Yoma 45aיומא מ״ה א
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45aמ״ה א

שדומה לפז זהב שחוט שנטוה כחוט זהב סגור בשעה שנפתח כל החנויות נסגרות זהב פרוים שדומה לדם הפרים

because it resembles the luster of pearls [paz] in the way it glistens. Shaḥut gold is named as such because it is very malleable and is spun like thread [shenitve keḥut]. Shaḥut is a contraction of the words shenitve keḥut. Closed gold is so called because when a shop opens to sell it, all the other shops close, as no one is interested in purchasing any other type of gold. Parvayim gold is so called because its redness resembles the blood of bulls [parim].

רב אשי אמר חמשה הן וכל חד וחד אית ביה זהב וזהב טוב תניא נמי הכי בכל יום היה זהבה ירוק והיום אדום והיינו זהב פרוים שדומה לדם הפרים

Rav Ashi said: There are in fact only five types of gold, the last five in Rav Ḥisda’s list. Gold and good gold are not independent categories; rather, each and every one of the types of gold has two varieties: Regular gold and a superior variety called good gold. That was also taught in a baraita with regard to parvayim gold: On every other day the coal pan was made of greenish gold, but on this day it was made of a red gold, and this is the parvayim gold which resembles the blood of bulls.

בכל יום מקריב פרס שחרית וכו' בכל יום היתה דקה והיום דקה מן הדקה תנו רבנן דקה מה ת"ל והלא כבר נאמר (שמות ל, לו) ושחקת ממנה הדק אלא להביא דקה מן הדקה

§ The mishna states: On every other day, a priest sacrificed a peras, half of a maneh, of incense in the morning, and a peras in the afternoon, but on this day the High Priest adds an additional handful of incense and burns it in the Holy of Holies. On every other day, the incense was ground fine as prescribed by the Torah, but on this day it was superfine. The Sages taught in a baraita: The verse states with regard to the incense on Yom Kippur that it is “finely ground aromatic incense” (Leviticus 16:12). What does the verse mean to teach by this? Has it not already been stated: “And you shall grind some of it finely” (Exodus 30:36)? Rather, it teaches that on Yom Kippur the incense has to be superfine.

בכל יום כהנים עולין במזרחו של כבש דאמר מר כל פינות שאתה פונה לא יהו אלא דרך ימין למזרח

§ The mishna states: On every other day, priests ascend on the eastern side of the ramp. A baraita explains the reason for this: As the Master said: All the turns that you turn should be only to the right, which, after ascending the altar, means one will turn to the east and will mean one will circulate the altar in a counter-clockwise fashion. When they descended, they again turned to the right, which is to the west of the ramp.

והיום (עולין) באמצע (ויורדין) באמצע מאי טעמא משום כבודו דכהן גדול

§ The mishna continues: But on this day the priests ascend in the middle of the ramp and descend in the middle. What is the reason? Due to the eminence of the High Priest he should not walk on the side but in the middle.

בכל יום כהן [גדול] מקדש ידיו ורגליו מן הכיור וכו' מאי טעמא משום כבודו של כהן גדול

§ We learned in the mishna that every other day the High Priest sanctifies his hands and his feet from the laver like the other priests, and on this day he sanctifies them from the golden flask. What is the reason? Due to the eminence of the High Priest.

בכל יום היו שם ארבע מערכות תנו רבנן בכל יום היו שתים מערכות והיום שלש אחת מערכה גדולה ואחת מערכה שניה של קטורת ואחת שמוסיפין בו ביום דברי רבי יהודה

§ The mishna states: On every other day, there were four arrangements of wood there, upon the altar, but on this day there were five. The Sages taught in the Tosefta: On every other day there were two arrangements of wood on the altar, but on this day there were three: One, the large arrangement; and one, the second arrangement for coals for the incense; and one, the additional arrangement of wood, which they add on that day for the incense that is burned in the Holy of Holies. This is the statement of Rabbi Yehuda.

רבי יוסי אומר בכל יום שלש והיום ארבע אחת של מערכה גדולה ואחת מערכה שניה של קטורת ואחת של קיום האש ואחת שמוסיפין בו ביום

Rabbi Yosei says: On every other day there were three arrangements, but on this day there were four: One, the large arrangement; and one, the second arrangement for the incense; and one, for the upkeep of the fire, so that if the fire of the large arrangement begins to die down, wood from this arrangement may be added to it to raise the flames; and one, the additional arrangement of wood that they add on that day for the incense that is burned in the Holy of Holies.

רבי (מאיר) אומר בכל יום ארבע והיום חמש אחת של מערכה גדולה ואחת של מערכה שניה של קטורת ואחת של קיום האש ואחת לאיברים ופדרים שלא נתעכלו מבערב ואחת שמוסיפין בו ביום

Rabbi Meir says: On every other day there were four arrangements of wood on the altar but on this day there were five: One, the large arrangement; and one, the second arrangement for the incense; and one, for the upkeep of the fire; and one, for burning the limbs and fats that were not fully consumed on the altar the previous evening; and one, the additional arrangement of wood that they add on that day for the incense that is burned in the Holy of Holies.

דכולי עלמא מיהת תרתי אית להו מנלן אמר קרא (ויקרא ו, ב) היא העולה על מוקדה על המזבח כל הלילה זו מערכה גדולה ואש המזבח תוקד בו זו מערכה שניה של קטורת ורבי יוסי קיום האש מנא ליה נפקא ליה מוהאש על המזבח תוקד בו

The Gemara analyzes the different opinions: At any rate, everyone has at least two arrangements in their calculations. From where do we derive this? The verse states: “It is the burnt-offering on the flame on the altar all night” (Leviticus 6:2); this is referring to the large arrangement. It states further: “And the fire of the altar shall be kept burning thereby” (Leviticus 6:2), this additional mention of a fire is referring to the second arrangement, which is for the incense. And from where does Rabbi Yosei learn about the additional arrangement for the upkeep of the fire? He derives it from the verse: “And the fire upon the altar shall be kept burning thereby” (Leviticus 6:5), which mentions fire for the third time.

ור' יהודה ההוא להצתת אליתא הוא דאתא דתניא היה רבי יהודה אומר מניין להצתת אליתא שלא תהא אלא בראשו של מזבח תלמוד לומר (ויקרא ו, ה) והאש על המזבח תוקד בו אמר רבי יוסי מניין שעושה מערכה לקיום האש תלמוד לומר והאש על המזבח תוקד בו

And how does Rabbi Yehuda, who holds that normally there are only two arrangements, explain this third mention of a fire? That additional mention comes to teach about the kindling of the thin wood chips, which were used to ignite the fires on the altar, as it was taught in a baraita: Rabbi Yehuda would say: From where is it derived that the kindling of the wood chips should be done only at the top of the altar, rather than setting them alight at the bottom of the altar and carrying them up? The verse states: “And the fire upon the altar shall be kept burning thereby” (Leviticus 6:5), which indicates that the fire that is brought there has to be lit on the altar itself. Rabbi Yosei said: From where is it derived that an arrangement for the upkeep of the fire is made? The verse states: “And the fire upon the altar shall be kept burning thereby” (Leviticus 6:5).

ורבי יוסי הצתת אליתא מנא ליה נפקא ליה מהיכא דנפקא ליה לרבי שמעון דתניא (ויקרא א, ז) ונתנו בני אהרן הכהן אש על המזבח לימד על הצתת אליתא שלא תהא אלא בכהן כשר ובכלי שרת דברי ר' יהודה אמר לו רבי שמעון וכי תעלה על דעתך שזר קרב לגבי מזבח אלא לימד על הצתת אליתא שלא תהא אלא בראשו של מזבח

And from where does Rabbi Yosei derive that the kindling of the wood chips should be at the top of the altar? He derives it from the same place that Rabbi Shimon derives it. As it was taught in a baraita: The verse states: “And the sons of Aaron the priest shall put fire upon the altar” (Leviticus 1:7), which teaches about the kindling of the wood chips that it may be done only by a fit priest and one who is robed in the priestly vestments of service; this is the statement of Rabbi Yehuda. Rabbi Shimon said to him: There is no need for a verse to teach that a priest must kindle the chips, for could it enter your mind that a non-priest could approach the altar? Rather, this verse teaches about the kindling of the wood chips, that they may be lit only at the top of the altar.

ורבי יהודה אי מהתם הוה אמינא קאי אארעא ועביד במפוחא קמ"ל

And what would Rabbi Yehuda respond to Rabbi Shimon’s reasoning? If this halakha was derived from there, I would have said a non-priest could light the fire on the altar by standing on the ground below and using a bellows to fan the flames on the top of the altar. Therefore, this verse teaches us that in all circumstances the person kindling the fire must be a priest.

ורבי מאיר איברים ופדרים שלא נתעכלו מבערב מנא ליה נפקא ליה מואש ורבנן וא"ו לא דרשי

And from where does Rabbi Meir learn about an additional arrangement for the limbs and the fats that were not fully consumed on the altar the previous evening? He derives it from the phrase “and the fire.” The apparently superfluous word “and” alludes to the existence of an additional arrangement. And the Rabbis, i.e., Rabbi Yosei and Rabbi Yehuda, who disagree, do not expound the word “and.”

ורבנן איברים ופדרים שלא נתעכלו מבערב מאי עביד להו מהדר להו למערכה גדולה דתניא מניין לאיברים ופדרים שלא נתעכלו מבערב

And according to the Rabbis, what do they do with the limbs and the fats that were not fully consumed on the altar the previous evening? Where are they burned? A priest returns them to the large arrangement, where the process of their burning is completed. As it was taught in a baraita: From where is it derived that for limbs and fats that were not fully consumed on the altar the previous evening,