Zevachim 36aזבחים ל״ו א
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36aל״ו א

בפנים בחוץ ואת הניתנין בחוץ בפנים שיאכלוהו טמאים שיקריבוהו טמאים שיאכלוהו ערלים ושיקריבוהו ערלים לשבר עצמות הפסח לאכול הימנו נא ולערב דמו בדם הפסולים כשר

inside the Sanctuary outside the Sanctuary, or the blood that is to be placed outside the Sanctuary inside the Sanctuary; and likewise, if he slaughtered the animal with the intent that ritually impure people will partake of it, or that ritually impure people will sacrifice it, or that uncircumcised people will partake of it, or that uncircumcised people will sacrifice it; and likewise, with regard to the Paschal offering, if he had intent during the slaughter to break the bones of the Paschal offering, or to eat from the meat of the Paschal offering partially roasted, or to mix the blood of an offering with the blood of unfit offerings, in all these cases, although he intended to perform one of these prohibited acts, some of which would render the offering unfit, the offering is fit.

שאין מחשבה פוסלת אלא בחוץ לזמנו וחוץ למקומו והפסח והחטאת שלא לשמן:

The reason is that intent does not render the offering unfit except in cases of intent to eat or to burn the offering beyond its designated time and outside its designated area, and in addition, the Paschal offering and the sin offering are disqualified by intent to sacrifice them not for their sake.

גמ׳ מ"ט דרבי יהודה אמר רבי אלעזר תרי קראי כתיבי בנותר כתוב אחד אומר (שמות יב, י) לא תותירו ממנו עד בקר וכתוב אחד אומר (ויקרא ז, טו) לא יניח ממנו עד בקר אם אינו ענין להניח תנהו לענין מחשבת הינוח

GEMARA: The Gemara asks: What is the reasoning of Rabbi Yehuda, who deems the offering unfit if there was intent to leave it over until the next day or to take it out of its designated area? Rabbi Elazar said: There are two verses that are written with regard to notar. One verse states: “You shall let nothing of it remain until the morning, and that which remains of it until the morning you shall burn with fire” (Exodus 12:10), and one verse states: “He shall not leave any of it until the morning” (Leviticus 7:15). If the additional verse is not necessary for the matter of the prohibition against leaving it overnight, which is already mentioned by the first verse, apply it to the matter of intent of leaving it overnight, which would therefore be prohibited as well.

ורבי יהודה האי קרא להכי הוא דאתא אי מיבעי ליה לכדתניא (ויקרא ז, טו) ובשר זבח תודת שלמיו למדנו לתודה שנאכלת ליום ולילה

The Gemara asks: But according to the opinion of Rabbi Yehuda, does this verse come to teach this idea? This verse is necessary for him to derive that which is taught in a baraita: The verse states: “And the flesh of the sacrifice of his peace offerings for thanksgiving shall be eaten on the day of his offering; he shall not leave any of it until the morning” (Leviticus 7:15). From the words: “And the flesh of the sacrifice of his peace offerings for thanksgiving,” we learned with regard to a thanks offering that it is eaten for a day and a night.

חליפין וולדות תמורות מנין ת"ל ובשר חטאת ואשם מנין ת"ל זבח

With regard to animals exchanged for thanks offerings, and the offspring of thanks offerings, and the substitutes of thanks offerings, from where is it derived that they too are eaten for only a day and a night? The verse states: “And the flesh [uvesar],” and the additional “and” includes them. With regard to a sin offering and a guilt offering, from where is it derived that they are eaten for only a day and a night? The verse states: “Sacrifice,” to include other types of offerings.

ומנין לרבות שלמי נזיר ושלמי פסח ת"ל שלמיו לחמי תודה וחלות ורקיקים שבנזיר מנין ת"ל קרבנו כולן קורא אני בהן לא יניח

The baraita continues: And from where is it derived to include the peace offering of a nazirite, i.e., the ram that a nazirite brings at the close of his term of naziriteship, and the peace offering of Passover? The verse therefore states: “His peace offerings,” in the plural. With regard to the loaves of the thanks offering, and the loaves and wafers that are part of the offering brought by a nazirite, from where is it derived that they are eaten for only a day and a night? The verse states: “His offering.” With regard to all of them I will read the phrase “He shall not leave any of it until the morning” as being applicable. Evidently, this verse is necessary to teach numerous halakhot concerning the allotted time to partake of offerings.

א"כ לימא קרא לא תותירו מאי לא יניח אם אינו ענין להינוח תנהו ענין למחשבת הינוח

The Gemara answers: If so, let the verse state: And you shall let nothing of it remain until the morning, as stated in the other verse. What is indicated by the phrase “He shall not leave any of it”? If it is not necessary for the matter of the prohibition against leaving it overnight, apply it to the matter of intent to leave it overnight.

התינח להניח להוציא מאי איכא למימר

The Gemara now questions the source cited by Rabbi Elazar: This works out well to explain the opinion of Rabbi Yehuda with regard to one who had intent to leave the sacrificial portions overnight. But with regard to disqualifying the offering due to one who had intent to remove them from the Temple, what can be said to explain the source of Rabbi Yehuda, as it cannot be derived from these verses?

ועוד טעמא דר' יהודה סברא הוא דתניא אמר להם רבי יהודה אי אתם מודים שאם הניחו למחר שהוא פסול אף חישב להניחו למחר פסול אלא טעמא דרבי יהודה סברא הוא וניפלוג נמי ר"י בכולהו

And furthermore, the statement of Rabbi Elazar can be questioned, as the rationale of Rabbi Yehuda is based on logical reasoning and is not derived from a verse. This is as it is taught in a baraita: Rabbi Yehuda said to the Rabbis: Do you not concede that if he left it over until the next day that it is disqualified? So too, if he intended to leave it over until the next day it is disqualified. Clearly, Rabbi Yehuda bases his opinion on logical reasoning, as he equates intent with action. The Gemara asks: Rather, is the rationale of Rabbi Yehuda based on logical reasoning and not derived from the verse? But if so, Rabbi Yehuda should also disagree with regard to all of the other cases in the mishna due to the same reasoning.

בהי ניפלוג בשובר עצמות הפסח ולאכול ממנו נא זיבחא גופיה מי מיפסיל

The Gemara rejects this: With regard to which case should Rabbi Yehuda disagree? Should he disagree with regard to one who slaughters the offering with intent to break the bones of the Paschal offering, or with intent to partake of the Paschal offering while it is partially roasted? Even had he actually realized such intent, would the offering itself thereby be disqualified? It presumably would not, as the presenting of the blood effects acceptance.

ע"מ שיאכלוהו טמאים ושיקריבוהו טמאים זיבחא גופיה מי מיפסיל שיאכלוהו ערלים ושיקריבוהו ערלים זיבחא גופיה מי מיפסיל לישנא אחרינא כל כמיניה

Likewise, if a rite was performed on the condition that ritually impure individuals will partake of it, or that ritually impure individuals will sacrifice it, i.e., burn the sacrificial portions on the altar, would the offering itself be disqualified if such actions occurred? Likewise, if it was done with the intent that uncircumcised individuals will partake of it, or that uncircumcised individuals will sacrifice it, would the offering itself be disqualified if this occurred? The Gemara presents another version of this question: Is it in his power to execute these actions that are contingent upon the will of others?

לערב דמן בדם הפסולין רבי יהודה לטעמיה דאמר אין דם מבטל דם ליתן את הניתנין למעלה למטה למטה למעלה רבי יהודה לטעמיה דאמר שלא למקומו נמי מקומו קרינא ביה

With regard to a case where one had intent to mix their blood with the blood of unfit offerings, where Rabbi Yehuda also does not disagree with the ruling of the mishna that the offering is valid, he conforms to his line of reasoning, as he says: Blood does not nullify blood. Therefore, even if one would actually mix the two types of blood, it would not be disqualified. Likewise, in cases where one had intent to place the blood that is to be placed above the red line below the red line, or those that are to be placed below the red line above the red line, Rabbi Yehuda conforms to his line of reasoning, as he says: Blood that was not placed in its proper place on the altar is also considered to be placed in its proper place, and it effects acceptance of the offering.

וליפלוג בניתנין בפנים שנתנן בחוץ והניתנין בחוץ שנתנן בפנים

The Gemara suggests: And let him disagree with regard to a case of blood that is to be placed inside the Sanctuary that was placed outside, and blood that is to be placed outside the Sanctuary that was placed inside, as the verse explicitly states that an external sin offering whose blood was sprinkled inside is disqualified (see Leviticus 6:23).

קסבר רבי יהודה בעינן מקום שיהא משולש בדם בבשר ובאימורין

The Gemara explains: Rabbi Yehuda holds that in order to disqualify an offering with the intent to perform a rite outside its designated area, we require that the intended place have threefold functionality, i.e., for the presenting of the blood, for the eating of the meat, and for the burning of the sacrificial portions on the altar, which is true only of the area outside the Temple courtyard, which was valid for these three activities during an era in which it was permitted to sacrifice offerings on private altars. Therefore, intent to present the blood in the Sanctuary, which lacks these three elements, does not disqualify the offering, as the meat and sacrificial portions are never eaten or burned there.

ומי אית ליה לרבי יהודה האי סברא והתניא רבי יהודה אומר (דברים יז, א) דבר רע ריבה כאן חטאת ששחטה בדרום וחטאת שנכנס דמה לפנים פסולה

The Gemara asks: And does Rabbi Yehuda accept this reasoning that it must be a place of threefold functionality? But isn’t it taught in a baraita: Rabbi Yehuda says that the verse states: “You shall not sacrifice to the Lord your God an ox, or a sheep, that has a blemish, even any evil thing” (Deuteronomy 17:1). The verse included here a sin offering that one slaughtered in the south and not on the northern side of the Temple courtyard as required, and likewise a sin offering whose blood entered inside, i.e., it was slaughtered with the intent that its blood would be brought inside the Sanctuary, that they are disqualified. This indicates that an offering slaughtered with improper intent with regard to a place that lacks threefold functionality nevertheless renders the offering not valid.

ולית לרבי יהודה שלישי והתנן אמר רבי יהודה הכניס בשוגג כשר הא במזיד פסול וקי"ל בשכיפר

The Gemara responds: And does Rabbi Yehuda not accept the requirement of a place of three functions? But didn’t we learn in a mishna (82a) that Rabbi Yehuda said: If he brought the blood into the Sanctuary unwittingly, the blood remains fit for presenting, from which it may be inferred: But if he brought it in intentionally, it is unfit. And we maintain that Rabbi Yehuda deems it unfit only where one actually effected atonement, i.e., he presented the blood on the inner altar.

השתא ומה התם עיילי עיילא אי כיפר אין אי לא כיפר לא הכא דחשיב חשובי לא כל שכן תרי תנאי ואליבא דרבי יהודה

Now, it stands to reason that if there, where one actually brought the blood inside, only if he effected atonement, yes, it is unfit, but if he did not effect atonement it is not unfit, then here, where he merely thought to bring it inside, all the more so is it not clear that it should be valid? The Gemara answers: There are two tanna’im, and they disagree with regard to the opinion of Rabbi Yehuda concerning a place with threefold functionality.

וסבר ר' יהודה חטאת ששחטה בדרום

The Gemara asks: And does Rabbi Yehuda hold that with regard to a sin offering that one slaughtered in the south,