Zevachim 13aזבחים י״ג א
The William Davidson Talmudתלמוד מהדורת ויליאם דוידסון
Toggle Reader Menu Display Settings
13aי״ג א

צד כרת לא פריך

does not refute the inference by citing a common element of karet, as the elements of karet in a sin offering and in a Paschal offering are not parallel.

אשם נמי לייתי

The Gemara asks: If so, let it be derived from this inference that a guilt offering is also disqualified if sacrificed not for its sake.

אשם פריך מה להצד השוה שבהן שכן ישנן בצבור כביחיד

The Gemara answers: With regard to a guilt offering, ben Azzai refutes the inference as follows: What is notable about the common element of a sin offering and a Paschal offering? It is notable in that there are communal offerings as well as individual offerings of these types, as well as communal burnt offerings, whereas there is no communal guilt offering.

ואיבעית אימא צד כרת נמי פריך ובן עזאי גמרא גמיר לה והא דקאמר רב הונא קל וחומר לא אמרה אלא לחדד בה תלמידיו:

And if you wish, say instead that actually, ben Azzai also refutes the entire inference, because a sin offering and a Paschal offering uniquely share an element of karet. And the reason ben Azzai maintains that a burnt offering sacrificed not for its sake is disqualified is that he learned it as a tradition. And as for the fact that Rav Huna cites an a fortiori inference, he does not believe it to be the true source for ben Azzai’s halakha; he said it only to sharpen the minds of his students with it, challenging them to refute it.

מתני׳ הפסח והחטאת ששחטן שלא לשמן קבל והלך וזרק שלא לשמן או לשמן ושלא לשמן או שלא לשמן ולשמן פסולים

MISHNA: With regard to the Paschal offering and the sin offering, where one slaughtered them not for their sake, or where he collected their blood in a vessel, conveyed this blood to the altar, or sprinkled this blood on the altar not for their sake, or where he performed one of these sacrificial rites for their sake and not for their sake, or not for their sake and for their sake, in all these cases the offerings are unfit.

כיצד לשמן ושלא לשמן לשם פסח ולשם שלמים שלא לשמן ולשמן לשם שלמים ולשם פסח

How are these rites performed for their sake and not for their sake? In a case where one slaughtered the Paschal offering for the sake of a Paschal offering and for the sake of a peace offering. How are these rites performed not for their sake and for their sake? In a case where one slaughtered the Paschal offering for the sake of a peace offering and for the sake of a Paschal offering.

שהזבח נפסל בארבעה דברים בשחיטה ובקבול ובהילוך ובזריקה

The offering is unfit because a slaughtered offering is disqualified due to prohibited intent in four matters: In the performance of the sacrificial rites of slaughtering the animal, in collecting the blood, in conveying the blood, and in sprinkling the blood.

רבי שמעון מכשיר בהילוך שהיה אומר אי אפשר שלא בשחיטה ושלא בקבלה ושלא בזריקה אבל אפשר בלא הילוך שוחט בצד המזבח וזורק

Rabbi Shimon deems the offering fit if the prohibited intent was during the rite of conveying the blood, as he would say: It is impossible to sacrifice an offering without slaughtering the animal, or without collection of the blood, or without sprinkling the blood, but it is possible to sacrifice an offering without conveying the blood to the altar. How so? If one slaughters the animal alongside the altar and sprinkles the blood, the blood does not need to be conveyed. Therefore, the rite of conveying the blood is not significant enough to cause the offering to be disqualified due to prohibited intent while performing it.

רבי אליעזר אומר המהלך במקום שהוא צריך להלך מחשבה פוסלת במקום שאינו צריך להלך אין מחשבה פוסלת:

Rabbi Eliezer says: With regard to one who conveys the blood in a situation where he is required to convey it, prohibited intent while conveying it disqualifies the offering. If he conveys the blood in a situation where he is not required to convey it, prohibited intent while conveying it does not disqualify the offering.

גמ׳ וקבלה מי פסלה

GEMARA: The mishna teaches that a slaughtered offering is disqualified due to prohibited intent while performing four rites, including collection of the blood. The Gemara asks: And does collection of the blood with prohibited intent disqualify the offering?

והתניא (ויקרא א, ה) והקריבו זו קבלת הדם אתה אומר קבלת הדם או אינו אלא זריקה כשהוא אומר וזרקו הרי זריקה אמור הא מה אני מקיים והקריבו זו קבלת הדם בני אהרן הכהנים שתהא בכהן כשר ובכלי שרת

But isn’t it taught in a baraita: The verse states: “And the sons of Aaron, the priests, shall present the blood” (Leviticus 1:5); this is referring to collection of the blood. Do you say it is referring to collection of the blood, or is it referring to only sprinkling the blood? When it states immediately afterward: “And sprinkle the blood roundabout against the altar,” sprinkling the blood is thereby stated. If so, how do I realize the meaning of: “And the sons of Aaron, the priests, shall present”? This is referring to collection of the blood. And the phrase “the sons of Aaron, the priests” teaches that collection of the blood must be performed by a fit priest, i.e., one who has no blemish and who was not disqualified due to flawed lineage, and that he must do so while he is wearing priestly service vestments.

אמר רבי עקיבא מנין לקבלה שלא תהא [אלא] בכהן כשר ובכלי שרת נאמר כאן בני אהרן ונאמר להלן (במדבר ג, ג) אלה שמות בני אהרן הכהנים המשוחים מה להלן בכהן כשר ובכלי שרת אף כאן בכהן כשר ובכלי שרת

The baraita continues: Rabbi Akiva said: From where is it derived that collection of the blood may be performed only by a fit priest and while he is wearing service vestments? The expression “the sons of Aaron” is stated here in the verse in Leviticus, and it is stated there: “These are the names of the sons of Aaron, the priests that were anointed, whom he consecrated to minister in the priest’s office” (Numbers 3:3). Just as there, in the verse in Numbers, it mentions the word “priests” with regard to fit priests, i.e., Aaron’s sons, and with regard to priests who were consecrated to serve by being dressed with service vestments (see Exodus 29:30), so too here, the reference is to a fit priest and with regard to one who is wearing service vestments.

אמר רבי טרפון אקפח את בניי אם לא שמעתי להבחין הפרש בין קבלה לזריקה ואין לי לפרש

Rabbi Tarfon said: I will bury my sons if I did not hear a halakha from my teachers discerning a distinction between collection of and sprinkling the blood, but I cannot explicate the distinction, as I do not remember what it was.

אמר רבי עקיבא אני אפרש קבלה לא עשה בה מחשבה כמעשה זריקה עשה בה מחשבה כמעשה קבלו בחוץ אינו חייב כרת זרקו בחוץ ענוש כרת קבלוהו פסולין אין חייבין עליו זרקוהו פסולין חייבין עליו

The baraita continues: Rabbi Akiva said: I will explicate: With regard to collection, the Torah does not render intent like action. Collecting the blood with prohibited intent does not disqualify the offering. But with regard to sprinkling, the Torah does render intent like action. Furthermore, if one collected the blood outside the Temple, he is not liable to be punished with karet. But if one sprinkled the blood outside the Temple, he is punished with karet. Moreover, if those who are unfit for the Temple service collected the blood, they are not liable for that action. But if those who are unfit for the Temple service sprinkled the blood, they are liable to receive the penalty of death at the hand of Heaven for that action.

אמר לו רבי טרפון העבודה את הטית ימין ושמאל אני שמעתי ואין לי לפרש אתה דורש ומסכים לשמועה בלשון הזה אמר לו עקיבא כל הפורש ממך כפורש מחייו

Rabbi Tarfon said to him excitedly: I take an oath by the Temple service that you have not deviated left or right from what I heard from my teachers. I myself heard them and I cannot explicate what they taught, whereas you teach this halakha on your own in concurrence with the halakha I heard. He said to Rabbi Akiva, using this language: Akiva, anyone who leaves you is like one who leaves his life. In any event, Rabbi Akiva’s statement in the baraita apparently contradicts the mishna with regard to the matter of whether the collection of the blood with prohibited intent disqualifies the offering.

אמר רבא לא קשיא כאן במחשבת פיגול כאן במחשבת שלא לשמה

Rava said: It is not difficult. The baraita here is referring to intent of piggul, i.e., intent to consume or burn the offering after its appointed time. The mishna there is referring to intent not for the sake of the offering.

דיקא נמי דקתני שהזבח נפסל ולא קתני מתפגל ש"מ:

The Gemara adds: The language of the mishna is also precise, as it teaches that a slaughtered offering is disqualified in this manner, and it does not teach that an offering is rendered piggul in this manner. Apparently, the mishna is referring to intent that merely disqualifies the offering without rendering it piggul, one who partakes of which is liable to receive karet. The Gemara concludes: Conclude from the mishna’s language that this interpretation is correct.

ומחשבת פיגול לא פסלה בקבלה

The Gemara asks: And does intent of piggul during the collection of the blood not disqualify the offering?

והתניא יכול לא תהא מחשבה מועלת אלא בזריקה בלבד מנין לרבות שחיטה וקבלה ת"ל (ויקרא ז, יח) ואם האכל יאכל מבשר זבח שלמיו (פיגול הוא) לא ירצה בדברים המביאין לידי אכילה הכתוב מדבר

But isn’t it taught in a baraita: One might have thought that intent to consume an offering after its designated time is effective to render the offering piggul only when one has that intent during sprinkling. From where is it derived to include slaughter and collection of the blood in this halakha? The verse states: “And if any of the flesh of the sacrifice of his peace offerings is at all eaten on the third day, it shall not be accepted, neither shall it be imputed to the one who offers it; it shall be an abhorred thing [piggul ]” (Leviticus 7:18). As derived on 29a, the verse is referring to performance of the sacrificial rites with intent to consume the offering after its designated time. The phrase “is at all eaten” teaches that the verse speaks of matters that lead to consumption, i.e., those sacrificial rites that enable consumption of the offering, including slaughter of the animal and collecting the blood.

יכול שאני מרבה אף שפיכת שיריים והקטרת אימורין

The baraita continues: One might have thought that I should include even the pouring of the remainder of the blood on the base of the altar, after its sprinkling, and the burning of the sacrificial portions on the altar.

ת"ל (ויקרא ז, יח) ביום השלישי לא ירצה המקריב אותו לא יחשב זריקה בכלל היתה ולמה יצתה להקיש אליה לומר לך מה זריקה מיוחדת שהיא עבודה (ומכפרת) ומעכבת כפרה אף כל עבודה ומעכבת כפרה יצאו שפיכת שיריים והקטרת אימורין שאין מעכבין את הכפרה

Therefore, the verse states: “On the third day, it shall not be accepted, neither shall it be imputed to the one who offers it” (Leviticus 7:18). The phrase “the one who offers it” indicates the sprinkling of the blood. Sprinkling was included in the general category of rites that enable consumption. And for what purpose was it singled out? To compare other halakhot to it, i.e., to say to you: Just as sprinkling is unique, as it is a rite and if not performed it prevents atonement, so too, any rite that prevents atonement if not performed is included in the halakha of piggul. Pouring the remainder of the blood and burning the sacrificial portions are therefore excluded, as they do not prevent atonement if not performed. Evidently, intent of piggul applies to the collection of the blood, contrary to Rava’s resolution of the contradiction between the mishna and the baraita.