Zevachim 88aזבחים פ״ח א
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88aפ״ח א

חטאת העוף פסולה היכי מזה מדמה הוה ליה ירוד שאר פסולים היכי זריק להו מדמה

then with regard to the case of a disqualified bird sin offering that was pinched at the top of the altar, how does one sprinkle from its blood on the wall of the altar? When the priest raises the bird in his hand in order to sprinkle its blood, the bird is considered to have descended from upon the altar and he cannot sprinkle its blood, as the halakha with regard to all disqualified items is that once they have descended from upon the altar they shall not ascend. Likewise, concerning the blood of other offerings that were disqualified that ascended upon the altar, how does he sprinkle from their blood, since it is sprinkled from the airspace above the altar? Rather, it must be that the airspace above the altar is considered as the altar.

דמגע להו הא הזאה היא מיצוי היא הא זריקה שפיכה היא

The Gemara rejects this proof: It is possible that in such cases one does not sprinkle the blood in its normal fashion, but in such a manner that he presses it against the wall of the altar immediately without the blood passing through the air. The Gemara rejects this suggestion: Is this considered sprinkling? It is squeezing, an act that is performed for a bird burnt offering, not for a bird sin offering. Likewise, if one sprinkles the blood of other disqualified offerings in this manner, is this sprinkling? It is pouring.

ועוד דרך הזאה בכך דרך זריקה בכך

And furthermore, with regard to a disqualified bird burnt offering, is the manner of sprinkling in such a fashion? And in the case of other disqualified offerings, is the manner of sprinkling in such a fashion? It is not. Rather, the airspace above the altar must be considered as the altar.

אמר רב אשי אי דנקט להו בראש המזבח ה"נ כי קאמר דתלנהו בקניא מאי תיקו:

Rav Ashi said: If the question concerns a case where the priest held the blood or limbs while standing at the top of the altar, they would indeed be considered as having ascended the altar, and shall not descend from it. But when the dilemma was stated with regard to the airspace above the altar, it was with regard to an instance where he suspended them with a pole above the altar, while he himself stood on the floor of the Temple courtyard. What is the halakha in such a case? The Gemara responds that the dilemma shall stand unresolved.

מתני׳ כלי הלח מקדשין את הלח ומדות יבש מקדשות את היבש אין כלי הלח מקדשת את היבש ולא יבש מקדש את הלח כלי הקודש שניקבו אם עושין בהן מעין מלאכתן שהיו עושין והן שלימים מקדשין ואם לאו אין מקדשין וכולן אין מקדשין אלא בקודש:

MISHNA: The mishna elaborates on the halakha taught in the previous mishna (86a) that service vessels sanctify items placed in them. The service vessels used for liquids sanctify only liquids used in the service, and the service vessels that serve as dry measures sanctify only dry items used in the service. The service vessels used for liquids do not sanctify dry items, and the service vessels used for dry items do not sanctify liquids. With regard to sacred vessels that were perforated, if one continues to utilize them for a use similar to the use for which they would utilize them previously when they were whole, they continue to sanctify their contents. And if not, they do not sanctify their contents. And all of these vessels sanctify items only when they are in the sacred area, i.e., the Temple courtyard.

גמ׳ אמר שמואל לא שנו אלא מדות אבל מזרקות מקדשין שנאמר (במדבר ז, יג) שניהם מלאים סולת

GEMARA: With regard to the statement of the mishna that the vessels used for liquids do not sanctify dry items, Shmuel says: The Sages taught this halakha only with regard to measures used for liquids, i.e., wine or oil. But cups, which are used for collecting the blood of offerings, sanctify dry items as well, as it is stated in the verse: “One silver cup of seventy shekels, after the shekel of the sanctuary; both of them full of fine flour mingled with oil for a meal offering” (Numbers 7:13), indicating that the cups were also fashioned for use with flour, a dry item.

א"ל רב אחא מדיפתי לרבינא מנחה לחה היא א"ל לא נצרכה אלא ליבש שבה איבעית אימא מנחה לגבי דם כיבש דמי

Rav Aḥa of Difti said to Ravina: The meal offering of the verse is also considered a liquid, as it is mixed with oil, and one cannot derive from it the halakha with regard to items that are entirely dry. Ravina said to him: The verse cited by Shmuel was only necessary to derive the halakha of the dry portions of a meal offering, teaching that even flour that remained dry because it did not get thoroughly mixed with the oil is sanctified by the cups as well. If you wish, say instead: A meal offering, even though it is mixed with oil, is, in comparison to blood, considered as a dry item. Accordingly, one can derive from the verse that the cups sanctify all dry items.

אמר שמואל כלי שרת אין מקדשין אלא שלימין אין מקדשין אלא מלאין אין מקדשין אלא מתוכן ואמרי לה אין מקדשין אלא שלימין ומלאים ומבפנים

Additionally, Shmuel says: Service vessels sanctify items only when the vessels are whole, i.e., they do not have a hole; they sanctify only full measures, i.e., when they contain a measurement fit for offering; and they sanctify items only from within them and not items that merely touched their exterior. And some say there is another version of the statement of Shmuel: Service vessels sanctify items only when the vessels are whole, and when they contain full measures, and from inside.

מאי בינייהו איכא בינייהו בירוצי מדות במתניתא תנא אין מקדשין אלא שלימין ומלאים ומתוכן ובפנים

The Gemara asks: What is the difference between these two versions? The Gemara responds: The difference between them is with regard to heaping measures. According to the first version, that service vessels sanctify only items that are within them, nothing that overflows is included. The Gemara notes that it was taught in a baraita in accordance with both versions: Service vessels sanctify items only when they are whole, and only full measurements, and from within them, and inside.

א"ר אסי א"ר יוחנן לא שנו אלא שאין דעתו להוסיף אבל דעתו להוסיף ראשון ראשון קודש

With regard to the halakha that service vessels sanctify only full measurements, Rabbi Asi says that Rabbi Yoḥanan says: They taught this halakha only when the priest’s initial intention was not to add to that which was already placed inside the vessel. But if his initial intention was to add, then each initial amount placed in the vessel becomes sacred, no matter how small.

תניא נמי הכי מלאין אין מלאין אלא שלימין אמר רבי יוסי אימתי בזמן שאין דעתו להוסיף אבל דעתו להוסיף ראשון ראשון קודש:

This distinction is also taught in a baraita: With regard to the halakha that service vessels sanctify full measurements, full measurements are nothing other than whole measurements. Rabbi Yosei said: When are full measurements whole ones? It is at a time that the priest’s intention was not to add. But if his intention was to add, each initial amount is sacred.

אין כלי הלח מקדש [וכו']: אמר רב ואיתימא רב אסי אין מקדשין ליקרב אבל מקדשין ליפסל

§ The mishna teaches that the service vessels used for liquids do not sanctify dry items. With regard to this halakha, Rav says, and some say that Rav Asi says: The service vessels used for liquids do not sanctify dry items to permit them for sacrifice upon the altar, but they sanctify dry items in order for the items to be disqualified by them, i.e., dry items placed in such vessels may be disqualified by that which disqualifies only sanctified items, e.g., if they are touched by one who immersed that day, or if they emerged from the Temple courtyard.

איכא דמתני לה אהא אין מביאין מנחות ונסכים ומנחת בהמה וביכורים מן המדומע ואין צ"ל מערלה וכלאי הכרם ואם הביא לא קדש אמר רב ואיתימא רב אסי לא קדש ליקרב אבל קדש ליפסל

There are those who teach this statement with regard to this halakha: One may not bring meal offerings, or libations, or meal offerings accompanying an animal, or first fruits, from a mixture containing teruma, since that which may not be consumed by all Jews may not be used for an offering. And needless to say, one may not bring these items from the fruit of a tree that is orla, i.e., a tree during the first three years after its planting, from which it is prohibited to eat, or from diverse kinds sown in a vineyard, both of which are prohibited for consumption to priests as well. And if he brought an offering from them, it is not sanctified. With regard to this issue, Rav says, and some say that Rav Asi says: It is not sanctified for sacrifice upon the altar, but it is sanctified in order to be disqualified.

ת"ר כלי קדש שניקבו אין מתיכין אותן ואין מתיכין לתוכן אבר נפגמו אין מתקנין אותן סכין שנפגם אין משחיזין את פגימתה נשמטה אין מחזירין אותה אבא שאול אומר סכין מטרפת היתה במקדש ונמנו עליה כהנים וגנזוה

§ With regard to perforated vessels, the Sages taught: In the case of sacred vessels that were perforated, one may not melt them in order to seal the perforation, and one may not melt lead into them for such a purpose. If the vessels were damaged, one may not repair them. Concerning a knife that was damaged, one may not sharpen the spot of its damage. If the blade separated from the handle, one may not restore it. Abba Shaul says: There was a certain knife in the Temple whose metal was soft and easily damaged, such that when used it would often render animals prohibited, thereby disqualifying them. Accordingly, the priests voted concerning it, and elected to hide it.

ת"ר בגדי כהונה אין עושין אותם מעשה מחט אלא מעשה אורג שנאמר (שמות כח, לב) מעשה אורג נתגעלו אין מכבסין לא בנתר ולא באהל

The Sages taught: Priestly vestments are not fashioned by needlework, i.e., by stitching various parts together, but rather through woven work, whereby the entire garment is initially woven into one entity, as it is stated: “Woven work” (Exodus 28:32). If the garments were soiled one may not launder them, neither with natron nor with soap, two common detergents.

הא במים מכבסין אמר אביי ה"ק הוגעו במים מכבסין אותו בנתר ואהל

The Gemara asks: But may it be inferred from this that with water one may launder the priestly vestments? Abaye said: This is what the baraita is saying: If the dirtied garments have only reached the point where laundering them with water alone would suffice, one may launder them with natron and soap, as they are not considered soiled.