מתני׳ כל התדיר מחבירו קודם את חבירו התמידין קודמין למוספין מוספי שבת קודמין למוספי ר"ח מוספי ר"ח קודמין למוספי ר"ה שנאמר (במדבר כח, כג) מלבד עולת הבקר אשר לעולת התמיד תעשו את אלה:
MISHNA: Any offering that is more frequent than another precedes the other offering. Therefore, the daily offerings precede the additional offerings, which are sacrificed only on certain days. When Shabbat and the New Moon coincide, the additional Shabbat offerings precede the additional New Moon offerings. Likewise, the additional New Moon offerings precede the additional New Year offerings. The mishna cites the source for the principle that the frequent precedes the less frequent: As it is stated with regard to the additional offerings of the first day of Passover: “Besides the burnt offering of the morning, which is for a daily burnt offering, you shall offer these” (Numbers 28:23). The verse indicates that the daily offering is sacrificed first, and then the additional offerings are sacrificed.
גמ׳ מנא לן מנא לן כדקאמר טעמא מלבד עולת הבקר דילמא תמידין הן דקדמו למוספין משום דתדירי מוספין למוספין מנ"ל
GEMARA: The Gemara asks: From where do we derive the principle that the frequent precedes the less frequent? The Gemara expresses puzzlement at this question: From where do we derive this? One must say that the reason is stated in the mishna, which says that it is derived from the verse: “Besides the burnt offering of the morning.” The Gemara explains: If that verse is the only source, it could be claimed that perhaps it is only the daily offerings that precede the additional offerings, because they are far more frequent, as they are sacrificed daily. With regard to the precedence of a relatively frequent additional offering over a relatively less frequent additional offering, the question arises: From where do we derive this?
א"ר אילעא דאמר קרא (במדבר כח, כד) כאלה תעשו ליום שבעת ימים אלה כאלה
Rabbi Ile’a said that it is derived from the fact that the verse states with regard to the additional offerings of Passover: “Like these you shall offer daily, for seven days” (Numbers 28:24). This verse, which immediately follows the one cited previously, indicates that the principle that governs these additional offerings shall be like the principle governing those daily offerings and additional offerings mentioned previously, i.e., the more frequent precedes the less frequent.
והאי מיבעי ליה לגופיה א"כ ניכתוב אלה תעשו ליום
The Gemara challenges: But that verse is required to teach its own halakha, that the additional offerings of the first day of Passover recur on each day of Passover. The Gemara answers: If so, let the verse write: These you shall offer daily. Since the Torah writes: “Like these,” both the halakha that these additional offerings are brought on each day of Passover and the principle concerning precedence can be derived from this verse.
אי כתב אלה תעשו ליום שבעת הימים ה"א אלה לשבעת הימים (אין מידי אחרינא לא) ליום כתיב
The Gemara rejects this suggestion: If the verse had written only: These you shall offer daily for the seven days, I would say that these offerings mentioned in the previous verse are sacrificed in total, over the seven days. Therefore, the Torah writes: “Like these,” to teach that they are all sacrificed each day. The Gemara counters: That interpretation is not possible, as the phrase: “You shall offer daily,” is written in the verse, which indicates that these offerings are sacrificed on each of the seven days.
ואכתי אימא אלה ליום אבל שאר יומי לא ידענא כמה אמר קרא תעשו שיהו כל העשיות שוות
The Gemara challenges: And still, one can say that these specific offerings are required for the first day; but with regard to the other days, I do not know how many offerings are to be sacrificed. Therefore, the term “like these” is needed to teach this, and cannot be used for the principle that relatively frequent additional offerings precede relatively less frequent additional offerings. The Gemara answers: That interpretation is also not possible, as the verse states: “You shall offer [ta’asu],” indicating that all the sacrificial rites [asiyyot] on all the days of Passover should be equal. Therefore, the term “like these” is in fact superfluous and can be cited as the source of the principle of precedence.
אביי אמר מגופה דקרא אם כן לימא קרא מלבד עולת הבקר ותישתוק אשר לעולת התמיד ל"ל למימר דהך דתדירא תיקדום:
Abaye said: The application of the principle of precedence to all frequent offerings can be derived from the verse itself, cited in the mishna. The reason is that if so, that only the daily offering precedes less frequent offerings, let the verse say merely: “Besides the burnt offering of the morning,” and remain silent from the rest of the verse. Why do I need the additional phrase: “Which is for a daily burnt offering”? This serves to say that this offering that is more frequent, i.e., any more frequent offering, should precede any less frequent offering.
מתני׳ כל המקודש מחבירו קודם את חבירו דם החטאת קודם לדם העולה מפני שהוא מרצה איברי עולה קודמין לאימורי חטאת מפני שהוא כליל לאישים
MISHNA: Any offering that is more sacred than another precedes the other offering. The mishna elaborates: If there is blood of a sin offering and blood of a burnt offering to be presented, the blood of the sin offering precedes the blood of the burnt offering because it effects acceptance, i.e., atonement, for severe transgressions punishable by karet. Likewise, if there are limbs of a burnt offering and portions of a sin offering to be burned on the altar, the burning of the limbs of the burnt offering precedes the portions of the sin offering, because the burnt offering is entirely burned in the flames on the altar, whereas only part of the sin offering is burned.
חטאת קודמת לאשם מפני שדמה ניתן לד' קרנות על היסוד אשם קודם לתודה ואיל נזיר מפני שהוא קדשי קדשים תודה ואיל נזיר קודמים לשלמים מפני שהן נאכלין ליום אחד וטעונין לחם
Similarly, although both effect atonement, a sin offering precedes a guilt offering due to the fact that its blood is placed on the four corners of the altar and the remnants of its blood are poured on the base of the altar, whereas the blood of the guilt offering is sprinkled on only two corners of the altar. A guilt offering precedes a thanks offering and the nazirite’s ram due to the fact that it is an offering of the most sacred order, and the others are offerings of lesser sanctity. A thanks offering and a nazirite’s ram precede a peace offering due to the fact that they are eaten for one day, like offerings of the most sacred order, whereas a peace offering is eaten for two days, and the thanks offering and nazirite’s ram require loaves to be brought with them, four types with the thanks offering and two types with the nazirite’s ram.
השלמים קודמין לבכור מפני שהן טעונין מתן ד' [וסמיכה] ונסכים ותנופות חזה ושוק הבכור קודם למעשר מפני שקדושתו מרחם ונאכל לכהנים
Sacrifice of the peace offering precedes sacrifice of the firstborn offering due to the fact that the peace offering requires placing the blood on the altar, in the form of two placements that are four, and placing hands on the head of the offering, and libations, and the wavings of the breast and the thigh by the priest and the owner; none of which is required for the firstborn offering. The firstborn offering precedes the animal tithe offering because it is sanctified from the womb, i.e., unlike the animal tithe offering it does not require consecration, and it is eaten by the priests, whereas everyone may partake of the animal tithe offering.
המעשר קודם לעופות מפני שהוא זבח ויש בו קודש קדשים דמו ואימוריו העופות קודמין למנחות מפני שהן מיני דמים מנחת חוטא קודם למנחת נדבה מפני שהוא בא על חטא חטאת העוף קודמת לעולת העוף וכן בהקדישה:
The animal tithe offering precedes bird offerings due to the fact that it requires slaughtering, whereas the bird’s nape is pinched; and there are two elements of the animal tithe offering that have the status of offerings of the most sacred order: Its blood that is presented on the altar and its portions that are burned on the altar, whereas with regard to bird offerings only the blood is presented on the altar. The bird offerings precede meal offerings due to the fact that they are types whose blood is presented, and atonement is effected by the blood. The meal offering of a sinner precedes a voluntary meal offering due to the fact that it comes to atone for a sin. For the same reason the sacrifice of the bird sin offering precedes the sacrifice of the bird burnt offering, and likewise with regard to its consecration, the sin offering takes precedence.