Yoma 77aיומא ע״ז א
The William Davidson Talmudתלמוד מהדורת ויליאם דוידסון
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77aע״ז א

שם מושב סמל הקנאה המקנה (יחזקאל ח, טז) ויבא אותי אל חצר בית ה' הפנימית והנה פתח היכל ה' בין האולם ובין המזבח כעשרים וחמשה איש אחוריהם אל היכל ה' ופניהם קדמה והמה משתחוים קדמה לשמש ממשמע שנאמר ופניהם קדמה איני יודע שאחוריהם אל היכל ה' אלא מה ת"ל אחוריהם אל היכל ה' מלמד שהיו פורעין עצמן והיו מתריזין כלפי מטה

there was the seat of the image of jealousy, which provokes jealousy” (Ezekiel 8:3). “And he brought me into the inner court of the Lord’s House, and behold at the opening of the Entrance Hall of the Sanctuary of God, between the porch and the altar were about twenty-five men with their backs toward the Temple of the Lord, and their faces toward the east, and they worshipped the sun toward the east” (Ezekiel 8:16). The Gemara explains: From the fact that it is stated “and their faces toward the east,” is it not clear that their backs were to the Sanctuary, which is in the west? Rather, what is the meaning when the verse states “their backs toward the Temple of the Lord”? This teaches that they would uncover themselves and defecate downward, toward the Divine Presence. The verse used a euphemism to refrain from vulgar language.

אמר לו הקב"ה למיכאל מיכאל סרחה אומתך אמר לפניו רבונו של עולם דיו לטובים שבהם אמר לו אני שורף אותם ולטובים שבהם מיד (יחזקאל י, ב) ויאמר (לאיש) לבוש הבדים ויאמר בוא אל בינות לגלגל אל תחת לכרוב ומלא חפניך גחלי אש מבינות לכרובים וזרוק על העיר ויבא לעיני מיד (יחזקאל י, ז) וישלח הכרוב את ידו מבינות לכרובים אל האש אשר בינות הכרובים וישא ויתן אל חפני לבוש הבדים ויקח ויצא

The Holy One, Blessed be He, said to Michael, the ministering angel of the Jewish people: Michael, your nation has sinned (see Daniel 10:21). He replied: Master of the Universe, may it be enough for the good people among them to save them from destruction. He said to him: I will burn them and the good among them because the good do not rebuke the wicked. Immediately, God spoke to Gabriel: “He spoke to the man clothed in linen and said: Go in between the wheelwork and beneath the cherub, and fill your hands with coals of fire from between the cherubs, and scatter them over the city; and he came before my eyes” (Ezekiel 10:2). Immediately: “And the cherub stretched out his hand from between the cherubs into the fire that was between the cherubs, and took and put it into the hands of him that was clothed in linen, who took it and went out” (Ezekiel 10:7).

אמר רב חנא בר ביזנא אמר ר' שמעון חסידא אילמלא לא נצטננו גחלים מידו של כרוב לידו של גבריאל לא נשתיירו משונאיהן של ישראל שריד ופליט

Rav Ḥana bar Bizna said that Rabbi Shimon Ḥasida said: If it were not for the fact that the embers cooled as they were passed from the hand of the cherub to the hand of Gabriel, instead of Gabriel taking the embers directly himself as he had been told, not a remnant or a refugee of the enemies of the Jewish people, a euphemism for the Jewish people themselves, would have survived. The cooling of the embers limited the punishment.

וכתיב (יחזקאל ט, יא) והנה האיש לבוש הבדים אשר הקסת במתניו משיב דבר לאמר עשיתי כאשר צויתני א"ר יוחנן באותה שעה הוציאו לגבריאל מאחורי הפרגוד ומחיוהו שיתין פולסי דנורא אמרו ליה אי לא עבדת לא עבדת אי עבדת אמאי לא עבדת כדפקדוך ועוד דעבדת לית לך אין משיבין על הקלקלה

The Gemara continues. And it is written: “And behold, the man clothed in linen with the slate by his side, reported the matter saying: I have done as You have commanded me” (Ezekiel 9:11). Rabbi Yoḥanan said: At that moment, they cast out Gabriel from behind the curtain [pargod], where the inner angels reside, and they struck him with sixty blows [pulsei] of fire. They said to him: If you did not do it, you did not do it; if you did do it, why did you not do it according to what you were commanded but deviated from what you were instructed to do? Moreover, after you already did it, do you not have knowledge of the principle: One should not deliver a report about destruction? If one is sent on a mission of destruction, he should not deliver a detailed report of its success but should only hint at it.

אייתוה לדוביאל שרא דפרסאי ואוקמיה בחריקיה ושמש עשרים ואחד יום היינו דכתיב (דניאל י, יג) ושר מלכות פרס עומד לנגדי עשרים ואחד יום והנה מיכאל אחד השרים הראשונים בא לעזרני ואני נותרתי שם אצל מלכי פרס יהבו ליה עשרין וחד מלכי ופרוותא דמשהיג

They then brought Dubiel, the ministering angel of the Persians and put him in the place of [baḥarikei] Gabriel and he served for twenty-one days. As it is written: “But the prince of the kingdom of Persia stood opposed to me for twenty-one days, but, lo, Michael, one of the chief princes, came to help me and I remained there beside the kings of Persia” (Daniel 10:13). Corresponding to those twenty-one days, they gave him, the ministering angel of Persia, twenty-one kings who ruled and the seaport of Mashhig.

אמר כתיבו לי לישראל באכרגא כתבו ליה כתיבו לי רבנן באכרגא כתבו ליה בעידנא דבעו למיחתם עמד גבריאל מאחורי הפרגוד ואמר (תהלים קכז, ב) שוא לכם משכימי קום מאחרי שבת אוכלי לחם העצבים כן יתן לידידו שנא מאי כן יתן לידידו שנא א"ר יצחק אלו נשותיהן של תלמידי חכמים שמנדדות שינה בעולם הזה וזוכות לעולם הבא ולא השגיחו עליו

The ministering angel of the Persians said: Write for me that the Jews must pay taxes [akarga] to the Persians. They wrote it for him as he asked. He said: Write for me that the Sages must pay taxes. They wrote this for him. When they wanted to sign the documents, Gabriel stood from behind the curtain and said: “It is vain for you who rise early who sit up late to eat the bread of sorrow, for He gives His beloved sleep” (Psalms 127:2). What does “for He gives His beloved sleep” mean? Rav Yitzḥak said: These are the wives of Torah scholars who disturb their sleep in this world by staying up waiting for their husbands, who rise early and return late from learning Torah, and they thereby merit the World-to-Come. Gabriel asked: Is this the reward they deserve, to pay more taxes? They did not listen to Gabriel.

אמר לפניו רבש"ע אם יהיו כל חכמי או"ה בכף מאזנים ודניאל איש חמודות בכף שניה לא נמצא מכריע את כולם אמר הקב"ה מי הוא זה שמלמד זכות על בני אמרו לפניו רבש"ע גבריאל אמר להם יבא שנאמר (דניאל י, יב) ואני באתי בדבריך אמר להו ליעול אעיילוהו

He said before Him: Master of the Universe, if all the wise men of other nations were placed on one side of the scale, and Daniel the beloved man were on the other side, would he not outweigh them? The Holy One, Blessed be He, said: Who is the one who teaches the virtue of My children? They said to Him: Master of the Universe, it is Gabriel. He said to them: Let him come from behind the partition, as it is stated: “And I have come due to your words” (Daniel 10:12), meaning that Gabriel was permitted to enter from behind the partition because he mentioned Daniel’s name. God then said to the other angels: Let him ascend. They brought him up.

אתא אשכחיה לדוביאל דנקט ליה לאיגרתיה בידיה בעא למרמא מיניה בלעה איכא דאמרי מיכתב הוה כתיבא מיחתם לא הוי חתמא איכא דאמרי אף מיחתם נמי הוה חתמא כדבלעיה מחיק לה מיניה היינו דבמלכותא דפרס איכא דיהיב כרגא ואיכא דלא יהיב כרגא (דניאל י, כ) ואני יוצא והנה שר יון בא עוי עוי וליכא דאשגח ביה

He came and found Dubiel the ministering angel of the Persians holding the letter in his hand. Gabriel wanted to take the letter from him, but Dubiel swallowed it. Some say the letter was written, but it was not signed. Some say it was also signed, but when he swallowed it, the signature was erased. The Gemara comments: This is why, in the kingdom of Persia, there are those who pay taxes and there are those who do not pay taxes, as the decree was not finalized. It also states there: “And when I depart from him, the prince of Greece comes” (Daniel 10:20). Gabriel screamed and screamed that the kings of Greece should not rule over the Jews, but no one listened to him.

ואי בעית אימא רחיצה דאיקרי ענוי מנא לן מהכא דכתיב (מלכים א ב, כו) ולאביתר הכהן אמר המלך ענתות לך על שדך כי איש מות אתה וביום הזה לא אמיתך כי נשאת [את] ארון ה' לפני דוד אבי וכי התענית בכל אשר התענה אבי וכתיב ביה בדוד (שמואל ב יז, כט) כי אמרו העם רעב ועיף וצמא במדבר רעב מלחם וצמא ממים עיף ממאי לאו מרחיצה ודילמא מנעילת הסנדל

§ The Gemara returns to the issue of whether refraining from bathing is considered affliction. If you wish, say instead: The fact that bathing is considered affliction, from where do we derive this? As it is written: “And to Ebiathar the priest the king said: Get to Anatoth to your fields, for you are deserving of death. But I will not put you to death today, because you carried the Ark of the Lord God before David my father, and because you have been afflicted in all that my father was afflicted” (I Kings 2:26). And it is written with regard to David: “For they said the people is hungry, and weary, and thirsty in the wilderness” (II Samuel 17:29). Hunger means from lack of bread to eat, and thirst means from lack of water to drink. The word weary means lack from what? Is it not from bathing? The comparison of the verses suggests that that too is affliction. The Gemara challenges: And perhaps “weary” means from lack of wearing shoes? Therefore, this does not teach us that refraining from bathing is considered an affliction.

אלא אמר ר' יצחק מהכא (משלי כה, כה) מים קרים על נפש עיפה ודילמא משתיה מי כתיב בנפש עיפה על נפש עיפה כתיב

Rather, another source needs to be found. Rav Yitzḥak said: It can be derived from here: “As cold water on a weary soul, so is good news from a far country” (Proverbs 25:25). This implies that the word weary is used to describe someone who has not bathed. The Gemara asks: But perhaps the verse is referring to weariness from not drinking? The Gemara rejects this: Is it written: As cold water in a weary soul? That would mean that it entered one like a drink. Rather, “on a weary soul” is written, which implies bathing.

ונעילת הסנדל מנא לן דכתיב (שמואל ב טו, ל) ודוד עולה במעלה הזיתים עולה ובוכה וראש לו חפוי (והולך) יחף יחף ממאי לאו מנעילת הסנדל ודילמא מסוסיא ומרטקא

§ The Gemara clarifies the next point in the mishna: The fact that not wearing shoes is considered an affliction, from where do we derive this? As it is written: “And David went up by the ascent of the Mount of Olives, and wept as he went up, and he had his head covered, and was walking barefoot” (II Samuel 15:30). Barefoot implies a lack of what? Is it not a lack of wearing shoes? All these deprivations are described as affliction. The Gemara rejects this: No, perhaps he was barefoot from a horse and whip. Even if he was wearing shoes, a king without a horse and whip was considered as if he were going barefoot.

אלא אמר רב נחמן בר יצחק מהכא (ישעיהו כ, ב) לך ופתחת השק מעל מתניך ונעלך תחלוץ מעל רגלך וכתיב (ישעיהו כ, ב) ויעש כן הלוך ערום ויחף יחף ממאי לאו מנעילת הסנדל ואימא במנעלים המטולאים דאי לא תימא הכי ערום ערום ממש אלא בבגדים בלויים הכא נמי במנעלים המטולאים

Rather, Rav Naḥman bar Yitzḥak said: We learn it from here, as it states: “Go and loose the sackcloth from your loins, and remove your shoe from your foot” (Isaiah 20:2). And it is written: “And he did so, walking naked and barefoot” (Isaiah 20:2). Barefoot implies a lack of what? Is it not a lack of wearing shoes? The Gemara challenges: And say that perhaps the meaning of barefoot is that Isaiah walked with patched shoes. Because if you do not say this, but you claim that the verse is to be understood literally, does “naked” mean actually naked? Rather, the meaning is that Isaiah walked in ragged garments. Here too, the meaning is that he walked in patched shoes.

אלא אמר רב נחמן בר יצחק מהכא (ירמיהו ב, כה) מנעי רגלך מיחף וגרונך מצמאה מנעי עצמך מן החטא כדי שלא יבא רגלך לידי יחוף מנעי לשונך מדברים בטלים כדי שלא יבא גרונך לידי צמאה

Rather, a different source must be found. Rav Naḥman bar Yitzḥak said that we derive it from here: It states: “Withhold your foot from being barefoot, and your throat from thirst” (Jeremiah 2:25), meaning: Keep yourself from sin, so that your feet will not come to be barefoot; keep your tongue from idle talk, so that your throat will not come to be thirsty. Consequently, we learn that being barefoot is considered an affliction.

תשמיש המטה דאיקרי ענוי מנא לן דכתיב (בראשית לא, נ) אם תענה את בנותי ואם תקח נשים

§ The Gemara continues to clarify another of the afflictions of Yom Kippur: From where do we derive the halakha that refraining from conjugal relations is called affliction? As it is written, Laban said to Jacob: “If you shall afflict my daughters, and if you shall take other wives beside my daughters” (Genesis 31:50).