופשתים. אין הכהנים לובשין לשמש בבית המקדש אלא צמר ופשתים. צמר גמלים וצמר רחלים שטרפן זה בזה, אם רב מן הגמלים, מתר, ואם רב מן הרחלים, אסור, מחצה למחצה, אסור. וכן הפשתן והקנבוס שטרפן זה בזה.

(ב) השיריים והכלך אין בהם משום כלאים, אבל אסורים מפני מראית העין. הכרים והכסתות אין בהם משום כלאים, ובלבד שלא יהיה בשרו נוגע בהן. אין עראי לכלאים. ולא ילבש כלאים אפלו על גבי עשרה, אפלו לגנוב את המכס.

(ג) מטפחות הידים, מטפחות הספרים, מטפחות הספג, אין בהם משום כלאים. רבי אליעזר אוסר. ומטפחות הספרים, אסורות משום כלאים.

(ד) תכריכי המת ומרדעת שלחמור, אין בהם משום כלאים. לא יתן את המרדעת על כתפו אפלו להוציא עליה זבל.

(ה) מוכרי כסות מוכרין כדרכן, ובלבד שלא יתכונו בחמה מפני החמה, ובגשמים מפני הגשמים. והצנועים מפשילין במקל.

(ו) תופרי כסות תופרין כדרכן, ובלבד שלא יתכונו בחמה מפני החמה, ובגשמים מפני הגשמים. והצנועים תופרים בארץ.

(ז) הברסין והברדסין והדלמטקיון ומנעלות הפינון, לא ילבש בהן עד שיבדק. רבי יוסי אומר, הבאים מחוף הים וממדינת הים אינן צריכין בדיקה, מפני שחזקתן בקנבוס. ומנעל שלזרד אין בו משום כלאים.

(ח) אין אסור משום כלאים אלא טווי וארוג, שנאמר (דברים כב) לא תלבש שעטנז, דבר שהוא שוע טווי ונוז. רבי שמעון בן אלעזר אומר, נלוז ומליז הוא את אביו שבשמים עליו.

(1) The prohibition of kilayim [in clothing material] applies only to [sheep's] wool and linen, and only wool and linen can become unclean by negaim [diseased patches on skin, clothes, or houses that create impurity]. The priests, while in the service in the Temple only wear [garments] of wool and linen. Camel's wool and sheep's wool that have been mixed together, if the majority [of the wool] is from the camel, it is permitted [to mix them with linen, since the minority is annuled by the majority]. If the majority is from the sheep, it is forbidden [to mix them with linen]. If they are half and half [equal amounts], they are forbidden. The same [rule] applies to hemp and flax that have been mixed together.

(2) Shirayim [type of silk that resembles flax] and kolach [a type of silk that resembles wool], are not subject to the laws of kilayim, but are [nevertheless] forbidden due to their appearances. Mattresses and pillows are not subject to the laws of kilayim [by laying on them], provided one's flesh do not touch them. There is no [exemption for the] temporary wearing of kilayim and one may not wear kilayim even on top of ten [other garments], even if it only to evade paying customs.

(3) Hand towels, scroll covers and bath towels, are not subject to the laws of kilayim. Rabbi Eliezer prohibits them. Barbers' towels are subject to the laws of kilayim.

(4) Shrouds for the dead, and the pack-saddle of a donkey, are not subject to the laws of kilayim. One may not put a pack-saddle on his shoulder even to carry out dung in it.

(5) Clothing salesmen [who display their wares by wearing them] may sell [kilayim clothing] in their usual manner [of sale], provided they have no intention [to protect themselves] against the sun in the sun and against the rain in the rain. The [particularly] observant [salesmen] will suspend them [the clothing] over a stick [behind them and not wear them].

(6) Tailors [who use kilayim threads] may sew the clothes in their usual way [placing the garment on their laps], provided they have no intention [of protecting themselves] against the sun in the sun and ahainst the rain in the rain. The [particularly] observant [tailors] will place the garment on the ground [to sew it].

(7)Birsin [a kind of blanket or cloak made of woolen cloth], Bardosin [a kind of blanket or cloak made of thick woolen cloth], Dalmatikon [long undergarments of Dalmation wool], and felt shoes may not be worn until they have been inspected [to see if they contain kilayim]. Rabbi Yosi says, Those [woolen garments] that come from the seacoast or from overseas do not require inspection, for we can assume that they are made of hemp. Cloth-lined shoes [made for warmth] are not subject to the law of kilayim.

(8) Only that which is spun or woven is prohibited under the laws of kilayim, for it is written "you shall not wear Sha'atnez (Devarim 22:11), [The word Sha'atnez is composed of the words] Shua combed, Tavui spun and nuz woven. Rabbi Shimon ben Eleazar says, [The word Sha'atnez suggests, that whoever wears Sha'atnez], naluz [is estranged] and umeiliz [he estranges] his father in heaven against him.

Akeidat Yitzchak
4 ד

(י) וַיִּשְׁלַ֤ח אַבְרָהָם֙ אֶת־יָד֔וֹ וַיִּקַּ֖ח אֶת־הַֽמַּאֲכֶ֑לֶת לִשְׁחֹ֖ט אֶת־בְּנֽוֹ׃ (יא) וַיִּקְרָ֨א אֵלָ֜יו מַלְאַ֤ךְ ה' מִן־הַשָּׁמַ֔יִם וַיֹּ֖אמֶר אַבְרָהָ֣ם ׀ אַבְרָהָ֑ם וַיֹּ֖אמֶר הִנֵּֽנִי׃ (יב) וַיֹּ֗אמֶר אַל־תִּשְׁלַ֤ח יָֽדְךָ֙ אֶל־הַנַּ֔עַר וְאַל־תַּ֥עַשׂ ל֖וֹ מְא֑וּמָּה כִּ֣י ׀ עַתָּ֣ה יָדַ֗עְתִּי כִּֽי־יְרֵ֤א אֱלֹהִים֙ אַ֔תָּה וְלֹ֥א חָשַׂ֛כְתָּ אֶת־בִּנְךָ֥ אֶת־יְחִידְךָ֖ מִמֶּֽנִּי׃ (יג) וַיִּשָּׂ֨א אַבְרָהָ֜ם אֶת־עֵינָ֗יו וַיַּרְא֙ וְהִנֵּה־אַ֔יִל אַחַ֕ר נֶאֱחַ֥ז בַּסְּבַ֖ךְ בְּקַרְנָ֑יו וַיֵּ֤לֶךְ אַבְרָהָם֙ וַיִּקַּ֣ח אֶת־הָאַ֔יִל וַיַּעֲלֵ֥הוּ לְעֹלָ֖ה תַּ֥חַת בְּנֽוֹ׃

(10) And Abraham stretched forth his hand, and took the knife to slay his son. (11) And the angel of the LORD called unto him out of heaven, and said: ‘Abraham, Abraham.’ And he said: ‘Here am I.’ (12) And he said: ‘Lay not thy hand upon the lad, neither do thou any thing unto him; for now I know that thou art a God-fearing man, seeing thou hast not withheld thy son, thine only son, from Me.’ (13) And Abraham lifted up his eyes, and looked, and behold behind him a ram caught in the thicket by his horns. And Abraham went and took the ram, and offered him up for a burnt-offering in the stead of his son.

Goshen
5 ה
(ג) וַיֹּ֧אמֶר פַּרְעֹ֛ה אֶל־אֶחָ֖יו מַה־מַּעֲשֵׂיכֶ֑ם וַיֹּאמְר֣וּ אֶל־פַּרְעֹ֗ה רֹעֵ֥ה צֹאן֙ עֲבָדֶ֔יךָ גַּם־אֲנַ֖חְנוּ גַּם־אֲבוֹתֵֽינוּ׃ (ד) וַיֹּאמְר֣וּ אֶל־פַּרְעֹ֗ה לָג֣וּר בָּאָרֶץ֮ בָּאנוּ֒ כִּי־אֵ֣ין מִרְעֶ֗ה לַצֹּאן֙ אֲשֶׁ֣ר לַעֲבָדֶ֔יךָ כִּֽי־כָבֵ֥ד הָרָעָ֖ב בְּאֶ֣רֶץ כְּנָ֑עַן וְעַתָּ֛ה יֵֽשְׁבוּ־נָ֥א עֲבָדֶ֖יךָ בְּאֶ֥רֶץ גֹּֽשֶׁן׃
(3) And Pharaoh said unto his brethren: ‘What is your occupation?’ And they said unto Pharaoh: ‘Thy servants are shepherds, both we, and our fathers.’ (4) And they said unto Pharaoh: ‘To sojourn in the land are we come; for there is no pasture for thy servants’flocks; for the famine is sore in the land of Canaan. Now therefore, we pray thee, let thy servants dwell in the land of Goshen.’
Korban Pesach
6 ו
(ג) דַּבְּר֗וּ אֶֽל־כָּל־עֲדַ֤ת יִשְׂרָאֵל֙ לֵאמֹ֔ר בֶּעָשֹׂ֖ר לַחֹ֣דֶשׁ הַזֶּ֑ה וְיִקְח֣וּ לָהֶ֗ם אִ֛ישׁ שֶׂ֥ה לְבֵית־אָבֹ֖ת שֶׂ֥ה לַבָּֽיִת׃ (ד) וְאִם־יִמְעַ֣ט הַבַּיִת֮ מִהְיֹ֣ת מִשֶּׂה֒ וְלָקַ֣ח ה֗וּא וּשְׁכֵנ֛וֹ הַקָּרֹ֥ב אֶל־בֵּית֖וֹ בְּמִכְסַ֣ת נְפָשֹׁ֑ת אִ֚ישׁ לְפִ֣י אָכְל֔וֹ תָּכֹ֖סּוּ עַל־הַשֶּֽׂה׃
(3) Speak ye unto all the congregation of Israel, saying: In the tenth day of this month they shall take to them every man a lamb, according to their fathers’houses, a lamb for a household; (4) and if the household be too little for a lamb, then shall he and his neighbour next unto his house take one according to the number of the souls; according to every man’s eating ye shall make your count for the lamb.
Hashem is Our Shepherd
7 ז

(א) מִזְמ֥וֹר לְדָוִ֑ד ה' רֹ֝עִ֗י לֹ֣א אֶחְסָֽר׃ (ב) בִּנְא֣וֹת דֶּ֭שֶׁא יַרְבִּיצֵ֑נִי עַל־מֵ֖י מְנֻח֣וֹת יְנַהֲלֵֽנִי׃ (ג) נַפְשִׁ֥י יְשׁוֹבֵ֑ב יַֽנְחֵ֥נִי בְמַעְגְּלֵי־צֶ֝֗דֶק לְמַ֣עַן שְׁמֽוֹ׃ (ד) גַּ֤ם כִּֽי־אֵלֵ֨ךְ בְּגֵ֪יא צַלְמָ֡וֶת לֹא־אִ֘ירָ֤א רָ֗ע כִּי־אַתָּ֥ה עִמָּדִ֑י שִׁבְטְךָ֥ וּ֝מִשְׁעַנְתֶּ֗ךָ הֵ֣מָּה יְנַֽחֲמֻֽנִי׃ (ה) תַּעֲרֹ֬ךְ לְפָנַ֨י ׀ שֻׁלְחָ֗ן נֶ֥גֶד צֹרְרָ֑י דִּשַּׁ֖נְתָּ בַשֶּׁ֥מֶן רֹ֝אשִׁ֗י כּוֹסִ֥י רְוָיָֽה׃ (ו) אַ֤ךְ ׀ ט֤וֹב וָחֶ֣סֶד יִ֭רְדְּפוּנִי כָּל־יְמֵ֣י חַיָּ֑י וְשַׁבְתִּ֥י בְּבֵית־ה' לְאֹ֣רֶךְ יָמִֽים׃

(1) A Psalm of David. The LORD is my shepherd; I shall not want. (2) He maketh me to lie down in green pastures; He leadeth me beside the still waters. (3) He restoreth my soul; He guideth me in straight paths for His name's sake. (4) Yea, though I walk through the valley of the shadow of death, I will fear no evil, for Thou art with me; Thy rod and Thy staff, they comfort me. (5) Thou preparest a table before me in the presence of mine enemies; Thou hast anointed my head with oil; my cup runneth over. (6) Surely goodness and mercy shall follow me all the days of my life; And I shall dwell in the house of the LORD for ever.

Reishit HaGez
8 ח

(א) ראשית הגז נוהג בארץ ובחוצה לארץ, בפני הבית ושלא בפני הבית, בחלין אבל לא במקדשין. חמר בזרוע ובלחיים ובקבה מראשית הגז, שהזרוע והלחיים והקבה נוהגים בבקר ובצאן, במרבה ובמועט, וראשית הגז, אינו נוהג אלא ברחלות, ואינו נוהג אלא במרבה.

(ב) וכמה הוא מרבה, בית שמאי אומרים: שתי רחלות, שנאמר (ישעיה ז) יחיה איש עגלת בקר ושתי צאן. ובית הלל אומרים: חמש, שנאמר (שמואל א כה) חמש צאן עשויות. רבי דוסא בן הרכינס אומר: חמש רחלות גוזזות מנה [מנה] ופרס, חיבות בראשית הגז. וחכמים אומרים: חמש רחלות גוזזות כל שהן. וכמה נותנין לו, משקל חמש סלעים ביהודה, שהן עשר סלעים בגליל, מלבן ולא צואי, כדי לעשות ממנו בגד קטן, שנאמר (דברים יח) תתן לו, שיהא בו כדי מתנה. לא הספיק לתנו לו עד שצבעו, פטור. לבנו ולא צבעו, חיב. הלוקח גז צאנו של נכרי, פטור מראשית הגז. הלוקח גז צאנו של חברו, אם שיר [המוכר] המוכר חיב, לא שיר הלוקח חיב. היו לו שני מינין, שחופות ולבנות, מכר לו שחופות אבל לא לבנות, זכרים אבל לא נקבות, זה נותן לעצמו וזה נותן לעצמו.

(1) The [law of giving] the first sheared fleece applies in the land [of Israel] and outside of the land, at the time of the Temple and not at the time of the Temple, for chulin [produce or food permitted for general consumption], but not for mukdashim [animals or food which are holy and not available for general consumption]. The stringency of [giving gifts of] the shoulder, the cheeks, and the stomach over the first sheared fleece is that the shoulder, the cheeks and the stomach apply for cattle and for flock, for many or a for a few. But the first sheared fleece only applies for sheep, and only applies for many.

(2) And how many is "many?" Beit Shammai says, "Two sheep, as it says, 'A man will raise a calf and two sheep,' (Isaiah 7:21)." And Beit Hillel says, "Five, as it says, 'Five prepared sheep,' (2 Samuel 25:18)." Rabbi Dosa ben Hurkinos says, "Five sheep, [from which] their fleece is a maneh [a specific unit of weight] and a half, are obligated in the first shearing." But the Sages say, "Five sheep of any amount [of fleece]." And how much do we give to him [the kohen]? The weight of five sela'im [a specific unit of weight] in Judah - which are ten sela'im in the Galilee - whitened and not dirty, in order to make from it a small garment. As it says, "give to him," (Deuteronomy 18:4), that there will be [enough] in it for a gift [the words for "gift" and "give" coming from the same root]. [If] one did not succeed to give it to him by the time one colored it, one is exempt. If one whitened it and did not color it, one is obligated. One who purchases the fleece of a sheep of a non-Jews is exempt from [the law] of first sheared fleece. One who purchases the shearing of a sheep of his fellow, if [the seller] keeps some, the seller is obligated [for the first shearing]. [If the seller] did not keep some, the buyer is obligated. [If] one had two types, gray and white, and sold to another gray but not white [fleece], [or] male but not female, this one gives for himself and this one gives for himself.