Yevamot 49bיבמות מ״ט ב
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49bמ״ט ב

ועל הסוטה שאין הולד ממזר

or with a sota, that the offspring is not a mamzer.

נדה דהא תפסי בה קידושין שנאמר (ויקרא טו, כד) ותהי נדתה עליו אפי' בשעת נדתה תפסי בה קידושין

With regard to a menstruating woman the offspring is not a mamzer because one’s betrothal of her takes effect, as it is stated: “And her impurity shall be upon him” (Leviticus 15:24). The phrase “shall be” alludes to the fact that a betrothal with her takes effect. The verse teaches that even at the time of her menstrual impurity, betrothal with her takes effect.

סוטה נמי דהא תפסי בה קידושין

With regard to a sota, too, the offspring is not a mamzer because one’s betrothal of her takes effect.

תניא נמי הכי הכל מודים בבא על הנדה ועל הסוטה ועל שומרת יבם שאין הולד ממזר

The Gemara notes: This teaching of Abaye is also taught in a baraita: All agree with regard to one who engages in sexual relations with a menstruating woman, or with a sota, or with a widow waiting for her yavam to perform levirate marriage, that the offspring is not a mamzer.

ואביי שומרת יבם מספקא ליה אי כרב אי כשמואל:

The Gemara explains: And Abaye did not mention the case of a widow waiting for her yavam because he is uncertain whether, if someone other than the yavam betrothed her, the halakha is in accordance with the opinion of Rav that it does not take effect or in accordance with the opinion of Shmuel that it might take effect.

א"ר שמעון בן עזאי כו': תני שמעון בן עזאי אומר מצאתי מגלת יוחסין בירושלים וכתוב בה איש פלוני ממזר מאשת איש וכתוב בה משנת ר' אליעזר בן יעקב קב ונקי וכתוב בה מנשה הרג את ישעיה

§ The mishna states: Rabbi Shimon ben Azzai said: I found a scroll recording people’s lineages. The Gemara cites an expanded version of the contents of the scroll. It is taught in a baraita that Rabbi Shimon ben Azzai said: I found a scroll recording people’s lineages, in Jerusalem, and it was written in it that so-and-so is a mamzer from an adulterous union with a married woman. And it was also written in it: The teachings of Rabbi Eliezer ben Ya’akov measure only a kav but are clean and accurate, and so the halakha is decided in accordance with his opinions. And it was written in it: Manasseh, king of Israel, killed Isaiah the prophet.

אמר רבא מידן דייניה וקטליה אמר ליה משה רבך אמר (שמות לג, כ) כי לא יראני האדם וחי ואת אמרת (ישעיהו ו, א) ואראה את ה' יושב על כסא רם ונשא משה רבך אמר (דברים ד, ז) מי כה' אלהינו בכל קראנו אליו ואת אמרת (ישעיהו נה, ו) דרשו ה' בהמצאו משה רבך אמר (שמות כג, כו) את מספר ימיך אמלא ואת אמרת (מלכים ב כ, ו) והוספתי על ימיך חמש עשרה שנה

The Gemara expands on the events surrounding Isaiah’s death: Rava said: Manasseh judged him as a false witness for issuing statements contradicting the Torah and only then killed him. Manasseh said to Isaiah: Moses your master said in the Torah: “And He said: You cannot see My face, for man cannot see Me and live” (Exodus 33:20), and yet you said: “I saw the Lord sitting upon a high and lofty throne” (Isaiah 6:1). Moses your master said: “For which great nation is there, that has God so near to it, as the Lord our God is, whenever we call upon Him?” (Deuteronomy 4:7), and yet you said: “Seek the Lord while He may be found, call upon Him while He is near” (Isaiah 55:6), which implies that God is not always near. Moses your master said: “I will fulfill the number of your days” (Exodus 23:26), which implies that each individual has a preordained allotted lifespan that he cannot outlive, and yet you said in a prophecy to King Hezekiah: “And I will add to your days, fifteen years” (II Kings 20:6).

אמר ישעיה ידענא ביה דלא מקבל מה דאימא ליה ואי אימא ליה אישוייה מזיד אמר שם איבלע בארזא אתיוה לארזא ונסרוה כי מטא להדי פומא נח נפשיה משום דאמר (ישעיהו ו, ה) ובתוך עם טמא שפתים אנכי יושב

Isaiah said to himself: I know him, i.e., Manasseh, that he will not accept whatever explanation that I will say to him to resolve my prophecies with the words of the Torah. And even if I say it to him, I will make him into an intentional transgressor since he will kill me anyway. Therefore, in order to escape, he uttered a divine name and was swallowed within a cedar tree. Manasseh’s servants brought the cedar tree and sawed through it in order to kill him. When the saw reached to where his mouth was, Isaiah died. He died specifically as this point due to that which he said: “In the midst of a people of unclean lips, I dwell” (Isaiah 6:5). He was punished for referring to the Jewish people in a derogatory manner.

מכל מקום קשו קראי אהדדי

The Gemara asks: In any case, as Manasseh pointed out, these verses contradict each other; how are these contradictions to be resolved?

ואראה את ה' כדתניא כל הנביאים נסתכלו באספקלריא שאינה מאירה משה רבינו נסתכל באספקלריא המאירה

The Gemara resolves the first contradiction: “I saw the Lord” is to be understood as it is taught in a baraita: All of the prophets observed their prophecies through an obscure looking glass [aspaklaria], i.e., their prophecies were given as metaphoric visions but were not a direct perception of the matter. However, Moses our master observed his prophecies through a clear looking glass, i.e., he gained a direct and accurate perception of the matter.

דרשו ה' בהמצאו הא ביחיד הא בצבור ויחיד אימת אמר רב נחמן אמר רבה בר אבוה אלו עשרה ימים שבין ראש השנה ליום הכפורים

The Gemara resolves the second contradiction: Isaiah’s prophecy: “Seek the Lord while He may be found,” does not contradict the verse in the Torah that God is near to His nation “whenever we call upon Him,” because this prophecy of Isaiah was made with regard to the individual and this verse in the Torah is stated with regard to a community, as the prayer of the community is always accepted. The Gemara asks: And when is the time that God is to be found near the individual? Rav Naḥman said Rabba bar Avuh said: These are the ten days between Rosh HaShana and Yom Kippur.

את מספר ימיך אמלא תנאי היא דתניא את מספר ימיך אמלא

The resolution of the third contradiction from the verse: “I will fulfill the number of your days,” is subject to a dispute between tanna’im, as it is taught in a baraita: The verse states: “I will fulfill the number of your days”;