ואי סלקא דעתך מחצות דאורייתא היא היכי מקדמינן (והיכי מאחרינן)
And if it enters your mind to say that the time for removal of the ashes is from midnight by Torah law, how do we perform it earlier and how do we perform it later than the time established by Torah law?
אלא אמר ר' יוחנן ממשמע שנא' כל הלילה איני יודע שהוא עד הבקר ומה ת"ל עד הבקר תן בקר לבקרו של לילה
Rather, Rabbi Yoḥanan said: The fact that midnight is the deadline after which the limbs may not be burned is derived from a different source. From the fact that it is stated with regard to the burning of the limbs: All night, don’t I know that it means until morning? And for what purpose, then, does the verse state: Until morning? It means: Add another morning to the morning of the night. Arise before dawn, and that is the time for removal of the ashes. Nevertheless, there is no specific hour fixed for performing this removal, and how much earlier than dawn it is performed depends on the need.
הלכך בכל יום תורמין את המזבח בקריאת הגבר או סמוך לו בין מלפניו בין מלאחריו סגיא ביוה"כ דאיכא חולשא דכ"ג עבדינן מחצות וברגלים דנפישי ישראל ונפישי קרבנות עבדינן מאשמורת הראשונה כדקתני טעמא לא היתה קריאת הגבר מגעת עד שהית' עזרה מלאה מישראל
Therefore, every day the priests remove the ashes from the altar at the crow of the rooster or adjacent to it, whether before it or after it, as on a typical day removing the ashes just before dawn is sufficient. On Yom Kippur, when, due to the fact that he performs the entire day’s service, there is an issue of the weakness of the High Priest, the ashes are removed earlier and we do so from midnight. And on the Festivals, when the Jewish people in Jerusalem are numerous and the offerings that they bring to sacrifice during the Festival are numerous, the ashes are removed even earlier, and we do so from the first watch, in accordance with the reason that is taught in the mishna: And the call of the rooster would not arrive on Festivals until the Temple courtyard was full with the Jewish people.
מאי קריאת הגבר רב אמר קרא גברא רבי שילא אמר קרא תרנגולא
§ The term keriat hagever, translated above as the call of the rooster, is mentioned in the mishna as an indication of a certain time. The Gemara asks: What is the meaning of the phrase keriat hagever? Rav said: It is the call of the man; the priest appointed for this task proclaimed that it was time for the priests to report for service. Rabbi Sheila said: It is the call of the rooster, which is also called gever.
רב איקלע לאתריה דרבי שילא לא הוה אמורא למיקם עליה דרבי שילא קם רב עליה וקא מפרש מאי קריאת הגבר קרא גברא אמר ליה רבי שילא ולימא מר קרא תרנגולא א"ל אבוב לחרי זמר לגרדאי לא מקבלוה מיניה
Rav happened to come to the place where Rabbi Sheila was the most prominent local Torah scholar and Rav was not yet known. There was no disseminator to stand before Rabbi Sheila to disseminate his lecture to the public. Rav stood before him to disseminate the lecture, in the course of which Rabbi Sheila mentioned keriat hagever. Rav interpreted the concept for the audience and said: What is the meaning of keriat hagever? It means the call of the man. Rabbi Sheila said to him: And let the Master say it is the call of the rooster. Rav said to him, quoting a folk saying: A flute played for noblemen is music, but when played for weavers, they receive no pleasure from it, due to their lack of sophistication. Similarly, the interpretation that I disseminated was accepted by Torah scholars greater than you. You, who lack their sophistication, cannot appreciate it.
כי הוה קאימנא עליה דר' חייא ומפרישנא מאי קריאת הגבר קרא גברא ולא אמר לי ולא מידי ואת אמרת לי אימא קרא תרנגולא א"ל מר ניהו רב נינח מר א"ל אמרי אינשי אי תגרת ליה פוץ עמריה איכא דאמרי הכי א"ל מעלין בקדש ולא מורידין
When I stood before Rabbi Ḥiyya and interpreted: What is the meaning of keriat hagever? It means the call of the man, he did not say anything to me in response, and you, Rabbi Sheila, say to me: Say it is the call of the rooster. As soon as Rabbi Sheila heard that, he knew at once who had been disseminating his lecture. He said to him: Is the Master Rav? Let the Master rest and cease disseminating my lecture, as it is beneath your dignity to serve as my assistant. Rav said to him: People say this aphorism: If you hired yourself to him, comb his wool. Once one agrees to perform a task, he should bear its less pleasing aspects and complete the job. Some say, this is what Rav said to him: One elevates to a higher level in matters of sanctity and one does not downgrade. Since the task of interpreting was undertaken by a man of my stature, it is not fitting that a lesser man will replace me. That would be a display of contempt for the Torah.
תניא כותיה דרב תניא כותיה דרבי שילא תניא כותיה דרב גביני כרוז מהו אומר עמדו כהנים לעבודתכם ולוים לדוכנכם וישראל למעמדכם והיה קולו נשמע בשלש פרסאות
The Gemara comments: A baraita was taught in accordance with the opinion of Rav, and a baraita was taught in accordance with the opinion of Rabbi Sheila. The Gemara elaborates: A baraita was taught in accordance with the opinion of Rav: What did Gevini the Crier, who was an appointee in the Temple, say in his proclamation? Arise, priests, to your service, and Levites to your platform, and Israelites to your non-priestly watch. And the Gemara relates: His voice was so strong that it could be heard at a distance of three parasangs, slightly more than eight miles.
מעשה באגריפס המלך שהיה בא בדרך ושמע קולו בג' פרסאות וכשבא לביתו שיגר לו מתנות ואעפ"כ כ"ג משובח ממנו דאמר מר וכבר אמר אנא השם ונשמע קולו ביריחו ואמר רבה בר בר חנה א"ר יוחנן מירושלים ליריחו י' פרסי
There was an incident involving King Agrippa, who was coming down the road and heard Gevini the Crier’s voice at a distance of three parasangs. And when the king came to his house he sent gifts to him, since he was so impressed with the man’s voice. The Gemara notes: And even so, the voice of the High Priest was stronger and superior to his, as the Master said: And there already was an incident where the High Priest recited, in his confession that accompanied the placing of hands on his bull on Yom Kippur: Please God, and his voice was heard in Jericho. And Rabba bar bar Ḥana said that Rabbi Yoḥanan said: The distance from Jerusalem to Jericho is ten parasangs.
ואע"ג דהכא איכא חולשא והכא ליכא חולשא והכא יממא והתם ליליא
And not only was the distance greater in the case of the High Priest than in the case of Gevini the Crier, here, there is the issue of the weakness of the High Priest due to the fast and his obligation to perform the entire service, while there, there is no issue of the weakness of Gevini. And in addition, here it was during the day, when sound does not travel as well, that the High Priest recited his confession; and there it was during the night when Gevini called the priests, Levites, and Israelites.
דא"ר לוי מפני מה אין קולו של אדם נשמע ביום כדרך שנשמע בלילה מפני גלגל חמה שמנסר ברקיע כחרש המנסר בארזים והאי חירגא דיומא לא שמיה והיינו דקאמר נבוכדנצר (דניאל ד, לב) וכל דיירי ארעא (כלא) חשיבין
As Rabbi Levi said: Why is a person’s voice not heard during the day in the manner that it is during the night? It is due to the fact that the sound of the sphere of the sun traversing the sky generates noise like the noise generated by a carpenter sawing cedars, and that noise drowns out other sounds. And that sawdust that is visible during the day in the rays of the sun, la is its name. This is what Nebuchadnezzar said: “And all the inhabitants of the world are considered like la” (Daniel 4:32), i.e., all inhabitants of the earth are equivalent to specks of dust.
ת"ר אלמלא גלגל חמה נשמע קול המונה של רומי ואלמלא קול המונה של רומי נשמע קול גלגל חמה ת"ר שלש קולות הולכין מסוף העולם ועד סופו ואלו הן קול גלגל חמה וקול המונה של רומי וקול נשמה בשעה שיוצאה מן הגוף וי"א אף לידה
Apropos sounds, the Gemara cites that the Sages taught: Were it not for the sound of the sphere of the sun, the sound of the bustle of the crowds of Rome would be heard throughout the world; and were it not for the sound of the bustle of the crowds of Rome, the sound of the sun’s sphere would be heard throughout the world. And the Sages taught: Three sounds travel from the end of the world to its other end, and these are: The sound of the sphere of the sun, and the sound of the bustle of the crowds of Rome, and the sound of the soul at the moment that it leaves the body, which should be audible throughout the world. And some say: Even the sound of a woman giving birth.