הַשְׁתָּא בָּרִי טְמֵאִים אַתּוּן, דִּכְתִיב: ״טוּמְאָתָהּ בְּשׁוּלֶיהָ״. אֲמַר לֵיהּ, תָּא חֲזִי מָה כְּתִיב בְּהוּ: ״הַשּׁוֹכֵן אִתָּם בְּתוֹךְ טוּמְאֹתָם״, אֲפִילּוּ בִּזְמַן שֶׁהֵן טְמֵאִין — שְׁכִינָה שְׁרוּיָה בֵּינֵיהֶן. Now you are certainly impure, as it is written about the Jewish people: “Her impurity was in her skirts” (Lamentations 1:9), and the Divine Presence does not dwell upon the Jews when they are impure. Rabbi Ḥanina said to him: Come and see what is written about the Jewish people: “That dwells with them in the midst of their impurity” (Leviticus 16:16). This indicates that even when they are impure, the Divine Presence dwells among them.
וְכִי דָּבָר הַלָּמֵד בְּהֶיקֵּשׁ, חוֹזֵר וּמְלַמֵּד בְּהֶיקֵּשׁ? The Gemara raises a difficulty with regard to the aforementioned halakha. It was stated above that the comparison to the goat teaches that the High Priest sprinkles the bull’s blood once upward; and the seven downward sprinklings of the goat’s blood are derived from the rite of the blood of the bull. Subsequently, the order of sprinkling toward the curtain in the Sanctuary is again derived by means of a similar comparison. The Gemara asks: And does a matter derived by juxtaposition, i.e., a halakha not written explicitly in the Torah but learned by means of a comparison, again teach by juxtaposition? There is a general principle that a halakha derived by juxtaposition with regard to offerings cannot subsequently teach another halakha by juxtaposition.
הַאי, הֵימֶנּוּ וְדָבָר אַחֵר הוּא, וְלָא הָוֵי הֶיקֵּשׁ. The Gemara answers that the first juxtaposition was not a proper inference by verbal analogy, as this halakha that the High Priest must sprinkle once upward and seven times downward is derived both from that juxtaposition and something else as well. Since the basic requirement that he must sprinkle upward and downward for the bull and the goat is stated explicitly in both cases, and the comparison was necessary only to teach the precise number of sprinklings, this inference is not considered a juxtaposition to the extent that one cannot derive further comparisons from it.
הָנִיחָא לְמַאן דְּאָמַר לָא הָוֵי הֶיקֵּשׁ. אֶלָּא לְמַאן דְּאָמַר הָוֵי הֶיקֵּשׁ, מַאי אִיכָּא לְמֵימַר? The Gemara continues to question this explanation: It works out well according to the one who said that a juxtaposition that is also inferred from something else is not considered a juxtaposition in this regard; but according to the one who says that this too is called a juxtaposition, what can be said?
מְקוֹמוֹת הוּא דְּגָמְרִי מֵהֲדָדֵי. The Gemara answers: It is the locations that are derived from one another. The halakha of the blood of the bull was not derived from that of the goat, nor the halakha of sprinkling the bull’s blood outside the curtain from that of sprinkling the bull’s blood inside. Instead, the first comparison equates the sprinkling of the bull’s blood and the goat’s blood, while the second comparison equates the locations, i.e., he sprinkles outside the curtain in the same manner that he sprinkles inside. Consequently, the two juxtapositions are not connected to each other, which means that there is no problem of a halakha derived by juxtaposition itself teaching by juxtaposition.
אִי בָּעֵית אֵימָא: חוּץ מִבִּפְנִים בַּחֲדָא זִימְנָא גָּמַר. If you wish, say instead a different resolution: The sprinkling outside is derived from the sprinkling inside all at once, i.e., the juxtaposition includes not only the blood of the bull and the goat, but also the manners of sprinkling the blood inside and outside. There are not two comparisons here, one derived from the other, but a single, complex juxtaposition.
תָּנָא: כְּשֶׁהוּא מַזֶּה, אֵינוֹ מַזֶּה עַל הַפָּרוֹכֶת, אֶלָּא כְּנֶגֶד הַפָּרוֹכֶת. אָמַר רַבִּי אֶלְעָזָר בְּרַבִּי יוֹסֵי: אֲנִי רְאִיתִיהָ בְּרוֹמִי, וְהָיוּ עָלֶיהָ כַּמָּה טִיפֵּי דָמִים שֶׁל פַּר וְשָׂעִיר שֶׁל יוֹם הַכִּפּוּרִים. § A Sage taught: When the High Priest sprinkles the blood, he does not actually sprinkle on the curtain but opposite the curtain. Rabbi Elazar, son of Rabbi Yosei, said: I saw the curtain in Rome. After a miracle was performed on his behalf and he healed the daughter of the Roman emperor, Rabbi Elazar was permitted to view the ruler’s treasures and take whatever he wanted. He saw the Temple vessels that the Romans captured, including the curtain. Rabbi Elazar continued: And on the curtain were several drops of blood from the bull and the goat of Yom Kippur. This shows that the blood was actually sprinkled on the curtain.
וְדִילְמָא דְּפַר הֶעְלֵם דָּבָר שֶׁל צִבּוּר וּשְׂעִירֵי עֲבוֹדָה זָרָה הֲווֹ! The Gemara questions this conclusion: But how can Rabbi Elazar be sure that these drops of blood were from the bull and goat of Yom Kippur? Perhaps they were from the bull for an unwitting communal sin or the goats for a sin of idolatry, both of whose blood is also sprinkled on the curtain.
דַּחֲזָא דַּעֲבִידִי כְּסִדְרָן. וּתְנַן נָמֵי גַּבֵּי פַּר הֶעְלֵם דָּבָר שֶׁל צִבּוּר כִּי הַאי גַוְונָא: כְּשֶׁהוּא מַזֶּה, לֹא הָיוּ נוֹגְעִין בַּפָּרוֹכֶת, וְאִם נָגְעוּ — נָגְעוּ. The Gemara explains that he saw that these sprinklings of blood were performed in their order, one drop after another, a sequence that is followed only in the Yom Kippur service. And we also learned in a mishna about a case like this with regard to the bull for an unwitting communal sin: When he sprinkles, the blood would not touch the curtain, but if it did touch, it touched, and this did not invalidate the service.
אָמַר רַבִּי אֶלְעָזָר בְּרַבִּי יוֹסֵי: אֲנִי רְאִיתִיהָ בְּרוֹמִי, וְהָיוּ עָלֶיהָ כַּמָּה טִיפֵּי דָמִים שֶׁל פַּר הֶעְלֵם דָּבָר שֶׁל צִבּוּר, וּשְׂעִירֵי עֲבוֹדָה זָרָה. וְדִילְמָא דְּפַר וְשָׂעִיר שֶׁל יוֹם הַכִּפּוּרִים נִינְהוּ? דַּחֲזַנְהוּ דַּעֲבִידִי שֶׁלֹּא כְּסִדְרָן. Rabbi Elazar, son of Rabbi Yosei, said: I saw the curtain in Rome, and there were several drops of blood on it from the bull for an unwitting communal sin and the goats for a sin of idolatry. The Gemara asks: But how could he identify the source of the blood; perhaps they were from the bull and goat of Yom Kippur? The Gemara answers: He saw that they were performed not in their order and inferred that they must be sprinklings from communal sin-offerings, which are not presented in a sequence.
נִתְעָרְבוּ לוֹ דָּמִים בְּדָמִים, אָמַר רָבָא: נוֹתֵן אַחַת לְמַעְלָה וְשֶׁבַע לְמַטָּה, וְעוֹלֶה לוֹ לְכָאן וּלְכָאן. The Gemara asks a question: What should the High Priest do if the blood of the bull became mixed with the blood of the goat before he finished all the sprinklings? Rava said: He should present from the mixture once upward and seven times downward, and that counts toward both this one and that one, as he has sprinkled from both of them.
אַמְרוּהָ קַמֵּיהּ דְּרַבִּי יִרְמְיָה, אָמַר: בַּבְלָאֵי טַפְשָׁאֵי, מִשּׁוּם דְּדָיְירִי בְּאַרְעָא דַחֲשׁוֹכָא — אָמְרִי שְׁמַעְתָּא דִּמְחַשְּׁכָן! הָא קָא יָהֵיב לְמַעְלָה דְּשָׂעִיר מִקַּמֵּי מַטָּה דְּפַר, וְהַתּוֹרָה אָמְרָה: ״וְכִלָּה מִכַּפֵּר אֶת הַקֹּדֶשׁ״, כַּלֵּה דַּם הַפָּר וְאַחַר כָּךְ כַּלֵּה דַּם הַשָּׂעִיר! They said this answer before Rabbi Yirmeya in Eretz Yisrael, whereupon he said: Foolish Babylonians! Because they live in a dark, low land, they speak darkened halakhot, devoid of logic. If this solution is followed, when the High Priest sprinkles the mixture of bull and goat blood, he thereby presents the upward sprinklings of the goat before he sprinkles the downward presentations of the bull; and the Torah said: “And when he has finished atoning for the sacred place” (Leviticus 16:20), which teaches: He finishes the blood of the bull by sprinkling upward and downward, and only afterward he finishes the blood of the goat.
אֶלָּא, אָמַר רַבִּי יִרְמְיָה: נוֹתֵן אַחַת לְמַעְלָה וְשֶׁבַע לְמַטָּה לְשֵׁם הַפָּר, וְחוֹזֵר וְנוֹתֵן אַחַת לְמַעְלָה וְשֶׁבַע לְמַטָּה לְשֵׁם הַשָּׂעִיר. Rather, Rabbi Yirmeya said that the High Priest proceeds as follows: He presents once upward and seven times downward for the purpose of sprinkling the blood of the bull, as the blood of the bull is in this mixture. And he again presents once upward and seven times downward for the purpose of sprinkling the blood of the goat. Although the blood is mixed together and by sprinkling for the purpose of the bull’s blood he also sprinkles some of the goat’s blood, since he has only the bull’s blood in mind it is as though he did not sprinkle the blood of the goat at all.
נִתְעָרְבוּ לוֹ דָּמִים בְּדָמִים בְּמַתָּנוֹת הָאַחֲרוֹנוֹת, סְבַר רַב פָּפָּא קַמֵּיהּ דְּרָבָא לְמֵימַר: נוֹתֵן שֶׁבַע לְמַטָּה לְשֵׁם פַּר וּלְשֵׁם שָׂעִיר, וְחוֹזֵר וְנוֹתֵן אַחַת לְמַעְלָה לְשֵׁם שָׂעִיר. The Gemara asks another question: What should the High Priest do if the blood of the bull became mixed with the blood of the goat during the final presentations that he performs in the Sanctuary? Rav Pappa, who was sitting before Rava, thought to say: He presents seven times downward for the purpose of the bull and for the purpose of the goat, and he again presents once upward for the purpose of the goat.
אֲמַר לֵיהּ רָבָא: עַד הַשְׁתָּא קָרוּ לַן טַפְשָׁאֵי, וְהַשְׁתָּא — טַפְשָׁאֵי דְטַפְשָׁאֵי, דְּקָא מַגְמְרִינַן לְהוּ וְלָא גְּמִירִי. וְהָא קָא יָהֵיב מַטָּה דְשָׂעִיר מִקַּמֵּי מַעְלָה דְשָׂעִיר, וְהַתּוֹרָה אָמְרָה: תֵּן לְמַעְלָה, וְאַחַר כָּךְ לְמַטָּה! Rava said to him: Until now they called us Babylonians merely foolish, and now they will call us the foolish of the foolish, as they will say that we teach them and yet they do not learn. In response to your statement one could simply repeat Rabbi Yirmeya’s previous argument: But he presents downward sprinklings for the goat before the upward sprinklings for the goat, and the Torah said: Present upward and then downward.