Sefer Abudraham, Birkhot HaShakhar
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ספר אבודרהם ברכות השחר
והנשים נוהגות לברך במקום שלא עשני אשה שעשני כרצונו כמי שמצדיק את הדין על הרעה הבאה עליו.
Women who cannot say “who has not made me a woman” [should replace that blessing with] “who has made me according to his will”—“like one who justifies an evil decree that has come upon him. [Translation by Rabbi Steve Greenberg]
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Suggested Discussion Questions:

1. The idea of "justifying Divine judgment, "tzidduk hadin," has broad application. It typically refers to the confronting of a difficult human reality that seems to undermine belief in God's goodness. It is an affirmation of the limits of human understanding and a trust that, despite appearances, the world is a good place. The archetype of tzidduk hadin is saying the blessing "baruch dayan ha'emet" (blessed is the true judge) upon the death of a loved one. The Abudraham says that the morning blessing that women say is such a tzidduk hadin. What do you think of this interpretation of the blessing?

2. Can you offer another interpretation of the meaning of the blessing that women are to recite?

3. In liberal prayer books both of these blessings have been replaced by a single blessing in gratitude for being created in the image of God. How do you feel about this substitution?

4. Are there any advantages to keeping the blessing women say? What if we expand its recitation beyond women? What meanings does this blessing acquire if men recite it, if lesbians recite it or if trans people recite it?

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Time Period: Medieval (Geonim through the 16th Century)