שַׁעַם בְּיוֹם הַכִּפּוּרִים? עָמַד רַבִּי יִצְחָק בַּר נַחְמָנִי עַל רַגְלָיו, וְאָמַר: אֲנִי רָאִיתִי אֶת רַבִּי יְהוֹשֻׁעַ בֶּן לֵוִי שֶׁיָּצָא בְּסַנְדָּל שֶׁל שַׁעַם בְּיוֹם הַכִּפּוּרִים. וְאָמֵינָא לֵיהּ: בְּתַעֲנִית צִבּוּר מַאי? אֲמַר לֵיהּ: לָא שְׁנָא. אָמַר רַבָּה בַּר בַּר חָנָה: אֲנִי רָאִיתִי אֶת רַבִּי אֶלְעָזָר דְּמִן נִנְוֵה שֶׁיָּצָא בְּסַנְדָּל שֶׁל שַׁעַם בְּתַעֲנִית צִבּוּר, וְאָמֵינָא לֵיהּ: בְּיוֹם הַכִּפּוּרִים מַאי? אֲמַר לֵיהּ: לָא שְׁנָא. רַב יְהוּדָה נָפֵיק בִּדְהִיטָנֵי. אַבָּיֵי נָפֵיק בִּדְהוּצֵי. רָבָא נָפֵיק (בִּדְיַבְלֵי). רַבָּה בַּר רַב הוּנָא כָּרֵיךְ סוּדָרָא אַכַּרְעֵיהּ וְנָפֵיק. cork on Yom Kippur? Is it considered a shoe, and therefore it may not be worn on Yom Kippur, or not? Rabbi Yitzḥak bar Naḥmani stood on his feet to testify and said: I saw that Rabbi Yehoshua ben Levi went out on Yom Kippur in cork sandals, and I said to him: What is the law on a communal fast that is decreed in a time of drought, when shoes are similarly prohibited? Are reed sandals permitted? He said to me: It is no different, and such sandals are permitted even on a communal fast day. Rabba bar bar Ḥana said: I saw Rabbi Elazar from Nineveh go out in cork sandals on a communal fast day, and I said to him: What is the law on Yom Kippur? He said to me: It is no different, and it is permitted. The Gemara reports: Rav Yehuda went out on Yom Kippur in reed sandals. Abaye went out in sandals made of palm fiber. Rava went out in sandals braided with reeds. None of these sandals are considered to be shoes. Rabba bar Rav Huna wrapped a scarf around his feet and went out.
מֵתִיב רָמֵי בַּר חָמָא: הַקִּיטֵּעַ יוֹצֵא בְּקַב שֶׁלּוֹ, דִּבְרֵי רַבִּי מֵאִיר. וְרַבִּי יוֹסֵי אוֹסֵר. וְתָנֵי עֲלַהּ: וְשָׁוִין שֶׁאָסוּר לָצֵאת בּוֹ בְּיוֹם הַכִּפּוּרִים. אָמַר אַבָּיֵי: הָתָם דְּאִית בֵּיהּ כְּתִיתִין, וּמִשּׁוּם תַּעֲנוּג. Rami bar Ḥama raised an objection: We learned that an amputee may go out with his wooden prosthetic leg on Shabbat, since it is like a shoe; these are the words of Rabbi Meir. But Rabbi Yosei prohibits it. And a baraita was taught in that regard as an addendum to that mishna: And they agree that it is prohibited to go out wearing it on Yom Kippur. As this indicates that even wooden shoes are prohibited, the materials worn by the aforementioned amora’im should also be prohibited. Abaye said: There, in the case of Yom Kippur, it is prohibited because there are rags in the prosthesis. The prohibition is not due to the shoes but due to the pleasure of the comfort, which is prohibited on Yom Kippur.
אֲמַר לֵיהּ רָבָא: וְאִי לָאו מָנָא הוּא — כְּתִיתִין מְשַׁוֵּי לֵיהּ מָנָא? וְעוֹד: כׇּל תַּעֲנוּג דְּלָאו מִנְעָל הוּא, בְּיוֹם הַכִּפּוּרִים מִי אָסוּר? וְהָא רַבָּה בַּר רַב הוּנָא הֲוָה כָּרֵיךְ סוּדָרָא אַכַּרְעֵיהּ וְנָפֵיק! וְעוֹד, מִדְּקָתָנֵי סֵיפָא: אִם יֵשׁ לוֹ בֵּית קִבּוּל כְּתִיתִין — טָמֵא, מִכְּלָל דְּרֵישָׁא לָאו בִּדְאִית לֵיהּ כְּתִיתִין עָסְקִינַן. Rava said to him: And if the prosthetic leg is not a garment, meaning that it is not a shoe, do the rags make it into a garment? Only shoes are forbidden, not other garments. And furthermore, any other kind of pleasure that is not the pleasure of wearing shoes, is it prohibited on Yom Kippur? Only certain afflictions are mandated on Yom Kippur; activities that are not specifically restricted by those afflictions are permitted. And Rabba bar Rav Huna would wrap a scarf on his feet and go out, demonstrating that the comfort provided by rags is permitted on Yom Kippur. Furthermore, the continuation of the baraita contradicts your explanation that the prohibition is due to the comfort provided by the rags. From the fact that it teaches in the latter clause: If the prosthetic leg has a receptacle designed for rags it is susceptible to ritual impurity like all wooden utensils which have receptacles, it may be inferred that in the first clause we are not dealing with a prosthetic leg that has a hollow space designed for rags. Abaye’s position is thereby rejected.
אֶלָּא אָמַר רָבָא: לְעוֹלָם דְּכוּלֵּי עָלְמָא מִנְעָל הוּא, וּבְשַׁבָּת בְּהָא פְּלִיגִי: מָר סָבַר גָּזְרִינַן דִּילְמָא מִשְׁתְּמִיט וְאָתֵי לְאֵתוֹיֵי אַרְבַּע אַמּוֹת, וּמַר סָבַר לָא גָּזְרִינַן. Rather, Rava said: Actually, according to everyone, a prosthetic leg is considered to be a shoe, and with regard to Shabbat this is what they disagree about: One Sage, Rabbi Yosei holds that we decree a prohibition of wearing a prosthetic leg on Shabbat lest the leg slip off and one come to carry it four cubits in the public domain; and one Sage, Rabbi Meir, holds that we do not decree such a rule.
תָּנוּ רַבָּנַן: תִּינוֹקוֹת מוּתָּרִין בְּכוּלָּן, חוּץ מִנְּעִילַת הַסַּנְדָּל. מַאי שְׁנָא נְעִילַת הַסַּנְדָּל, דְּאָמְרִי: אִינָשֵׁי עֲבַדוּ לֵיהּ, הָנָךְ נָמֵי אָמְרִי: אִינָשֵׁי עֲבַדוּ לֵיהּ! רְחִיצָה וְסִיכָה, אֵימַר מֵאֶתְמוֹל עָבְדִי לֵיהּ. § The Sages taught: Young children are permitted to perform all of the prohibited activities on Yom Kippur, except for wearing shoes. The Gemara asks: What is different about wearing shoes? It is because observers who see a child wearing shoes will say that adults did this for him, i.e., put them on for him, since he cannot do it for himself. But if that is the reason, with regard to those other prohibitions also, like bathing and smearing oil, they will say that adults did this for him, and children should be prohibited from those activities as well. The Gemara explains: With regard to bathing and smearing oil, they could say that they did this for him yesterday, since one cannot be certain when the child was bathed.
סַנְדָּל נָמֵי, אֵימַר מֵאֶתְמוֹל עָבְדִי לֵיהּ! סַנְדָּל לָא אֶפְשָׁר דְּמֵאֶתְמוֹל עָבְדִי לֵיהּ. דַּאֲמַר שְׁמוּאֵל: הַאי מַאן דְּבָעֵי לְמִיטְעַם טַעְמָא דְמִיתוּתָא — לִיסְיַים מְסָאנֵי וְלִיגְנֵי. The Gemara asks: If so, we could say this with regard to shoes as well. They could say that they did this for him yesterday. The Gemara answers: In the case of shoes, it is impossible to say an adult did it for him yesterday, since the child would not have worn shoes at night. As Shmuel said: He who desires a taste of death should put on shoes and go to sleep.
וְהָא מוּתָּרִין לְכַתְּחִלָּה קָתָנֵי! אֶלָּא: הָנָךְ דְּלָאו רְבִיתַיְיהוּ — גְּזַרוּ בְּהוּ רַבָּנַן, הָנָךְ דִּרְבִיתַיְיהוּ הוּא — לָא גְּזַרוּ בְּהוּ רַבָּנַן. דְּאָמַר אַבָּיֵי, אֲמַרָה לִי אֵם: רְבִיתֵיהּ דְּיָנוֹקָא — מַיָּא חַמִּימֵי וּמִשְׁחָא. גְּדַל פּוּרְתָּא — בֵּיעֲתָא בְּכוּתָּחָא. גְּדַל פּוּרְתָּא — תַּבּוֹרֵי מָאנֵי. כִּי הָא דְּרַבָּה זָבֵין לְהוּ מָאנֵי גְּזִיזֵי דְּפַחְרָא לִבְנֵיהּ, וּמְתַבְּרִי לְהוּ. The Gemara asks: But the mishna is teaching that they are permitted to wear shoes ab initio. If so, it is permitted for an adult to perform these acts for a child even on the day of Yom Kippur, and the observer will not think that the adult has done anything wrong. Rather, we must explain the mishna as follows: The Sages decreed against performing those actions that are not necessary for the child’s growth, but the Sages did not decree against performing those actions that are necessary for the child’s growth. As Abaye said: My mother told me: A child’s growth requires hot water and oil for smearing. When he grows a little, he must eat egg with kutaḥa, a pickled dip made with milk. When he grows a little more, he must have vessels to break, since he will enjoy breaking them. This is like Rabba who bought cracked ceramic vessels for his children, and they broke them for their enjoyment.
הַמֶּלֶךְ וְהַכַּלָּה יִרְחֲצוּ אֶת פְּנֵיהֶם. מַתְנִיתִין מַנִּי? רַבִּי חֲנַנְיָא בֶּן תְּרַדְיוֹן הִיא, דְּתַנְיָא: הַמֶּלֶךְ וְהַכִּלָּה לֹא יִרְחֲצוּ אֶת פְּנֵיהֶם. רַבִּי חֲנַנְיָא בֶּן תְּרַדְיוֹן אוֹמֵר מִשּׁוּם רַבִּי אֱלִיעֶזֶר: הַמֶּלֶךְ וְהַכַּלָּה יִרְחֲצוּ אֶת פְּנֵיהֶם. הַחַיָּה לֹא תִּנְעוֹל אֶת הַסַּנְדָּל. רַבִּי חֲנַנְיָא בֶּן תְּרַדְיוֹן אוֹמֵר מִשּׁוּם רַבִּי אֱלִיעֶזֶר: הַחַיָּה תִּנְעוֹל אֶת הַסַּנְדָּל. § We learned in the mishna that according to Rabbi Eliezer, the king and the bride may wash their faces on Yom Kippur. The Gemara asks: Who is the tanna of the mishna? The Gemara answers: It is the opinion of Rabbi Ḥananya ben Teradyon, as it was taught in a baraita: The king and the bride may not wash their faces on Yom Kippur. Rabbi Ḥananya ben Teradyon says in the name of Rabbi Eliezer: A king and a bride may wash their faces. The Rabbis said: A new mother may not wear shoes on Yom Kippur. Rabbi Ḥananya ben Teradyon says in the name of Rabbi Eliezer: A new mother may wear shoes.
מַאי טַעְמָא? מֶלֶךְ, מִשּׁוּם דִּכְתִיב: ״מֶלֶךְ בְּיׇפְיוֹ תֶּחֱזֶינָה עֵינֶיךָ״. כַּלָּה מַאי טַעְמָא — כְּדֵי שֶׁלֹּא תִּתְגַּנֶּה עַל בַּעְלָהּ. אֲמַר לֵיהּ רַב לְרַבִּי חִיָּיא: כַּלָּה עַד כַּמָּה? אֲמַר לֵיהּ, כִּדְתַנְיָא: אֵין מוֹנְעִין תַּכְשִׁיטִין מִן הַכַּלָּה כׇּל שְׁלֹשִׁים יוֹם. The Gemara asks: According to Rabbi Eliezer’s opinion, what is the reason that the king may wash his face? Because it is written: “Your eyes shall see the king in his beauty” (Isaiah 33:17). A king should always look regal before his nation. What is the reason that a bride may wash her face? So that she should not appear repulsive to her husband. Since it is only the beginning of their marriage, her husband may be disgusted at seeing her otherwise. Rav said to Rabbi Ḥiyya: For how long after her wedding is a woman considered a bride? He said to him: As it was taught in a baraita: If she becomes a mourner, we do not prevent the bride from wearing perfumes during the entire first thirty days of her marriage. This shows that for the first thirty days, her appearance is most critical.
הַחַיָּה תִּנְעוֹל אֶת הַסַּנְדָּל — מִשּׁוּם צִינָּה. A new mother may wear shoes. What is the reason for this? Due to the cold there is concern that she will become ill, as she is weak from the birth.
אָמַר שְׁמוּאֵל: אִם מֵחֲמַת סַכָּנַת עַקְרָב — מוּתָּר. Shmuel said: If a man is worried about walking barefoot on Yom Kippur due to the danger of scorpions, he is permitted to wear shoes, since one need not put himself in danger.
הָאוֹכֵל כְּכוֹתֶבֶת הַגַּסָּה. בָּעֵי רַב פָּפָּא: § We learned in the mishna: On Yom Kippur, one who eats food the volume of a large date is liable. Rav Pappa asked: