גְּמָ׳ תָּנָא: לְלַמְּדוֹ חֲפִינָה. אָמַר רַב פָּפָּא: שְׁתֵּי לְשָׁכוֹת הָיוּ לוֹ לְכֹהֵן גָּדוֹל, אַחַת לִשְׁכַּת פַּרְהֶדְרִין וְאַחַת לִשְׁכַּת בֵּית אַבְטִינָס. אַחַת בַּצָּפוֹן וְאַחַת בַּדָּרוֹם. אַחַת בַּצָּפוֹן, דִּתְנַן: שֵׁשׁ לְשָׁכוֹת הָיוּ בָּעֲזָרָה, שָׁלֹשׁ בַּצָּפוֹן וְשָׁלֹשׁ בַּדָּרוֹם, GEMARA: A tanna taught: The Sages took the High Priest to the House of Avtinas, where the incense was prepared, to teach him the method of taking handfuls of incense, which is a difficult and complex skill. Rav Pappa said: The High Priest had two chambers. One was the Parhedrin chamber and one was the Chamber of the House of Avtinas. One of them was in the north of the courtyard, and one was in the south. The Gemara explains: One was in the north, as we learned in the mishna: There were six chambers in the Israelite courtyard, three in the north and three in the south.
שֶׁבַּדָּרוֹם: לִשְׁכַּת הַמֶּלַח, לִשְׁכַּת הַפַּרְוָה, לִשְׁכַּת הַמְּדִיחִין. לִשְׁכַּת הַמֶּלַח — שֶׁשָּׁם הָיוּ נוֹתְנִין מֶלַח לַקׇּרְבָּן, לִשְׁכַּת הַפַּרְוָה — שֶׁשָּׁם הָיוּ מוֹלְחִין עוֹרוֹת קָדָשִׁים. וְעַל גַּגָּהּ הָיְתָה בֵּית טְבִילָה לְכֹהֵן גָּדוֹל בְּיוֹם הַכִּפּוּרִים. לִשְׁכַּת הַמְּדִיחִין — שָׁם הָיוּ מְדִיחִין קִרְבֵי קָדָשִׁים. וּמִשָּׁם מְסִיבָּה עוֹלֶה לְגַג בֵּית הַפַּרְוָה. The chambers in the south were the Chamber of the Salt, the Chamber of the Parva, and the Chamber of the Rinsers. The Gemara explains the function performed in each chamber. The Chamber of the Salt was where the priests would place the salt for the offering in storage The Chamber of the Parva, the hides, was where they salted the consecrated hides that belonged to the priests, to prevent them from spoiling. And on the roof of that chamber was the Hall of Immersion for the High Priest for Yom Kippur. The Chamber of the Rinsers was where they would rinse the innards of consecrated animals, which were not taken up to the altar while dirty or with undigested food remaining in them. From there a circular staircase ascended to the roof of the Chamber of the Parva.
שָׁלֹשׁ שֶׁבַּצָּפוֹן: לִשְׁכַּת הָעֵץ, לִשְׁכַּת הַגּוֹלָה, לִשְׁכַּת הַגָּזִית. לִשְׁכַּת הָעֵץ, אָמַר רַבִּי אֱלִיעֶזֶר בֶּן יַעֲקֹב: שָׁכַחְתִּי מֶה הָיְתָה מְשַׁמֶּשֶׁת. אַבָּא שָׁאוּל אוֹמֵר: לִשְׁכַּת כֹּהֵן גָּדוֹל הָיְתָה אֲחוֹרֵי שְׁתֵּיהֶן, וְגַג שְׁלׇשְׁתָּן שָׁוֶה. The three chambers in the north of the courtyard were the Chamber of the Wood, the Chamber of the Exile, and the Chamber of Hewn Stone. With regard to the Chamber of the Wood, Rabbi Eliezer ben Ya’akov, who is the tanna of the mishnayot in tractate Middot in which this mishna appears, said: I forgot what purpose that chamber would serve. Abba Shaul says: The High Priest’s chamber was behind the two chambers, the Chamber of the Exile and the Chamber of Hewn Stone, and the roofs of all three of them were level. As the three were attached, they shared a roof.
לִשְׁכַּת הַגּוֹלָה — שָׁם הָיָה בּוֹר הַגּוֹלָה, וְהַגַּלְגַּל נָתוּן עָלָיו, וּמִשָּׁם מַסְפִּיקִין מַיִם לְכׇל הָעֲזָרָה. לִשְׁכַּת הַגָּזִית — שָׁם הָיְתָה סַנְהֶדְרִין שֶׁל יִשְׂרָאֵל יוֹשֶׁבֶת וְדָנָה אֶת הַכֹּהֲנִים, וּמִי שֶׁנִּמְצָא בּוֹ פְּסוּל, הָיָה לוֹבֵשׁ שְׁחוֹרִים וּמִתְעַטֵּף שְׁחוֹרִים וְיָצָא וְהָלַךְ לוֹ. וְשֶׁלֹּא נִמְצָא בּוֹ פְּסוּל, הָיָה לוֹבֵשׁ לְבָנִים וּמִתְעַטֵּף לְבָנִים וְנִכְנָס וּמְשַׁמֵּשׁ עִם אֶחָיו הַכֹּהֲנִים. In the Chamber of the Exile there was the well excavated by those returning from exile, for which the chamber was named, and the wheel with which water was drawn was positioned over it. And from there, they would supply water for use in the entire Temple courtyard for washing and rinsing. In the Chamber of Hewn Stone, there the great Sanhedrin of Israel convened and judged whether the priests were fit for service. A priest in whom a disqualification was detected due to a blemish or lineage would wear black and would wrap himself in black in a display of sorrow and mourning and would emerge from the Temple and go on his way, because he was not fit for service as a priest. And any priest in whom a disqualification was not found would wear white and wrap himself in white in a display of joy and would enter and serve with his fellow priests.
אַחַת בַּדָּרוֹם, דִּתְנַן: שִׁבְעָה שְׁעָרִים הָיוּ בָּעֲזָרָה, שָׁלֹשׁ בַּצָּפוֹן וְשָׁלֹשׁ בַּדָּרוֹם וְאֶחָד בַּמִּזְרָח. שֶׁבַּדָּרוֹם: שַׁעַר הַדְלָקָה, שֵׁנִי לוֹ — שַׁעַר הַקָּרְבָּן, שְׁלִישִׁי לוֹ — שַׁעַר הַמַּיִם. שֶׁבַּמִּזְרָח: שַׁעַר נִקָּנוֹר, וּשְׁתֵּי לְשָׁכוֹת הָיוּ שָׁם אַחַת בִּימִינוֹ וְאַחַת בִּשְׂמֹאלוֹ, אַחַת לִשְׁכַּת פִּנְחָס הַמַּלְבִּישׁ, וְאַחַת לִשְׁכַּת עוֹשֵׂי חֲבִיתִּין. In any event, it was taught that there was a chamber of the High Priest in the north of the courtyard, and there is proof that he also had one chamber in the south of the courtyard, as we learned in a mishna: Seven gates were in the Temple courtyard, three in the north and three in the south and one in the east. The gates in the south were the Gate of Fire; second to it was the Gate of the Offering; third to it was the Gate of the Water. The gate that was in the east was called the Gate of Nicanor, and two chambers were there next to the Gate of Nicanor, one to its right and one to its left. One was the Chamber of Pineḥas the Dresser, where the priestly vestments were stored, and one was the Chamber of the Preparers of the Griddle-Cake Offering, where the daily griddle-cake offering was prepared on behalf of the High Priest.
שֶׁבַּצָּפוֹן: שַׁעַר נִיצוֹץ, בִּנְיַן אַכְסַדְרָה הָיָה, וַעֲלִיָּיה בְּנוּיָה לוֹ עַל גַּבָּיו, וְשָׁם כֹּהֲנִים שׁוֹמְרִים מִלְמַעְלָה, וּלְוִיִּם מִלְּמַטָּה. וְשֶׁלִּפְנִים הֵימֶנּוּ הַחֵיל. שֵׁנִי לוֹ — שַׁעַר הַקָּרְבָּן, שְׁלִישִׁי לוֹ — שַׁעַר בֵּית הַמּוֹקֵד. The gates that were in the north: The first was the Gate of the Spark, which was a portico building, meaning it had a roof but was not completely closed on every side. And there was a second story built atop it, and there the honor guard of the Temple stood, with the priests guarding from above and the Levites from below. Inside of this gate was the rampart, and an opening led from the gate to the rampart. Second to this gate was the Gate of the Offering; third to it was the Gate of the Hall of the Hearth.
וְתַנְיָא: חָמֵשׁ טְבִילוֹת וַעֲשָׂרָה קִדּוּשִׁין טוֹבֵל כֹּהֵן גָּדוֹל וּמְקַדֵּשׁ בּוֹ בַּיּוֹם, וְכוּלָּן בַּקּוֹדֶשׁ, [עַל גַּג] בֵּית הַפַּרְוָה. חוּץ מִזּוֹ שֶׁהָיְתָה בַּחוֹל, עַל גַּבֵּי שַׁעַר הַמַּיִם, וּבְצַד לִשְׁכָּתוֹ הָיְתָה. And it was taught in a baraita: The High Priest would perform five immersions and ten sanctifications of his hands and feet on that day, Yom Kippur. And each of these was performed in the sacred area of the courtyard, on the roof of the Hall of the Parva, except for this first immersion, which was performed in the non-sacred area outside the courtyard. The first immersion was not unique to Yom Kippur but was performed every day by any priest entering the Temple. That immersion was performed on the roof of the Gate of the Water, and that gate was alongside his chamber. Apparently, the High Priest had a chamber next to the Gate of the Water, which was in the south of the courtyard.
וְלָא יָדַעְנָא אִי לִשְׁכַּת פַּרְהֶדְרִין בַּצָּפוֹן וְלִשְׁכַּת בֵּית אַבְטִינָס בַּדָּרוֹם, אוֹ לִשְׁכַּת בֵּית אַבְטִינָס בַּצָּפוֹן וְלִשְׁכַּת פַּרְהֶדְרִין בַּדָּרוֹם. וּמִסְתַּבְּרָא דְּלִשְׁכַּת פַּרְהֶדְרִין בַּדָּרוֹם הֲוַאי. The High Priest had use of two chambers, but we do not know whether the Parhedrin chamber was in the north and the Chamber of the House of Avtinas was in the south, or the Chamber of the House of Avtinas was in the north and the Parhedrin chamber was in the south. And, however, it is reasonable to say that the Parhedrin chamber was in the south and the High Priest slept there.
מַאי טַעְמָא? מַקְדֵּים קָאֵי וּמֵיסֵךְ אֶת רַגְלָיו וְטָבֵיל, וְאָזֵיל לַצָּפוֹן וְגָמַר חֲפִינָה וְאָתֵי לְבֵית הַמִּקְדָּשׁ וְעָבֵיד עֲבוֹדָה כּוּלֵּי יוֹמָא. לְבַהֲדֵי פַּנְיָא מַדּוּ עֲלֵיהּ, וַהֲדַר אָזֵיל לַדָּרוֹם וְטָבֵיל וְנָיַיח. What is the reason for that assumption? Because if that is the case, the High Priest arises early every morning of the seven days of sequestering and he covers his legs, a euphemism for defecating, and immerses alongside his chamber, which was in the south. And then he walks to the north of the courtyard to the second chamber, which is the Chamber of the House of Avtinas, and learns there the method of taking handfuls. And then he comes to the Temple and performs the service for the entire day. Toward the evening they sprinkle purification water upon him, and he then walks back to the south and immerses again alongside his chamber and rests in his chamber.
דְּאִי אָמְרַתְּ לִשְׁכַּת פַּרְהֶדְרִין בַּצָּפוֹן. מַקְדֵּים קָאֵי וּמֵיסֵךְ רַגְלָיו, וְאָזֵיל לַדָּרוֹם וְטָבֵיל וְגָמַר חֲפִינָה וְאָתֵי לְבֵית הַמִּקְדָּשׁ וְעָבֵיד עֲבוֹדָה כּוּלֵּיהּ יוֹמָא, לַהֲדֵי פַּנְיָא מַדּוּ עֲלֵיהּ, וַהֲדַר אָזֵיל לַדָּרוֹם וְטָבֵיל, וּבָעֵי מֶהְדַּר וּמֵיזַל לַצָּפוֹן וּמֵינַח — וּמִי (טָרַח) מַטְרְחִינַן לֵיהּ כּוּלֵּי הַאי? As, if you say that the Chamber of Parhedrin was in the north, this would mean that the High Priest would be forced to exert himself and walk significant distances. According to this understanding, he arises early, and he covers his legs. However, since it was taught in the baraita that the place of his immersion was in the south, he then walks to the south and immerses. And then he learns the method of taking handfuls. And then he comes to the Temple and performs the service for the entire day. Toward the evening they sprinkle purification water upon him, and he then walks back to the south and immerses, and then he needs to walk back to the north and rest. Do we impose upon him to that extent? Rather, it is reasonable to say that the Parhedrin chamber, the High Priest’s private chamber, was in the south, which would limit the distance that he needed to walk.
אַלְּמָה לָא? מַטְרְחִינַן לֵיהּ טְפֵי, דְּאִי צַדּוּקִי הוּא לִיפְרוֹשׁ. The Gemara rejects this reasoning: Why not impose upon him? On the contrary, we impose upon him even more, so that if he is a Sadducee, he will retire. As he is not a God-fearing person, he would prefer to walk away rather than subject himself to that added exertion. That is a desirable result, ridding the High Priesthood of a Sadducee.
אִי נָמֵי, שֶׁלֹּא תָּזוּחַ דַּעְתּוֹ עָלָיו. דְּאִי לָא תֵּימָא הָכִי, נַעְבְּדִינְהוּ לְתַרְוַיְיהוּ בַּהֲדֵי הֲדָדֵי, אִי נָמֵי תִּסְגֵּי לֵיהּ בַּחֲדָא. Or, alternatively, there is even value in imposing on a God-fearing Pharisee High Priest, in order that he will not become haughty in his lofty position. Since he is occupied in performing his task, he does not have leisure to be impressed with his elevated status. As, if you do not say that it is an intentional attempt to impose upon him, let us establish both of the chambers of the High Priest next to one another; or, alternatively, one chamber would be sufficient for him. From the fact that neither of these alternatives is adopted, it is apparently an intentional attempt to impose upon him, and there is no proof as to the location of either of the chambers of the High Priest.
וְאָמְרוּ לוֹ אִישִׁי כֹּהֵן גָּדוֹל וְכוּ׳. לֵימָא תִּהְוֵי תְּיוּבְתָּא דְּרַב הוּנָא בְּרֵיהּ דְּרַב יְהוֹשֻׁעַ. דְּאָמַר רַב הוּנָא בְּרֵיהּ דְּרַב יְהוֹשֻׁעַ: הָנֵי כָּהֲנֵי — שְׁלוּחֵי דְרַחֲמָנָא נִינְהוּ, דְּאִי אָמְרַתְּ שְׁלוּחֵי דִידַן נִינְהוּ § It was taught in the mishna that the Elders said to him: My Master, High Priest. We are agents of the court, and you are our agent and the agent of the court. The Gemara suggests: Let us say that this is a conclusive refutation of the opinion of Rav Huna, son of Rav Yehoshua, as Rav Huna, son of Rav Yehoshua, said: These priests who sacrifice the offerings are the agents of the Merciful One. They are not agents representing the Jewish people but are agents representing God, as He commanded them to perform the service. Proof is cited for this opinion: As, if you say they are our agents,