Zevachim 88bזבחים פ״ח ב
The William Davidson Talmudתלמוד מהדורת ויליאם דוידסון
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88bפ״ח ב

הוגעו לנתר ואהל אף במים אין מכבסים ויש אומרים אין מכבסין אותן כל עיקר שאין עניות במקום עשירות:

But if the garments became so dirty that they reached a point that laundering them would require the use of natron or soap, then one may not launder them, even with water. And some say: One may not launder the priestly vestments at all, even if laundering them with water would suffice, because there is no poverty in a place of wealth, i.e., only priestly vestments that were clean as new should be worn, as is befitting the Temple service, and those that were laundered should not be worn.

ת"ר מעיל כולו של תכלת היה שנאמר (שמות לט, כב) ויעש את מעיל האפוד כליל תכלת שוליו כיצד מביא תכלת וארגמן ותולעת שני שזורין ועושה אותן כמין רימונים שלא פיתחו פיהן וכמין קונאות של קנסות שבראשי תינוקות

§ With regard to the priestly vestments, the Sages taught in a baraita: The robe of the High Priest was sewn entirely of sky-blue wool, as it is stated: “And he made the robe of the ephod of woven work, all of sky-blue wool” (Exodus 39:22). With regard to its skirts, concerning which it states: “And they made upon the skirts of the robe pomegranates of sky blue, and purple, and scarlet, twined” (Exodus 39:24), how were they fashioned? The tailor brings sky-blue wool, and purple wool, and scarlet wool, which are twined together, and fashions them to appear as pomegranates that have not opened their mouths, i.e., they are sewn in the appearance of pomegranates that are not yet ripe enough for the crown on top to open, and as the cones [konaot] of the helmets [kenasot] that are found on the heads of children.

ומביא שבעים ושנים זגין שבהן שבעים ושנים עינבלין ותולה בהן שלשים וששה בצד זה ושלשים וששה מצד זה רבי דוסא אומר משום רבי יהודה שלשים וששה היו שמונה עשרה מצד זה ושמנה עשרה מצד זה

And in order to fulfill that which is stated: “And they made bells of pure gold, and put the bells between the pomegranates” (Exodus 39:25), he brings seventy-two bells, i.e., the outer part of bells, made from gold, that contain inside them seventy-two bell clappers, and he suspends them on the skirts: Thirty-six of each, i.e., pomegranates and bells, on this side of the robe, and thirty-six of each on that side, as the verse states: “A bell and a pomegranate, a bell and a pomegranate, upon the skirts of the robe around it” (Exodus 39:26). Rabbi Dosa says in the name of Rabbi Yehuda: There were thirty-six bells suspended around the skirt, eighteen from this side and eighteen from that side.

אמר רבי עיניני בר ששון כמחלוקת כאן כך מחלוקת במראות נגעים דתנן מראות נגעים רבי דוסא בן הרכינס אומר ל"ו עקביא בן מהללאל אומר שבעים ושנים

Rabbi Inini bar Sason says: Just as there is a disagreement here between tanna’im with regard to the total number of bells suspended around the skirt of the robe of the High Priest, so is there a disagreement between tanna’im with regard to the total number of shades of leprous marks. As we learned in a mishna (Nega’im 1:4): With regard to the total number of shades of leprous marks, Rabbi Dosa ben Harkinas says: There are thirty-six, while Akavya ben Mahalalel says: There are seventy-two.

ואמר רבי עיניני בר ששון למה נסמכה פרשת קרבנות לפרשת בגדי כהונה לומר לך מה קרבנות מכפרין אף בגדי כהונה מכפרין

§ The Gemara cites another statement of this sage: And Rabbi Inini bar Sason says: Why was the passage in the Torah that discusses offerings (Leviticus, chapters 1–7) juxtaposed to the passage that discusses the priestly vestments (Leviticus, chapter 8)? It was juxtaposed to tell you that just as offerings effect atonement, so too, priestly vestments effect atonement.

כתונת מכפרת על שפיכות דם שנאמר (בראשית לז, לא) וישחטו שעיר עזים ויטבלו את הכתנת בדם מכנסים מכפרת על גילוי עריות שנאמר (שמות כח, מב) ועשה להם מכנסי בד [לכסות (את) בשר ערוה] מצנפת מכפרת על גסי הרוח מנין אמר רבי חנינא יבא דבר שבגובה ויכפר על גובה

The tunic atones for bloodshed, as it is stated with regard to the brothers of Joseph after they plotted to kill him: “And they killed a goat, and dipped the tunic in the blood” (Genesis 37:31). The trousers atone for forbidden sexual relations, as it is stated with regard to fashioning the priestly vestments: “And you shall make them linen trousers to cover the flesh of their nakedness” (Exodus 28:42). The mitre atones for the arrogant. From where is this derived? Rabbi Ḥanina says: It is logical that an item that is placed at an elevation, i.e., on the head of a priest, shall come and atone for the sin of an elevated heart.

אבנט מכפר על הרהור הלב ' היכא דאיתיה חושן מכפר על הדינין שנא' (שמות כח, טו) ועשית חושן משפט אפוד מכפר על עבודת כוכבים שנאמר (הושע ג, ד) אין אפוד ותרפים

Rabbi Inini bar Sason continues: The belt atones for thought of the heart. The Gemara elaborates: The belt atones for the sins occurring where it is situated, i.e., over the heart. The breastplate of the High Priest atones for improper judgments, as it is stated: “And you shall make a breastplate of judgment” (Exodus 28:15). The ephod of the High Priest atones for idol worship, as it is stated: “And without ephod or teraphim” (Hosea 3:4), meaning that when there is no ephod, the sin of teraphim, i.e., idol worship, is found. Therefore, it may be inferred that if there is an ephod, there is no sin of idol worship.

מעיל מכפר על לשון הרע מנין א"ר חנינא יבא דבר שבקול ויכפר על קול הרע וציץ מכפר על עזות פנים בציץ כתיב (שמות כח, לח) והיה על מצח אהרן ובעזות פנים כתיב (ירמיהו ג, ג) ומצח אשה זונה היה לך

The robe of the High Priest atones for malicious speech. From where is this known? Rabbi Ḥanina says: It is logical that an item that produces sound, i.e., the robe, which has bells, shall come and atone for an evil sound. And the frontplate of the High Priest atones for brazenness. This is derived from the fact that with regard to the frontplate it is written: “And it shall be upon Aaron’s forehead” (Exodus 28:38), and with regard to brazenness it is written: “And you had a harlot’s forehead” (Jeremiah 3:3).

איני והא"ר יהושע בן לוי שני דברים לא מצינו להן כפרה בקרבנות ומצינו לו כפרה ממקום אחר ואלו הן שפיכות דמים ולשון הרע

The Gemara asks: Is that so, that the priestly vestments atone for these sins? But doesn’t Rabbi Yehoshua ben Levi say: There are two matters that we do not find for them an atonement with offerings, but we find for them an atonement from another place, and they are: Bloodshed and malicious speech.

שפיכות דמים מעגלה ערופה ולשון הרע מקטרת דתני רב חנניה מנין לקטרת שמכפרת שנאמר (במדבר יז, יב) ויתן את הקטרת ויכפר על העם

With regard to bloodshed, its atonement comes from the heifer whose neck is broken. This is referring to a case where a murdered body is found but the identity of the murderer is not known. In such an instance, the Torah mandates that the neck of a heifer must be broken as an atonement for the murder. And with regard to malicious speech, its atonement comes from incense, as Rav Ḥananya teaches in a baraita: From where is it derived that the incense effects atonement? As it is stated after the Israelites spoke slanderously against Moses and Aaron and a plague was sent against them: “And he put on the incense, and made atonement for the people” (Numbers 17:12).

ותני דבי רבי ישמעאל על מה קטורת מכפרת על לשון הרע יבא דבר שבחשאי ויכפר על מעשה חשאי

The Gemara continues: And similarly, the school of Rabbi Yishmael teaches: For what does incense effect atonement? It effects atonement for malicious speech, in order that an item that is offered in private, i.e., the incense, which is offered by a priest acting alone, shall come and atone for an action generally occurring in private, i.e., malicious speech.

קשיא לשון הרע אלשון הרע קשיא שפיכות דמים אשפיכות דמים

Accordingly, there is a difficulty between that which is stated with regard to malicious speech and that which is stated with regard to malicious speech, as according to Rabbi Inini bar Sason the robe atones for malicious speech, whereas according to the baraita it is only the incense that effects atonement for that transgression. Likewise, there is a difficulty between that which is stated with regard to bloodshed and that which is stated with regard to bloodshed, as according to Rabbi Inini bar Sason the tunic effects atonement for bloodshed, whereas according to the baraita only the heifer whose neck is broken effects atonement for it.

לא קשיא הא דידיע מאן קטליה הא דלא ידיע מאן קטליה אי דידיע מאן קטליה בר קטלא הוא במזיד ולא אתרו ביה

The Gemara answers: With regard to bloodshed, it is not difficult, as this, the tunic, effects atonement for bloodshed in an instance where it is known who killed the victim, and this, the heifer, effects atonement in an instance where it is not known who killed the victim. The Gemara challenges: If it is known who killed the victim, that man is deserving of death, and there is no atonement for the community otherwise, as it is stated: “And no atonement can be made for the land for the blood that is shed within it, but by the blood of him that shed it” (Numbers 35:33). The Gemara responds: It is referring to a case where he murdered intentionally but witnesses did not forewarn him of the consequences of committing murder. Therefore, the court may not execute him, as no earthly punishment may be administered without forewarning.

ולשון הרע אלשון הרע נמי לא קשיא הא בצינעא הא בפרהסיא:

And with regard to the contradiction between that which is stated with regard to malicious speech and that which is stated with regard to malicious speech, it is also not difficult. This, the incense, effects atonement for malicious speech spoken in private, whereas this, the robe, on which the bells that produce noise are placed, effects atonement for malicious speech spoken in public.



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