תִּשְׁעִים רִיס, שִׁבְעָה וּמֶחֱצָה לְכׇל מִיל. עַל כׇּל סוּכָּה וְסוּכָּה אוֹמְרִין לוֹ: הֲרֵי מָזוֹן, וַהֲרֵי מַיִם. וּמְלַוִּין אוֹתוֹ מִסּוּכָּה לְסוּכָּה, חוּץ מֵאַחֲרוֹן שֶׁבָּהֶן, שֶׁאֵינוֹ מַגִּיעַ עִמּוֹ לַצּוּק, אֶלָּא עוֹמֵד מֵרָחוֹק וְרוֹאֶה אֶת מַעֲשָׂיו. with a distance of ninety ris between them. As there are seven and a half ris for each mil, the total distance was twelve mil. At each and every booth, people there say to him: Here is food; here is water, if you need it. And they escort him from booth to booth, except for the last person at the last booth, who does not reach the cliff with him. Rather, he stands from a distance and observes his actions to ensure that he fulfills the mitzva properly.
מֶה הָיָה עוֹשֶׂה? חוֹלֵק לָשׁוֹן שֶׁל זְהוֹרִית חֶצְיוֹ קָשׁוּר בַּסֶּלַע, וְחֶצְיוֹ קָשׁוּר בֵּין שְׁנֵי קַרְנָיו. וּדְחָפוֹ לַאֲחוֹרָיו, וְהוּא מִתְגַּלְגֵּל וְיוֹרֵד. וְלֹא הָיָה מַגִּיעַ לַחֲצִי הָהָר עַד שֶׁנַּעֲשֶׂה אֵבָרִים אֵבָרִים. בָּא וְיָשַׁב לוֹ תַּחַת סוּכָּה אַחֲרוֹנָה עַד שֶׁתֶּחְשַׁךְ. וּמֵאֵימָתַי מְטַמֵּא בְּגָדִים — מִשֶּׁיֵּצֵא חוּץ לְחוֹמַת יְרוּשָׁלַיִם, רַבִּי שִׁמְעוֹן אוֹמֵר: מִשְּׁעַת דְּחִיָּיתוֹ לַצּוּק. What did the one designated to dispatch the goat do there? He divided a strip of crimson into two parts, half of the strip tied to the rock, and half of it tied between the two horns of the goat. And he pushed the goat backward, and it rolls and descends. And it would not reach halfway down the mountain until it was torn limb from limb. The one designated to dispatch the goat came and sat under the roofing of last booth until it grows dark and only then went home. And from what point are the garments of the man rendered impure, as it is stated that he is impure and his clothes requires immersion? From the moment he emerges outside the wall of Jerusalem. Rabbi Shimon says: His clothes are rendered impure only from the moment that he pushes the goat from the cliff.
גְּמָ׳ תָּנוּ רַבָּנַן: עֶשֶׂר סוּכּוֹת, וּשְׁנֵים עָשָׂר מִילִין הָיוּ, דִּבְרֵי רַבִּי מֵאִיר. רַבִּי יְהוּדָה אוֹמֵר: תֵּשַׁע סוּכּוֹת, וַעֲשָׂרָה מִילִין. רַבִּי יוֹסֵי אוֹמֵר: חָמֵשׁ סוּכּוֹת, וַעֲשָׂרָה מִילִין הָיוּ. וְכוּלָּן עַל יְדֵי עֵירוּב. GEMARA: The Sages taught: There were ten booths, and the distance between Jerusalem and the cliff was twelve mil; this is the statement of Rabbi Meir. Rabbi Yehuda says: There were nine booths and the distance was ten mil. Rabbi Yosei says: There were five booths and the distance was ten mil, and all of them were able to escort the one leading the goat by establishing a joining of boundaries [eiruv teḥumin] before Yom Kippur, allowing those at each booth to walk to the next booth.
אָמַר רַבִּי יוֹסֵי: סָח לִי אֶלְעָזָר בְּנִי: אִם עַל יְדֵי עֵירוּב — יָכוֹלְנִי לַעֲשׂוֹת אֲפִילּוּ שְׁתֵּי סוּכּוֹת וַעֲשָׂרָה מִילִין. Rabbi Yosei said: Elazar my son told me: If they were able to walk to the next booth by establishing an eiruv, I could even make two booths suffice for the distance of ten mil. With the proper placement of an eiruv, an individual is permitted to walk a distance of two mil, which is four thousand cubits. Consequently, the people of Jerusalem could escort the one leading the goat a distance of two mil, and the people of the first booth could walk two mil from the booth toward Jerusalem to meet him, and escort him back to their booth. Others at that booth, who had established their eiruv in the direction of the second booth, could then escort the one leading the goat two mil toward the second booth, where he would be met by people from the second booth, who would escort him the remaining two mil to the booth. This booth would be located only two mil from the cliff.
כְּמַאן אָזְלָא הָא דְּתַנְיָא: חוּץ מֵאַחֲרוֹן שֶׁבָּהֶן שֶׁלֹּא הִגִּיעַ עִמּוֹ לַצּוּק אֶלָּא עוֹמֵד מֵרָחוֹק וְרוֹאֶה אֶת מַעֲשָׂיו, כְּמַאן כְּרַבִּי מֵאִיר. The Gemara comments: In accordance with whose opinion is that which was taught in the baraita: People from all the booths would escort the one leading the goat, except for the last person in the last booth, who did not reach the cliff with him; rather, he stands from a distance and observes his actions? In accordance with whose opinion is this statement? It is in accordance with the opinion of Rabbi Meir, as he holds that the last booth was too far from the cliff for the people there to escort the one leading the goat the entire way.
עַל כׇּל סוּכָּה וְסוּכָּה אוֹמְרִים לוֹ: הֲרֵי מָזוֹן וַהֲרֵי מַיִם. תָּנָא: מֵעוֹלָם לֹא הוּצְרַךְ אָדָם לְכָךְ, אֶלָּא שֶׁאֵינוֹ דּוֹמֶה מִי שֶׁיֵּשׁ לוֹ פַּת בְּסַלּוֹ, לְמִי שֶׁאֵין לוֹ פַּת בְּסַלּוֹ. It was taught in the mishna: At each and every booth people there say to him: Here is food; here is water, if you need it. It was taught: No man who escorted the goat ever needed this food and water. However, they would offer it to him anyway, because one who has bread in his basket is not similar to one who does not have bread in his basket. One who does not have food available to him is concerned that he will not be able to find any if he really needs it, and he therefore feels his hunger and thirst more acutely.
מֶה הָיָה עוֹשֶׂה — חוֹלֵק לָשׁוֹן שֶׁל זְהוֹרִית. וְנִקְטְרֵיהּ כּוּלֵּיהּ בְּסֶלַע? כֵּיוָן דְּמִצְוָה בְּשָׂעִיר, דִּילְמָא קָדֵים וּמַלְבִּין וּמִיַּתְּבָא דַּעְתֵּיהּ. § It was taught in the mishna: What did the person designated to dispatch the goat do there? He divided a strip of crimson into two parts, half of the strip tied to the rock, and half of it tied between the two horns of the goat. The Gemara asks: Let him tie the whole strip to the rock. The Gemara answers: Since it is a mitzva to push the goat from the cliff. If he tied the whole strip to the rock, perhaps it would turn white quickly, and his mind would be eased with the knowledge that the sins of the Jewish people had been forgiven. He would then not fulfill the mitzva of pushing the goat off the cliff. He therefore tied part of it between the horns of the goat and looked to see if it became white. Once he was actively involved with the goat, he would remember to push it off the cliff.
וְנִקְטְרֵיהּ כּוּלֵּיהּ בֵּין קַרְנָיו? זִמְנִין דְּגָמֵישׁ לֵיהּ לְרֵישֵׁיהּ, וְלָאו אַדַּעְתֵּיהּ. The Gemara asks: If so, let him tie the whole strip between the goat’s horns. The Gemara answers: Sometimes the goat turns its head and he will not know if the strip turns white or not.
תָּנוּ רַבָּנַן: בָּרִאשׁוֹנָה הָיוּ קוֹשְׁרִין לָשׁוֹן שֶׁל זְהוֹרִית עַל פֶּתַח הָאוּלָם מִבַּחוּץ, הִלְבִּין — הָיוּ שְׂמֵחִין, לֹא הִלְבִּין — הָיוּ עֲצֵבִין וּמִתְבַּיְּישִׁין. הִתְקִינוּ שֶׁיִּהְיוּ קוֹשְׁרִין עַל פֶּתַח אוּלָם מִבִּפְנִים. וַעֲדַיִין הָיוּ מְצִיצִין וְרוֹאִין, הִלְבִּין — הָיוּ שְׂמֵחִין, לֹא הִלְבִּין — הָיוּ עֲצֵבִין. הִתְקִינוּ שֶׁיִּהְיוּ קוֹשְׁרִין אוֹתוֹ חֶצְיוֹ בְּסֶלַע וְחֶצְיוֹ בֵּין קַרְנָיו. The Sages taught: At first they would tie this strip of crimson to the opening of the Entrance Hall of the Temple on the outside. If the strip turned white they would rejoice, as this indicated that their sins had been atoned for. If it did not turn white they would be sad and ashamed. When the Sages saw that people were overly distressed on Yom Kippur, they established that they should tie the strip of crimson to the opening of the Entrance Hall on the inside, since only a few could actually go in to see it. And they would still peek and see: If it turned white, they would rejoice, and if it did not turn white they would be sad. Therefore, the Sages established that they should tie half of the strip to the rock and half of it between the goat’s horns, so that the people would not know what happened to the strip until after the conclusion of Yom Kippur.
אָמַר רַבִּי נַחוּם בַּר פָּפָּא מִשּׁוּם רַבִּי אֶלְעָזָר הַקַּפָּר: בָּרִאשׁוֹנָה הָיוּ קוֹשְׁרִין לָשׁוֹן שֶׁל זְהוֹרִית עַל פֶּתַח אוּלָם מִבִּפְנִים, וְכֵיוָן שֶׁהִגִּיעַ שָׂעִיר לַמִּדְבָּר הָיָה מַלְבִּין, וְיָדְעוּ שֶׁנַּעֲשֵׂית מִצְוָתוֹ. שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר: ״אִם יִהְיוּ חֲטָאֵיכֶם כַּשָּׁנִים כַּשֶּׁלֶג יַלְבִּינוּ״. Rabbi Naḥum bar Pappa said in the name of Rabbi Elazar HaKappar: At first they would tie the strip of crimson to the opening of the Entrance Hall of the Temple on the inside, and when the goat reached the wilderness, the strip of crimson would turn white, and they knew that the mitzva was fulfilled. The verse alludes to the use of the strip of crimson, as it is stated: “Though your sins be as scarlet, they will become white as snow; though they be red like crimson, they will be as wool” (Isaiah 1:18). This verse indicates that when something scarlet turns white, it is a sign of atonement and forgiveness for the sins of the Jewish people.
לֹא הָיָה מַגִּיעַ לְמַחֲצִית הָהָר. אִיבַּעְיָא לְהוּ: אוֹתָן אֵבָרִים מַה הֵן בַּהֲנָאָה? רַב וּשְׁמוּאֵל. חַד אָמַר: מוּתָּרִין, וְחַד אָמַר: אֲסוּרִין. § It was taught in the mishna that the goat would not reach halfway down the mountain before it was torn limb from limb. A dilemma was raised before the Sages: What is the status of those limbs? Is it permitted to derive pleasure from them? Rav and Shmuel disagreed with regard to this issue. One said they are permitted for benefit, and one said they are prohibited.
מַאן דְּאָמַר מוּתָּרִין, The Gemara explains their reasoning: The one who said they are permitted for benefit