Yevamot 48bיבמות מ״ח ב
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48bמ״ח ב

ר' אליעזר אומר אביה אביה ממש אמה אמה ממש ר"ע אומר אביה ואמה זו עבודת כוכבים וכן הוא אומר (ירמיהו ב, כז) אומרים לעץ אבי אתה וגו'

Rabbi Eliezer says: “Her father” means her actual father and “her mother” means her actual mother. Rabbi Akiva says: Her father and her mother; this is referring to the idolatrous deity that she had worshiped but will no longer be able to worship, and so it says: “They say to a tree: You are my father, and to a stone: You have given birth to us” (Jeremiah 2:27).

ירח ימים ירח שלשים יום ר"ש בן אלעזר אומר תשעים יום ירח שלשים ימים שלשים ואחר כן שלשים

The verses states: “A month of days and after that you may come to her” (Deuteronomy 21:13). This means a thirty-day month. Rabbi Shimon ben Elazar says: She must wait ninety days. This is derived as follows: The phrase “a month” connotes thirty days; the word “days” adds another thirty days; and the words “after that” indicate another period equal to one previously mentioned, i.e., a further thirty days.

מתקיף לה רבינא אימא ירח שלשים ימים שלשים ואחר כן כי הני קשיא

Ravina strongly objects to this: If the words “after that” indicate another period equal to one previously mentioned, then one should say: The phrase “a month” connotes thirty days; the word “days” adds another thirty days; and then the words “after that” add another period which is equal to the total sum of all those days she has already waited, i.e., an additional sixty days. The Gemara concedes: Indeed, this is difficult.

ת"ר מקיימין עבדים שאינם מלין דברי רבי ישמעאל רבי עקיבא אומר אין מקיימין אמר ליה ר' ישמעאל הרי הוא אומר (שמות כג, יב) וינפש בן אמתך א"ל בלוקח עבד בין השמשות ולא הספיק למולו הכתוב מדבר

§ The Sages taught in a baraita: One may maintain slaves that are not circumcised under one’s control; this is the statement of Rabbi Yishmael. Rabbi Akiva says: One may not maintain such slaves, even for a moment. Rabbi Yishmael said to him: But it says with regard to Shabbat: “And the son of your maidservant will be refreshed” (Exodus 23:12). The verse prohibits a Jewish master from allowing his slave to perform labor on Shabbat. The Gemara will explain that this is referring to an uncircumcised slave. It is therefore apparent that it is permitted to keep such a slave. Rabbi Akiva said to him: The verse speaks of one who purchases a slave at twilight on the eve of Shabbat and therefore does not have the opportunity to circumcise him before the onset of Shabbat.

דכ"ע מיהת וינפש בן אמתך בעבד ערל כתיב מאי משמע דתניא וינפש בן אמתך בעבד ערל הכתוב מדבר אתה אומר בעבד ערל או אינו אלא בעבד מהול כשהוא אומר (דברים ה, יג) למען ינוח עבדך ואמתך כמוך הרי עבד מהול אמור הא מה אני מקיים וינפש בן אמתך בעבד ערל

The Gemara notes: In any event, in the opinion of everyone the verse: “And the son of your maidservant will be refreshed,” is written with regard to an uncircumcised slave. From where is this inferred? As it is taught in a baraita: “And the son of your maidservant will be refreshed”; the verse speaks of an uncircumcised slave. Do you say it speaks of an uncircumcised slave, or perhaps it is speaking only of a circumcised slave? When it says elsewhere: “And the seventh day is a Shabbat to the Lord your God, you shall not do any labor, you, and your son, and your daughter, and your slave, and your maidservant…so that your slave and your maidservant may rest like you” (Deuteronomy 5:13), a circumcised slave is already mentioned; how, then, do I uphold the verse “And the son of your maidservant will be refreshed”? It must refer to an uncircumcised slave.

והגר זה גר תושב אתה אומר זה גר תושב או אינו אלא גר צדק כשהוא אומר וגרך אשר בשעריך הרי גר צדק אמור הא מה אני מקיים והגר זה גר תושב

The verse continues: “And the stranger [ger]” (Exodus 23:12). This is referring to a gentile who observes certain mitzvot [ger toshav]. Do you say that this is a ger toshav, or perhaps it is only a righteous convert [ger tzedek], who is a Jew in every sense? When it says elsewhere: “And your stranger [ger] that is within your gates” (Deuteronomy 5:13), a righteous convert is already mentioned. How, then, do I uphold the verse “And the stranger [ger]”? It must be that this is a ger toshav.

אמר רבי יהושע בן לוי הלוקח עבד מן העובד כוכבים ולא רצה למול מגלגל עמו עד י"ב חדש לא מל חוזר ומוכרו לעובדי כוכבים

Rabbi Yehoshua ben Levi said: In the case of one who purchases a slave from a gentile and the slave does not wish to be circumcised, he abides with him up to twelve months. If, after this period, he will still not be circumcised, he then sells him on to gentiles.

אמרוה רבנן קמיה דרב פפא כמאן דלא כר' עקיבא דאי ר"ע האמר אין מקיימין אמר להו רב פפא אפילו תימא ר' עקיבא הני מילי היכא דלא פסקא למילתיה אבל היכא דפסקא למילתיה פסקא

The Sages said this halakha before Rav Pappa and asked: In accordance with whose opinion is it? It seems that it is not in accordance with the opinion of Rabbi Akiva, as, if it were in accordance with the opinion of Rabbi Akiva, didn’t he say: One may not maintain an uncircumcised slave even for a moment? Rav Pappa said to them: You can even say that it is in accordance with the opinion of Rabbi Akiva, since perhaps that halakha of Rabbi Yehoshua ben Levi applies only where the slave did not make his refusal to be circumcised explicit; however, where he did make his refusal to be circumcised explicit, since he has made it explicit, it is prohibited to maintain him, as Rabbi Akiva rules.

אמר רב כהנא אמריתא לשמעתא קמיה דרב זביד מנהרדעא אמר לי אי הכי כי אמר ליה ר"ע בלוקח עבד בין השמשות לישני ליה הא חדא מתרי טעמי קאמר

Rav Kahana said: I said this halakha before Rav Zevid from Neharde’a. He said to me: If so, that Rabbi Akiva agrees that one may temporarily maintain a slave who has not explicitly refused to be circumcised, then when Rabbi Akiva said to Rabbi Yishmael that the verse with regard to an uncircumcised slave is referring to one who purchases a slave at twilight on the eve of Shabbat, let him instead answer him that the verse is referring to this case of a slave who has not explicitly refused to be circumcised. The Gemara explains: Rabbi Akiva said only one out of two possible reasons why it would be permitted to be in possession of such a slave.

שלח רבין משמיה דרבי אילעאי וכל רבותי אמרו לי משמו איזהו עבד ערל שמותר לקיימו זה שלקחו רבו על מנת שלא למולו אמרוה רבנן קמיה דרב פפא כמאן דלא כרבי עקיבא דאי ר"ע האמר אין מקיימין אמר להו רב פפא אפילו תימא רבי עקיבא ה"מ היכא דלא אתני בהדיה אבל היכא דאתני אתני

Ravin sent a message citing a halakha in the name of Rabbi Ilai: And all of my teachers said to me in his name: What is the case of an uncircumcised slave whom it is permitted to maintain? This is one whose master purchased him on condition not to circumcise him. The Sages said this halakha before Rav Pappa and asked: In accordance with whose opinion is it? It seems that it is not in accordance with the opinion of Rabbi Akiva, as, if it were in accordance with the opinion of Rabbi Akiva, didn’t he say: One may not maintain an uncircumcised slave even for a moment? Rav Pappa said to them: You can even say it is in accordance with the opinion of Rabbi Akiva, since perhaps that ruling of Rabbi Akiva applies only where the master did not make a condition with regard to the slave that he would not be circumcised; however, where he did make such a condition, since he made a condition, even Rabbi Akiva would concede it is permitted to maintain him.

אמר רב כהנא אמריתא לשמעתא קמיה דרב זביד מנהרדעא וא"ל אי הכי כי קאמר ליה רבי עקיבא בלוקח עבד בין השמשות ולא הספיק למולו לישני ליה הא

Rav Kahana said: I said this halakha before Rav Zevid from Neharde’a and he said to me: If so, that Rabbi Akiva agrees that one may maintain a slave who was purchased on condition that he would not be circumcised, then when Rabbi Akiva said to Rabbi Yishmael that the verse with regard to an uncircumcised slave is referring to one who purchases a slave at twilight on the eve of Shabbat and therefore does not have the opportunity to circumcise him before the onset of Shabbat, let him instead answer him that the verse is referring to this case of a slave who was purchased on condition that he would not be circumcised.

וליטעמיך לישני ליה הך אלא חד מתרי ותלת טעמי קאמר

The Gemara responds: But even according to your reasoning that Rabbi Akiva disagrees, since you do agree with Rav Pappa’s resolution of Rabbi Akiva’s opinion with the halakha of Rabbi Yehoshua ben Levi, let Rabbi Akiva answer him that the verse is referring to that case of a slave who has not explicitly refused to be circumcised. The Gemara answers: Rabbi Akiva said only one out of two or three possible reasons that it would be permitted to be in possession of such a slave.

יתיב רבי חנינא בר פפי ורבי אמי ור' יצחק נפחא אקילעא דרבי יצחק נפחא ויתבי וקאמרי עיר אחת היתה בארץ ישראל ולא רצו עבדיה למול וגלגלו עמהם עד שנים עשר חדש וחזרו ומכרום לעובדי כוכבים

Rabbi Ḥanina bar Pappi, and Rabbi Ami, and Rabbi Yitzḥak Nappaḥa were sitting in the courtyard of Rabbi Yitzḥak Nappaḥa. They were sitting and saying: There was one city in Eretz Yisrael whose slaves did not wish to be circumcised. Their masters abided with them until twelve months had passed and then sold them to gentiles. In accordance with whose opinion did they act?

כמאן כי האי תנא דתניא הלוקח עבד מן העובד כוכבים ולא רצה למול מגלגל עמו עד שנים עשר חדש לא מל חוזר ומוכרו לעובדי כוכבים ר' שמעון בן אלעזר אומר אין משהין אותו בארץ ישראל מפני הפסד טהרות ובעיר הסמוכה לספר אין משהין אותו כל עיקר שמא ישמע דבר וילך ויאמר לחברו עובד כוכבים

It is in accordance with the opinion of this tanna, as it is taught in a baraita: In the case of one who purchases a slave from a gentile and the slave does not wish to be circumcised, the master abides with him for up to twelve months. If, after this period, the slave will still not be circumcised, the master then sells him to gentiles. Rabbi Shimon ben Elazar says: One may not allow him to remain in Eretz Yisrael due to the loss of ritually pure items he could cause. As long as the slave remains uncircumcised, he is considered to be a gentile; therefore, by rabbinic decree, ritually pure items that he touches are considered to be impure. And in a city that is near to the border he may not be allowed to remain at all, lest he hear some secret matter concerning security and go and say it over to his fellow gentile in an enemy country. However, once he has been circumcised and accepted the yoke of mitzvot, this concern no longer exists.

תניא רבי חנניא בנו של רבן גמליאל אומר מפני מה גרים בזמן הזה מעונין ויסורין באין עליהן מפני שלא קיימו שבע מצות בני נח רבי יוסי אומר גר שנתגייר כקטן שנולד דמי אלא מפני מה מעונין לפי שאין בקיאין בדקדוקי מצות כישראל אבא חנן אומר משום ר' אלעזר לפי שאין עושין מאהבה אלא מיראה

§ It is taught in a baraita: Rabbi Ḥananya, son of Rabban Gamliel, says: For what reason are converts at the present time tormented and hardships come upon them? It is because when they were gentiles they did not observe the seven Noahide mitzvot. Rabbi Yosei says: They would not be punished for their deeds prior to their conversion because a convert who just converted is like a child just born in that he retains no connection to his past life. Rather, for what reason are they tormented? It is because they are not as well-versed in the intricacies of the mitzvot as a born Jew, and consequently they often inadvertently transgress mitzvot. Abba Ḥanan says in the name of Rabbi Elazar: It is because they observe mitzvot not out of love of God, but only out of fear of the punishments for failing to observe them.

אחרים אומרים מפני ששהו עצמם להכנס תחת כנפי השכינה אמר ר' אבהו ואיתימא ר' חנינא מאי קראה (רות ב, יב) ישלם ה' פעלך ותהי משכורתך שלמה מעם ה' אלהי ישראל אשר באת לחסות וגומר:

Others say: It is because they waited before entering under the wings of the Divine Presence, i.e., they are punished for not converting sooner than they did. Rabbi Abbahu said, and some say it was Rabbi Ḥanina who said: What is the verse from which it is derived that one should convert at the earliest opportunity? Boaz said to Ruth: “The Lord shall recompense your work, and your reward shall be complete from the Lord, the God of Israel, under whose wings you have come to take refuge” (Ruth 2:12).