Zevachim 120aזבחים ק״כ א
The William Davidson Talmudתלמוד מהדורת ויליאם דוידסון
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120aק״כ א

שהכניסה לפנים והוציאה לחוץ מהו מי אמרי כיון דעיילא קלטה לה מחיצתא או דלמא כיון דהדר הדר

that one brought inside and subsequently took outside, what is the halakha? Does it have the status of a sacrificial item of a public altar? The Gemara clarifies the question: Do we say that once it was brought in the partition has already absorbed it, and all halakhot of sacrificial items of a public altar apply; or perhaps once it returns, i.e., was taken outside again, it returns to its prior status as an offering of a private altar?

לאו היינו פלוגתא דרבה ורב יוסף דתנן קדשי קדשים ששחטן בדרום מועלין בהן (ואם עלו לא ירדו)

The Gemara asks: Isn’t this issue a disagreement between Rabba and Rav Yosef? As we learned in a mishna (Me’ila 2a): With regard to offerings of the most sacred order, e.g., a sin offering or a guilt offering, that were slaughtered in the south of the Temple courtyard, and not in the north as dictated by halakha, and are therefore disqualified, one who derives benefit from them is liable for misuse of consecrated property, and despite the fact that they should not ascend the altar, if they ascended they shall not descend.

ואיבעיא להו ירדו מהו שיעלו רבה אמר לא יעלו ורב יוסף אמר יעלו

And a dilemma was raised before the Sages: If they did descend the altar, what is the halakha with regard to ascending again? Rabba says: They shall not ascend, and Rav Yosef says: They shall ascend. Consequently, they disagree with regard to the issue of whether an item that is not fit to be sacrificed in a consecrated area acquires the sanctity of that area even if it is removed from there.

תיבעי לרבה תיבעי לרב יוסף תיבעי לרבה עד כאן לא קאמר רבה אלא במזבח דחזי ליה מקדש דלא חזי לא מקדש אבל מחיצה אע"ג דלא חזי ליה קלטה

The Gemara responds: The disagreements are not identical, as the dilemma can be raised according to the opinion of Rabba, and the dilemma can be raised according to the opinion of Rav Yosef. The Gemara elaborates: It is possible to raise the dilemma according to the opinion of Rabba, as Rabba says his statement: Offerings of the most sacred order that were slaughtered in the south shall not descend if they ascended, only with regard to the altar, as the altar consecrates that which is fit for it, while it does not consecrate that which is not fit for it. But with regard to the partition of the public altar, even though an offering that was consecrated for a private altar is not fit for that altar, the partition nevertheless absorbs the offering and it is sacrificed there. Consequently, all the halakhot of the public altar apply to that offering, even if it is taken outside.

או דלמא אפי' לרב יוסף עד כאן לא קאמר רב יוסף התם אלא דחד מקום הוא אבל הכא דתרי מקומות נינהו לא או דלמא לא שנא תיקו

Or perhaps the dilemma of the burnt offering of a private altar can be raised even according to the opinion of Rav Yosef. Rav Yosef states his opinion there, that offerings of the most sacred order that were slaughtered in the south of the Temple courtyard and descended the altar shall ascend again, only because the altar and the offering are both located in one place, i.e., the Temple courtyard. But here in Rabbi Zeira’s case, where the private altar and public altar are two separate places, the halakhot of the public altar do not apply if the offering was taken outside the designated location. Or perhaps there is no difference, and the opinions of Rabba and Rav Yosef in one case are identical to their opinions in the other. The Gemara concludes: The dilemma shall stand unresolved.

מילתא דפשיטא ליה לרבה בחד גיסא ולרב יוסף בחד גיסא מיבעי ליה לרבי ינאי דבעי רבי ינאי אברי עולת במת יחיד שעלו למזבח וירדו מהו היכא דלא משלה בהן האור לא תיבעי לך כי תיבעי לך היכא דמשלה בהן האור מאי תיקו

The Gemara notes that a matter that is obvious to Rabba on one side, i.e., that these offerings shall not ascend the altar again, and to Rav Yosef on the other side, i.e., that they shall ascend again, was raised as a dilemma by Rabbi Yannai. As Rabbi Yannai raises a dilemma: What is the halakha with regard to the limbs of a burnt offering of a private altar that ascended the altar and descended? The Gemara notes: In a case where the fire has not yet taken hold of them, do not raise the dilemma, as they certainly shall not ascend again. When should you raise the dilemma? Raise it in a case where the fire has taken hold of them: What is the halakha? The Gemara concludes: The dilemma shall stand unresolved.

איתמר שחיטת לילה בבמת יחיד רב ושמואל חד אמר כשרה וחד אמר פסולה וקא מיפלגי בדרבי אלעזר

§ Additionally, with regard to a private altar it was stated: With regard to the slaughter of offerings at night on a private altar, Rav and Shmuel disagree: One says that it is valid, and one says that it is not valid. The Gemara explains: And they disagree with regard to the resolution to a contradiction that was raised by Rabbi Elazar.

דרבי אלעזר רמי קראי אהדדי כתיב (שמואל א יד, לג) ויאמר בגדתם גלו אלי היום אבן גדולה

As Rabbi Elazar raised a contradiction between two verses: It is written in the context of Saul’s war with the Philistines: “And the people flew upon the spoil and took sheep and cattle and calves and slew them on the ground; and the people ate them with the blood. Then they told Saul, saying: ‘Behold, the people sin against the Lord in that they eat with the blood. And he said: You have dealt treacherously; roll a great stone to me this day” (I Samuel 14:32–33). That stone was made into a private altar upon which offerings could be slaughtered and sacrificed. Evidently, Saul was particular about slaughtering offerings during the day and not at night, despite the fact that it was a private altar and not a public altar.

וכתיב (שמואל א יד, לד) ויאמר שאול פוצו בעם ואמרתם להם הגישו אלי איש שורו ואיש שיהו ושחטתם בזה ואכלתם ולא תחטאו לה' לאכול על הדם ויגישו כל העם איש שורו בידו הלילה וישחטו שם

And immediately thereafter it is written: “And Saul said: Disperse yourselves among the people and say to them: Bring me here every man his ox and every man his sheep, and slay them here and eat and sin not against the Lord in eating with the blood. And all the people brought every man his ox with him that night, and slew them there” (I Samuel 14:34). This verse states explicitly that the slaughter took place at night and not during the day.

מר משני כאן בחולין כאן בקדשים ומר משני כאן בקדשי במה גדולה כאן בקדשי במה קטנה

Rav and Shmuel disagree with regard to the resolution of this contradiction: One Sage answers that here, i.e., when the slaughter took place at night, it was of non-sacred animals, while there, i.e., when Saul was particular about slaughtering during the day, it was the slaughter of sacrificial animals. According to this opinion, the sacrificial service was performed only during the day, even on a private altar. And the other Sage answers that both verses are referring to the slaughter of offerings: Here, in the verse that states that Saul was particular about slaughtering during the day, it is referring to the sacrificial animals of a great public altar, while there, in the verse that states that the slaughter took place at night, it is referring to sacrificial animals of a small private altar.

איתמר עולת במת יחיד רב אמר אין טעונה הפשט וניתוח ורבי יוחנן אמר טעונה הפשט וניתוח וקא מיפלגי בדר"י הגלילי דתניא ר"י הגלילי אומר עולה שהקריבו ישראל במדבר אין טעונה הפשט וניתוח שאין הפשט וניתוח אלא מאהל מועד ואילך

§ It was stated that with regard to the burnt offering of a private altar, Rav says: It does not require flaying and cutting into pieces, which the Torah requires of a burnt offering (see Leviticus 1:6), and Rabbi Yoḥanan says: It does require flaying and cutting into pieces. The Gemara explains: And they disagree with regard to the meaning of a statement of Rabbi Yosei HaGelili. As it is taught in a baraita that Rabbi Yosei HaGelili says: The burnt offering that the Jewish people sacrificed in the wilderness, i.e., at Mount Sinai before the establishment of the Tabernacle, did not require flaying and cutting into pieces, because the requirement of flaying and cutting into pieces applied only from the Tent of Meeting and onward, as this halakha was first taught in the Tent of Meeting.

מר סבר מאהל מועד ואילך לא שנא במה גדולה ולא שנא במה קטנה ומר סבר בבמה גדולה אין בבמה קטנה לא

One Sage, Rabbi Yoḥanan, holds that from the Tent of Meeting and onward there is a requirement of flaying and cutting into pieces, and there is no difference whether the offering is brought upon a great public altar, and there is no difference whether it is brought upon a small private altar. And one Sage, Rav, holds that with regard to a great public altar, yes, flaying and cutting are required, but with regard to a small private altar they are not.

תניא כותיה דרבי יוחנן דברים שבין במה גדולה לבמה קטנה קרן וכבש ויסוד וריבוע בבמה גדולה ואין קרן ויסוד וכבש וריבוע בבמה קטנה כיור וכנו בבמה גדולה ואין כיור וכנו בבמה קטנה חזה ושוק בבמה גדולה ואין חזה ושוק בבמה קטנה

It is taught in a baraita in accordance with the opinion of Rabbi Yoḥanan: What are the matters that are different between a great public altar and a small private altar? The corner of the altar, the ramp, the base of the altar, and the square shape are required in a great public altar, but the corner, the base, the ramp, and the square shape are not required in a small private altar. The Basin and its base are required in a great public altar, but the Basin and its base are not required in a small private altar. The breast and thigh of a peace offering, which are given to a priest, are waved at a great public altar, but the breast and thigh are not waved at a small private altar.

דברים ששוותה במה גדולה לבמה קטנה שחיטה בבמה גדולה וקטנה הפשט וניתוח בגדולה וקטנה דם מתיר ומפגל בגדולה וקטנה מומין וזמן בגדולה וקטנה

And there are other matters in which a great public altar is identical to a small private altar: Slaughter is required at both a great public altar and a small private altar. Flaying a burnt offering and cutting it into pieces is required at both a great public altar and a small private altar. Sprinkling the blood permits the meat to be eaten, and if at that time the priest thought of eating or sacrificing this offering outside its appropriate time, this renders the offering piggul both at a great public altar and at a small private altar. Likewise, the halakha that blemishes disqualify an offering and the halakha that there is a limited time for eating offerings are in effect at both a great public altar and a small private altar.

אבל נותר והזמן והטמא שוין בזה ובזה:

§ Following the detailing of the differences between a communal altar and a private altar, the mishna teaches: But the halakha that portions of the offering left over [notar] beyond the time it is permitted must be burned and that one who eats them incurs karet, and the halakha that intent to sacrifice or partake of the offering beyond its designated time renders the offering piggul, and the prohibition against performing the sacrificial service or eating consecrated meat while ritually impure are equal in this, i.e., a private altar, and that, i.e., a public altar.

ת"ר מנין לעשות זמן בבמה קטנה כבמה גדולה (אמרה תורה לן ישרף) ופיגול ישרף מה פיגול פסול בבמה אף לן פסול בבמה

With regard to this the Sages taught in a baraita: From where is it derived that time, i.e., the halakha that an offering left over beyond its designated time is disqualified, in the case of a small private altar should be made equivalent to the halakha in the case of a great public altar? The Torah stated: An offering that was left overnight must be burned, and likewise the Torah stated that an offering that was sacrificed with the intent to consume it after its designated time [piggul] must be burned. Therefore, another parallel may be drawn between them: Just as piggul is disqualified in the case of a private altar, so too, an offering that was left overnight is disqualified in the case of a private altar.

או כלך לדרך זו) דהא אמרה תורה לן ישרף ויוצא ישרף מה יוצא כשר בבמה אף לן כשר בבמה ולאו ק"ו הוא מעופות

Or go this way, and say that because the Torah stated: An offering that was left overnight must be burned, and likewise, the Torah stated that an offering that leaves the Temple courtyard must be burned, the following conclusion may be drawn: Just as an offering that leaves the Temple courtyard is valid in the case of a private altar because it has no set perimeter, so too, an offering that was left overnight is valid in the case of a private altar, and it may therefore be concluded that the halakha of time does not apply to offerings on a private altar. The Gemara asks: And is it not an a fortiori inference from the halakha of bird offerings that in the case of a private altar, time should render an offering disqualified?