Zevachim 54bזבחים נ״ד ב
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54bנ״ד ב

דגייז ליה אבנים שלמות כתיב

that he cuts the base on the southern and western sides after he has poured the mixture for the altar and it has dried, it is written concerning the altar: “You shall build the altar of the Lord your God of unhewn stones; and you shall offer burnt offerings on it to the Lord your God” (Deuteronomy 27:6), so it cannot be cut.

דמחית מידי מתותיה ושקיל ליה דאי לא תימא הכי הא דאמר רב כהנא אבנים של קרנות חלולות היו דכתיב (זכריה ט, טו) ומלאו כמזרק כזויות מזבח הכא נמי אבנים שלמות אמר רחמנא אלא דמחית מידי מתותיה ושקיל ליה ה"נ דמחית מידי מתותיה ושקיל ליה

Rav could answer: This means that he places something under the frame, in the place where there is to be no base, and after the poured mixture has dried he removes it, leaving the space empty. As if you do not say so, how will you explain that which Rav Kahana says: The stone interiors of the corners were hollow, i.e., there were gaps between the stones, as it is written: “And they shall be filled like the basins, like the corners of the altar” (Zechariah 9:15)? The verse compares the corners to hollow basins. Here too, doesn’t the Merciful One state that the altar must be made of “unhewn stones”? If so, how could the corners be hollow? Rather, it must be that he places something, e.g., sticks and twigs, under the frame and pours the mixture for the corners over it, and when it has hardened, removes the sticks and twigs, leaving the corners somewhat hollow. Here too, he places something under the frame and later removes it.

דרש רבא מאי דכתיב (שמואל א יט, יח) וילך דוד ושמואל וישבו בנויות ברמה וכי מה ענין נויות אצל רמה אלא שהיו יושבין ברמה ועוסקין בנויו של עולם

§ Apropos the altar and the Temple, the Gemara relates that Rava taught: What is the meaning of that which is written concerning David: “And he and Samuel went and dwelt in Naioth. And it was told Saul, saying: Behold, David is at Naioth [beNayot] in Ramah” (I Samuel 19:18–19)? But what does Naioth have to do with Ramah? They are in two distinct places. Rather, this means that they were sitting in Ramah and were involved in discussing the beauty [benoyo] of the world, i.e., the Temple.

אמרי כתיב (דברים יז, ח) וקמת ועלית אל המקום מלמד שבית המקדש גבוה מכל ארץ ישראל וארץ ישראל גבוהה מכל ארצות לא הוו ידעי דוכתיה היכא

David and Samuel said: It is written: “Then you shall arise, and get you up unto the place which the Lord your God shall choose” (Deuteronomy 17:8). This teaches that the Temple is higher than all places in Eretz Yisrael. And Eretz Yisrael is higher than all countries. They did not know where the highest place in Eretz Yisrael was.

אייתו ספר יהושע בכולהו כתיב (יהושע יח, יד) וירד ועלה הגבול ותאר הגבול בשבט בנימין ועלה כתיב וירד לא כתיב אמרי ש"מ הכא הוא מקומו

They brought the book of Joshua. With regard to all of the borders of the tribes it is written: “And went down” (see Joshua 15:10, 16:3, 17:9), and it is written: “And the border went up to Beth Hoglah.” (Joshua 15:6), and: “And the border was drawn from the top of the mountain to the fountain of the waters of Nephtoah” (Joshua 15:9). The verse uses different terms to describe the borders of the portion of each tribe. And with regard to the borders of the tribe of Benjamin it is written only: “And went up” (Joshua 18:11), but it is not written: “And went down.” They said: Conclude from the verses that the Temple’s place is here, in the portion of Benjamin.

סבור למבנייה בעין עיטם דמדלי אמרי ניתתי ביה קליל כדכתיב (דברים לג, יב) ובין כתפיו שכן

They thought to build it at Ein Eitam, which is higher than any other place in the portion of Benjamin. They said: Let us lower it a bit, as it is written: “He covers it throughout the day, and He dwells between his shoulders” (Deuteronomy 33:12). This indicates that the Temple is situated slightly lower, between two peaks.

ואיבעית אימא גמירי דסנהדרין בחלקו דיהודה ושכינה בחלקו דבנימין ואי מדלינן ליה מתפליג טובא מוטב דניתתי ביה פורתא כדכתיב ובין כתפיו שכן

And if you wish, say instead that it is learned as a tradition that the Sanhedrin is to be located in the portion of Judah, and the place of the Divine Presence is to be located in the portion of Benjamin. They said: And if we raise it and place it near Ein Eitam it will be too distant from the portion of Judah. They said: It is preferable that we lower it a bit, as it is written: “He covers it throughout the day, and He dwells between his shoulders” (Deuteronomy 33:12).

ועל דבר זה נתקנא דואג האדומי בדוד כדכתיב (תהלים סט, י) כי קנאת ביתך אכלתני וכתיב (תהלים קלב, א) זכור ה' לדוד את כל ענותו אשר נשבע לה' וגו' אם אבא באהל ביתי אם אתן שנת לעיני לעפעפי תנומה עד אמצא מקום לה' וגו'

And with regard to this matter, that David and Samuel discovered the location of the Temple, Doeg the Edomite was jealous of David, as it is written: “Because jealousy for Your House has eaten me up” (Psalms 69:10), and it is written: “Lord, remember for David all his affliction; how he swore to the Lord, and vowed unto the Mighty One of Jacob: I will not come into the tent of my house, nor go up into the bed that is spread for me; if I will give sleep to my eyes, or slumber to my eyelids; until I find a place for the Lord, a dwelling place for the Mighty One of Jacob” (Psalms 132:1–5).

הנה שמענוה באפרתה מצאנוה בשדה יער באפרתה זה יהושע דקאתי מאפרים מצאנוה בשדה יער זה בנימין דכתיב (בראשית מט, כז) בנימין זאב יטרף:

The verse following those verses states: “We heard of it as being in Ephrath; we found it in the field of the wood” (Psalms 132:6). Rava explains the meaning of these words: “In Ephrath”; this is a reference to Joshua, who came from the tribe of Ephraim. This alludes to the fact that David and Samuel were able to locate the highest place in Eretz Yisrael based on the book of Joshua. “We found it in the field of the wood”; this is a reference to Benjamin, as it is written concerning him: “Benjamin is a wolf that tears apart; in the morning he devours the prey, and in the evening he divides the spoil” (Genesis 49:27). A wolf is a wild animal living in the field, and David and Samuel found the location of the Temple in the portion of Benjamin.

מתני׳ זבחי שלמי צבור ואשמות אלו הן אשמות אשם גזילות אשם מעילות אשם שפחה חרופה אשם נזיר אשם מצורע אשם תלוי

MISHNA: These are the halakhot of communal peace offerings and guilt offerings. These are guilt offerings: The guilt offering for robbery, brought by one from whom another demanded payment of a debt and he denied it and took a false oath (see Leviticus 5:20–26); the guilt offering for unwitting misuse of consecrated property (see Leviticus 5:14–16); the guilt offering of an espoused maidservant, brought by one who engaged in sexual intercourse with a Canaanite maidservant betrothed to a Hebrew slave (see Leviticus 19:20–22); the guilt offering of a nazirite who became impure via contact with a corpse (see Numbers 6:12); the guilt offering of a leper, brought for his purification (see Leviticus 14:12); and the provisional guilt offering, brought by one who is uncertain as to whether he committed a sin that requires a sin offering (see Leviticus 5:17–18).

שחיטתן בצפון וקיבול דמן בכלי שרת בצפון ודמן טעון שתי מתנות שהן ארבע ונאכלין לפנים מן הקלעים לזכרי כהונה לכל מאכל ליום ולילה עד חצות:

Concerning all of these, their slaughter is in the north of the Temple courtyard and collection of their blood in a service vessel is in the north, and their blood requires two placements that are four. And the meat portions of the offering are eaten within the curtains, i.e., in the Temple courtyard, by male priests. And they are eaten prepared in any manner of food preparation, on the day the offering was sacrificed and during the night that follows, until midnight.