The Four Names of Passover
1א

חג החרות

The Holiday of the Freedom

2 ב

עֲבָדִים הָיִינוּ לְפַרְעֹה בְּמִצְרָיִם, וַיּוֹצִיאֵנוּ ה' אֱלֹהֵינוּ מִשָּׁם בְּיָד חֲזָקָה וּבִזְרֹעַ נְטוּיָה. וְאִלּוּ לֹא הוֹצִיא הַקָּדוֹשׁ בָּרוּךְ הוּא אֶת אֲבוֹתֵינוּ מִמִּצְרָיִם, הֲרֵי אָנוּ וּבָנֵינוּ וּבְנֵי בָנֵינוּ מְשֻׁעְבָּדִים הָיִינוּ לְפַרְעֹה בְּמִצְרָיִם.

We were slaves to Pharaoh in the land of Egypt. And the Lord, our God, took us out from there with a strong hand and an outstretched forearm. And if the Holy One, blessed be He, had not taken our ancestors from Egypt, behold we and our children and our children's children would [all] be enslaved to Pharaoh in Egypt.

3 ג

מתחיל בגנות ומסיים בשבח: ...[ושמואל] אמר עבדים היינו

It was taught in the mishna that the father begins his answer with disgrace and concludes with glory... And Shmuel said: The disgrace with which one should begin his answer is: We were slaves.

4 ד

1. How do you understand the term "slavery in Egypt"?

2. Why we are still considering as slaves?

3. What does it mean to tell the story of Pesach with disgrace?

Connection to Haggadah: Maggid - Avadim Ahinu - We were slaves in Egypt

5ה

חג הפסח

Holiday of the Pesach Lamb - Community

6 ו
(ג) דַּבְּר֗וּ אֶֽל־כָּל־עֲדַ֤ת יִשְׂרָאֵל֙ לֵאמֹ֔ר בֶּעָשֹׂ֖ר לַחֹ֣דֶשׁ הַזֶּ֑ה וְיִקְח֣וּ לָהֶ֗ם אִ֛ישׁ שֶׂ֥ה לְבֵית־אָבֹ֖ת שֶׂ֥ה לַבָּֽיִת׃ (ד) וְאִם־יִמְעַ֣ט הַבַּיִת֮ מִהְיֹ֣ת מִשֶּׂה֒ וְלָקַ֣ח ה֗וּא וּשְׁכֵנ֛וֹ הַקָּרֹ֥ב אֶל־בֵּית֖וֹ בְּמִכְסַ֣ת נְפָשֹׁ֑ת אִ֚ישׁ לְפִ֣י אָכְל֔וֹ תָּכֹ֖סּוּ עַל־הַשֶּֽׂה׃
(3) Speak to the whole community of Israel and say that on the tenth of this month each of them shall take a lamb to a family, a lamb to a household. (4) But if the household is too small for a lamb, let him share one with a neighbor who dwells nearby, in proportion to the number of persons: you shall contribute for the lamb according to what each household will eat.
7 ז
מנהני מילי דת"ר (שמות יב, ד) במכסת מלמד שאין הפסח נשחט אלא למנויו

As the Sages taught with regard to the verse: “And if the household be too little for a lamb, then he and his neighbor who is close to his house shall take one according to the number of the souls; according to every man’s eating you shall make your count for the lamb” (Exodus 12:4). “According to the number of” teaches that the Paschal lamb is slaughtered only for those who have registered for it. Everything is done according to the number of people who have registered before the slaughtering.

8 ח

1. Why do you think they need to register for the Pesach lamb?

2. What is the function of the Pesach Lamb?

3. What is the model of community that we can see here?

Connection to the Haggadah: Magid: Raban Gamliel said you should mention 3 things on your Seder night: Pesach, Matzah and Maror.

9ט

חג המצות

Holiday of the Matzah: Memory

10 י

הָא לַחְמָא עַנְיָא דִּי אֲכָלוּ אַבְהָתָנָא בְאַרְעָא דְמִצְרָיִם. כָּל דִכְפִין יֵיתֵי וְיֵיכֹל, כָּל דִצְרִיךְ יֵיתֵי וְיִפְסַח. הָשַּׁתָּא הָכָא, לְשָׁנָה הַבָּאָה בְּאַרְעָא דְיִשְׂרָאֵל. הָשַּׁתָּא עַבְדֵי, לְשָׁנָה הַבָּאָה בְּנֵי חוֹרִין.

This is the bread of destitution that our ancestors ate in the land of Egypt. Anyone who is famished should come and eat, anyone who is in need should come and partake of the Pesach sacrifice. Now we are here, next year we will be in the land of Israel; this year we are slaves, next year we will be free people.

11 יא

(א) כהא לחמא עניא די אכלו אבהתנא בארעא דמצרים כו'. ר"ל כי כשיושבין לסדר ביציאת מצרים פותחין בכבודו ית"ש תחילה ומספרין לבני הבית הא לחמא עניא די אכלו אבהתנא בארעא דמצרים, אשר ברוב כשופיהם וכחות הכו"מ לא היה עבד יכול לברוח משם, ואבותינו יצאו משם ת"ר אלף ביד רמה,

(1) Matzah: A Remembrance of History and a Symbol of Hope:
This is like the bread of poverty which our ancestors ate: As we begin the Haggadah, we do so by emphasizing the power of God. Matzah serves as a symbol of memory. When we refer to the bread of affliction we are reminded that despite the fact that Pharaoh was so powerful that no slave ever escaped from Egypt, we were able to do so with the help of God. Matzah teaches us that we could not have escaped from Egypt on our own. Other people would have taken credit for their escape, but the bread of affliction is a reminder that we were powerless on our own.

12 יב

1. What is the memory that Matzah is representing?

2. Do we still need to have that memory today?

3. How the memory of the Matzah can be a symbol of hope?

Connection to the Haggadah: Magid, Ha Lachma Anya.

13יג

חג האביב

Holiday of Spring - Growing up

14 יד

כַּמָה מַעֲלוֹת טוֹבוֹת לַמָּקוֹם עָלֵינוּ!

How many degrees of good did the Place [of all bestow] upon us!

15 טו

אִלּוּ הוֹצִיאָנוּ מִמִצְרַיִם וְלֹא עָשָׂה בָהֶם שְׁפָטִים, דַּיֵּנוּ.

If He had taken us out of Egypt and not made judgements on them; [it would have been] enough for us.

16 טז

אִלּוּ קֵרְבָנוּ לִפְנֵי הַר סִינַי, וְלא נַתַן לָנוּ אֶת־הַתּוֹרָה. דַּיֵּנוּ.

If He had brought us close to Mount Sinai and had not given us the Torah; [it would have been] enough for us.

17 יז

אִלּוּ נַתַן לָנוּ אֶת־הַתּוֹרָה וְלֹא הִכְנִיסָנוּ לְאֶרֶץ יִשְׂרָאֵל, דַּיֵּנוּ.

If He had given us the Torah and had not brought us into the land of Israel; [it would have been] enough for us.

18 יח

(א) כמה מעלות טובות למקום עלינו וכו'. הרב המורה (פרק נ"ד מחלק ג') ביאר כי שלימות האדם הם ארבעה מינים, (א) שלימות הקנין כמו ממון ובגדים וקרקעות ועדים וכדומה. (ב) שלימות המזג והוא חוזק הגוף ושווי אבריו נערכים וחזקים כראוי. ~(ג) שלימות המדות והוא שיהיו מדותיו שלימות על תכלית מעלת המין האנושי. (ד) שלימות האנושי האמיתי והוא ציור המושכלות האמתיות בענינים האלהיים ועניני התורה והחכמה. והנה דבריו כנים ואמתיי אצל אנשים חפשיים מכל שעבוד ועבדות,

(1) Preface to Dayyenu
How many are the good things God has done for us: Maimonides, in his Guide for the Perplexed, Part III, chapter 59, explains that there are four types of perfection which a person can strive for. 1) One can strive for material perfection by acquiring wealth and other property. 2) One can gain physical perfection by working to improve one's body. 3) Personal perfection is reflected in developing virtues and character. 4) Human perfection is reflected in the development of the mind and attaining knowledge of Torah and wisdom. Such forms of perfection are only possible for those who are not enslaved by others.

19 יט

1. What is the value of being free as a person? What can you gain?

2. What is growing up means and why it was enough for us all of those things?

Connection to the Haggadah: Maggid, Dayenu