בעלי מומין עוברין שהקריבן בחוץ פטור ר"ש אומר בעלי מומין קבועין פטור בעלי מומין עוברין חייב בלא תעשה
temporarily blemished, which one sacrificed outside the Temple courtyard, one is exempt. Rabbi Shimon says: For permanently blemished animals one is exempt; for temporarily blemished animals one is liable for violation of a prohibition, but it is not the type of prohibition for which he will receive karet, because ultimately the animal will be fit for sacrifice.
תורים שלא הגיע זמנן ובני יונה שעבר זמנן שהקריבן בחוץ פטור ר"ש אומר בני יונה שעבר זמנן פטור ותורים שלא הגיע זמנן בלא תעשה
With regard to doves whose time of fitness for sacrifice has not arrived, as they are fit for sacrifice only when they are older, after their wings assume a golden hue; and pigeons whose time of fitness has passed, as they are fit only when they are young and their wings did not yet assume a yellowish tint, that one sacrificed outside the Temple courtyard, he is exempt. Rabbi Shimon says: For pigeons whose time of fitness has passed one is exempt, and for doves whose time of fitness has not yet arrived he is in violation of a prohibition.
אותו ואת בנו ומחוסר זמן פטור ר"ש אומר הרי זה בלא תעשה שר"ש אומר כל שהוא ראוי לבא לאחר זמן ה"ז בלא תעשה ואין בו כרת וחכ"א כל שאין בו כרת אין בו לא תעשה
With regard to an animal itself and its offspring that were slaughtered on the same day, where one violates a prohibition for slaughtering the second, and an animal whose time has not yet arrived, if one sacrificed it outside the Temple courtyard he is exempt. Rabbi Shimon says: For an animal whose time has not yet arrived, that person is in violation of a mere prohibition, as Rabbi Shimon says: With regard to any sacrificial animal that is fit to come and be sacrificed after the passage of time, if one sacrificed it outside the courtyard, that person is in violation of a prohibition but there is no liability for karet. And the Rabbis say: In any case in which there is no liability for karet there is no violation of a prohibition.
מחוסר זמן בין בגופו בין בבעליו
The mishna adds: An animal is defined as one whose time has not yet arrived, whether it is intrinsically premature, e.g., doves whose wings have not yet assumed a golden hue or an animal less than seven days old (see Leviticus 22:27), or whether it is premature for its owner.
איזהו מחוסר זמן בבעליו הזב והזבה והיולדת והמצורע שהקריבו חטאתם ואשמם בחוץ פטורין עולותיהן ושלמיהן בחוץ חייבין
Which is the animal whose time has not yet arrived because it is premature for its owner? It is the animal of a man who experiences a gonorrhea-like discharge [zav], and a woman who experiences a discharge of uterine blood after her menstrual period [zava], and a woman after childbirth, and a leper whose period of impurity is not yet complete, where these owners, who are ritually impure, sacrificed their sin offerings or guilt offerings outside the Temple courtyard. In this case they are exempt, as they are neither obligated nor permitted to bring those offerings. But if they sacrificed their burnt offerings or their peace offerings outside the courtyard they are liable, as those offerings may be brought as gift offerings even if their owner is ritually impure.
המעלה מבשר חטאת מבשר אשם מבשר קדשי קדשים מבשר קדשים קלים ומותר העומר ושתי הלחם ולחם הפנים ושירי מנחות
One who offers up outside the Temple courtyard a portion of the meat of a sin offering that is eaten; of the meat of a guilt offering; of the meat of other offerings of the most sacred order that are eaten, e.g., the sheep sacrificed on the festival of Shavuot, or of the meat of offerings of lesser sanctity, is exempt, as all these are eaten by the priests and not sacrificed on the altar. And for the same reason, one who sacrificed a portion of the surplus of the omer offering, a measure of barley brought as a communal offering on the sixteenth of the Hebrew month of Nisan, after the handful was removed; or the two loaves, i.e., the public offering on Shavuot of two loaves from the new wheat; or the shewbread arranged on the Table each Shabbat in the Sanctuary; or the remainder of meal offerings, is also exempt.
והיוצק והפותת והבולל והמולח והמניף והמגיש והמסדר את השולחן והמטיב את הנרות והקומץ והמקבל דמים בחוץ פטור
And likewise with regard to one who pours oil onto a meal offering; and one who breaks the loaves of a meal offering into pieces; and one who mixes oil into the flour of a meal offering; and one who salts a meal offering or other offerings; and one who waves a meal offering; and one who brings a meal offering to the corner of an altar, if he performs these actions outside the courtyard; and one who arranges shewbread on the table outside the Sanctuary; and one who removes the ashes from the lamps of the Candelabrum; and one who removes a handful from a meal offering; and one who collects the blood of an offering in a vessel, if he did so outside the Temple courtyard: In all of these cases he is exempt. This is because one is liable only if he performs an action similar to sacrifice that completes the sacrificial service, while all of these actions are ones that are normally followed by additional sacrificial rites.
ואין חייבין עליו לא משום זרות ולא משום טומאה ולא משום מחוסר בגדים ולא משום [שלא] רחוץ ידים ורגלים
And one is likewise not liable for any of these actions, neither due to the prohibition against a non-priest performing the Temple service, nor due to the prohibition against performing the Temple service in a state of ritual impurity, nor due to the prohibition against a priest lacking the requisite priestly vestments while performing the Temple service, nor due to the prohibition against performing the Temple service without washing one’s hands and feet.
עד שלא הוקם המשכן היו הבמות מותרות ועבודה בבכורות ומשהוקם המשכן נאסרו הבמות ועבודה בכהנים קדשי קדשים נאכלין לפנים מן הקלעים וקדשים קלים בכל מחנה ישראל באו לגלגל הותרו הבמות קדשי קדשים נאכלין לפנים מן הקלעים וקדשים קלים בכל מקום
Until the Tabernacle was established, private altars were permitted and the sacrificial service was performed by the firstborn. And from the time that the Tabernacle was established, private altars were prohibited and the sacrificial service was performed by the priests. Offerings of the most sacred order were then eaten within the curtains surrounding the courtyard of the Tabernacle in the wilderness and offerings of lesser sanctity were eaten throughout the camp of Israel. When the Jewish people arrived at Gilgal private altars were permitted, offerings of the most sacred order were then eaten within the curtains, and offerings of lesser sanctity were eaten anywhere.
באו לשילה נאסרו הבמות ולא היה שם תקרה אלא בית אבנים בלבד מלמטן והיריעות מלמעלן והיא היתה מנוחה קדשי קדשים נאכלין לפנים מן הקלעים וקדשים קלים ומעשר שני בכל הרואה
When they arrived at Shiloh, private altars were prohibited. And there was no roof of wood or stone there, i.e., in the Tabernacle in Shiloh; rather there was only a building of stone below and the curtains of the roof of the Tabernacle were spread above it. And the period that the Tabernacle was in Shiloh was characterized in the Torah as “rest” in the verse: “For you have not as yet come to the rest and to the inheritance, which the Lord your God has given you” (Deuteronomy 12:9). Offerings of the most sacred order were then eaten within the curtains in the courtyard of the Tent of Meeting, and offerings of lesser sanctity and second tithe were eaten in any place that overlooks Shiloh.
באו לנוב וגבעון הותרו הבמות קדשי קדשים נאכלין לפנים מן הקלעים קדשים קלים בכל ערי ישראל
When Shiloh was destroyed (see I Samuel 4:18), the Jewish people arrived with the Tabernacle at Nov, and later at Gibeon, and private altars were permitted. Offerings of the most sacred order were then eaten within the curtains in the courtyard of the Tent of Meeting, and offerings of lesser sanctity were eaten in all the cities of Eretz Yisrael.
באו לירושלים נאסרו הבמות ולא היה להן היתר והיא היתה נחלה קדשי קדשים נאכלין לפנים מן הקלעים קדשים קלים ומעשר שני לפנים מן החומה
When the Jewish people arrived at Jerusalem and built the Temple during the reign of Solomon, private altars were prohibited, and private altars did not have a subsequent period when they were permitted. And the Temple in Jerusalem was characterized as “inheritance” in the verse: “For you have not as yet come to the rest and to the inheritance, which the Lord your God has given you.” Offerings of the most sacred order were then eaten within the curtains, i.e., in the Temple courtyard, and offerings of lesser sanctity and second tithe were eaten within the walls of the city, whose legal status was that of the Israelite camp in the wilderness.
כל הקדשים שהקדישן בשעת איסור הבמות והקריבן בשעת איסור הבמות מבחוץ הרי אלו בעשה ולא תעשה וחייבין עליו כרת
With regard to all offerings that one consecrated during a period of prohibition of private altars and sacrificed during a period of prohibition of private altars, if he sacrificed them outside their designated area, for these animals he is in violation of both the positive mitzva to sacrifice the offering in the place chosen by God and the prohibition against sacrificing them on a private altar, and he is liable to receive karet for doing it.
הקדישן בשעת היתר הבמות והקריבן בשעת איסור הבמות בחוץ הרי אלו בעשה ולא תעשה ואין חייבין עליהן כרת הקדישן בשעת איסור הבמות והקריבן בשעת היתר הבמות הרי אלו בעשה ואין בהן לא תעשה
If one consecrated the animals during a period of permitting of private altars and sacrificed them during a period of prohibition of private altars, outside their designated area, for these animals he is in violation of a positive mitzva and a prohibition, but he is not liable to receive karet for sacrificing them. If he consecrated the animals during a period of prohibition of private altars and sacrificed them during a period of permitting of private altars, outside their designated area, for these animals he is in violation of a positive mitzva for failure to bring it to the Tabernacle, but these animals are not subject to a prohibition, as it is permitted to sacrifice on a private altar.
ואלו קדשים קרבין במשכן קדשים שהוקדשו למשכן קרבנות ציבור קרבין במשכן וקרבנות היחיד בבמה קרבנות היחיד שהוקדשו למשכן יקריבו במשכן ואם הקריבן בבמה פטור
And these are the sacrificial items that are sacrificed only in the Tabernacle even when private altars are permitted: Sacrificial animals that were presumed to be consecrated for sacrifice in the Tabernacle. Therefore, communal offerings are sacrificed in the Tabernacle, but offerings of an individual may be sacrificed on a private altar. In addition, with regard to offerings of an individual that were consecrated expressly for sacrifice in the Tabernacle, one must sacrifice them in the Tabernacle. But if he sacrificed them on a private altar, he is exempt.
ומה בין במת יחיד לבמת ציבור סמיכה ושחיטת צפון
And what is the difference between the private altar of an individual and the public altar at the site of the Tabernacle when it was located in Gilgal, Nov, and Gibeon? It is that on a private altar there is no placing of hands on the head of an offering, no slaughter in the north,