Chapter 30ל׳
1 א

וּלְקַחְתֶּם לָכֶם בַּיּוֹם הָרִאשׁוֹן (ויקרא כג, מ), רַבִּי אַבָּא בַּר כַּהֲנָא פָּתַח (משלי ח, י): קְחוּ מוּסָרִי וְאַל כָּסֶף, קְחוּ מוּסָרָהּ שֶׁל תּוֹרָה וְאַל כָּסֶף, (ישעיה נה, ב): לָמָּה תִשְׁקְלוּ כֶסֶף בְּלוֹא לֶחֶם, לָמָּה אַתֶּם שׁוֹקְלִים כֶּסֶף לִבְנֵי עֵשָׂו בְּלוֹא לֶחֶם, עַל שֶׁלֹּא שְׂבַעְתֶּם מִלַּחְמָהּ שֶׁל תּוֹרָה. (ישעיה נה, ב): וִיגִיעֲכֶם בְּלוֹא לְשָׂבְעָה, לָמָּה אַתֶּם יְגֵעִים וְאֻמּוֹת הָעוֹלָם שְׂבֵעִים, בְּלֹא לְשָׂבְעָה, עַל שֶׁלֹּא שְׂבַעְתֶּם מִיֵּינָהּ שֶׁל תּוֹרָה, דִּכְתִיב (משלי ט, ה): וּשְׁתוּ בְּיַיִן מָסָכְתִּי. רַבִּי בֶּרֶכְיָה וְרַבִּי חִיָּא אֲבוֹי בְּשֵׁם רַבִּי יוֹסֵי בֶּן נְהוֹרָאי אָמַר, כְּתִיב (ירמיה ל, כ): וּפָקַדְתִּי עַל כָּל לֹחֲצָיו, אֲפִלּוּ עַל גַּבָּאֵי צְדָקָה, חוּץ מִשְּׂכַר סוֹפְרִים וּמַשְׁנִים, שֶׁאֵינָן נוֹטְלִין אֶלָּא שְׂכַר בַּטָּלָה בִּלְבָד, אֲבָל שְׂכַר דָּבָר אֶחָד מִן הַתּוֹרָה אֵין כָּל בְּרִיָּה יְכוֹלָה לִתֵּן מַתַּן שְׂכָרָהּ. תָּנֵי מֵרֹאשׁ הַשָּׁנָה נִקְצָצִין מְזוֹנוֹתָיו שֶׁל אָדָם חוּץ מִמַּה שֶּׁמּוֹצִיא בְּשַׁבָּתוֹת וְיָמִים טוֹבִים וְרָאשֵׁי חֳדָשִׁים וּמַה שֶּׁהַתִּינוֹקוֹת מוֹלִיכִים לְבֵית רַבָּן, אִם מוֹסִיף מוֹסִיפִים לוֹ אִם פּוֹחֵת פּוֹחֲתִין לוֹ. רַבִּי יוֹחָנָן הֲוָה מְטַיֵּל, סָלֵק מִטְבֶרְיָא לְצִפּוֹרִין, וַהֲוָה רַבִּי חִיָּא בַּר אַבָּא מִסְמַךְ לֵיהּ, מָטוֹן חַד בֵּית חֲקַל אֲמַר הָדֵין בֵּית חַקְלָא הֲוָה דִידִי וְזַבֵּינִית יָתֵיהּ בִּגְלַל לְמִזְכֵּי בְּאוֹרַיְתָא. מָטוֹן חַד דְּבֵית כַּרְמָא אֲמַר הָדֵין בֵּית כַּרְמָא דִידִי הֲוֵית וְזַבֵּינִית יָתֵיהּ בִּגְלַל לְמִזְכֵּי בְּאוֹרַיְתָא. מָטוֹן חַד דְּבֵית זֵיתָא, אֲמַר הָדֵין בֵּית זֵיתָא דִידִי הֲוָה וְזַבֵּינִית יָתֵיהּ בִּגְלַל לְמִזְכֵּי בְּאוֹרַיְתָא, שָׁרֵי רַבִּי חִיָּא בָּכֵי, אָמַר רַבִּי יוֹחָנָן מָה אַתְּ בָּכֵי, אֲמַר לֵיהּ עַל דְּלָא שְׁבַקְתְּ לְסִיבוּתָךְ כְּלוּם. אָמַר לוֹ קַלָּה הִיא בְּעֵינֶיךָ מַה שֶּׁעָשִׂיתִי שֶׁמָּכַרְתִּי דָבָר שֶׁנִּבְרָא לְשִׁשָּׁה יָמִים וְקָנִיתִי דָּבָר שֶׁנִּתַּן לְאַרְבָּעִים יוֹם, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (שמות לד, כח): וַיְהִי שָׁם עִם ה' אַרְבָּעִים יוֹם וְאַרְבָּעִים לַיְלָה, וּכְתִיב (דברים ט, ט): וָאֵשֵׁב בָּהָר אַרְבָּעִים יוֹם וְאַרְבָּעִים לַיְלָה. כַּד דְּמַךְ רַבִּי יוֹחָנָן הֲוָה דּוֹרוֹ קוֹרֵא עָלָיו (שיר השירים ח, ז): אִם יִתֵּן אִישׁ אֶת כָּל הוֹן בֵּיתוֹ בָּאַהֲבָה, שֶׁאָהַב רַבִּי יוֹחָנָן אֶת הַתּוֹרָה, (דברים ט, ט): בּוֹז יָבוּזוּ לוֹ. כַּד דְּמַךְ רַבִּי הוֹשַׁעְיָא אִישׁ טִירְיָא רָאוּ מִטָּתוֹ שֶׁפָּרְחָה בָּאֲוִיר, וְהָיָה דּוֹרוֹ קוֹרֵא עָלָיו (שיר השירים ח, ז): אִם יִתֵּן אִישׁ אֶת כָּל הוֹן בֵּיתוֹ בָּאַהֲבָה, שֶׁאָהַב הַקָּדוֹשׁ בָּרוּךְ הוּא לְאַבָּא הוֹשַׁעְיָא אִישׁ טִירְיָא, בּוֹז יָבוּזוּ לוֹ. כַּד דְּמַךְ רַבִּי אֶלְעָזָר בְּרַבִּי שִׁמְעוֹן, הָיָה דּוֹרוֹ קוֹרֵא עָלָיו (שיר השירים ג, ו): מִי זֹאת עֹלָה מִן הַמִּדְבָּר כְּתִימְרוֹת עָשָׁן מְקֻטֶּרֶת מֹר וּלְבוֹנָה מִכֹּל אַבְקַת רוֹכֵל, מַהוּ מִכֹּל אַבְקַת רוֹכֵל, אֶלָּא דַהֲוָה קָרָיי וְתָנָיי וּפַּיְיטָן וְדַרְשָׁן. אָמַר רַבִּי אַבָּא בַּר כַּהֲנָא מִשְּׂכַר לְקִיחָה אַתָּה לָמֵד שְׂכַר לְקִיחָה, בְּמִצְרַיִם כְּתִיב (שמות יב, כב): וּלְקַחְתֶּם אֲגֻדַּת אֵזוֹב, בְּכַמָּה הֲוָת טִימְיָא דִּידֵיהּ בְּאַרְבָּעָה מִינֵי, וְהוּא גָּרַם לְיִשְׂרָאֵל לִירַשׁ בִּזַּת הַיָּם, בִּזַּת סִיחוֹן וְעוֹג, בִּזַּת שְׁלשִׁים וְאֶחָד מְלָכִים. לוּלָב שֶׁעוֹמֵד עַל הָאָדָם בְּכַמָּה דָּמִים, וְכַמָּה מִצְווֹת יֵשׁ בּוֹ, עַל אַחַת כַּמָּה וְכַמָּה. לְפִיכָךְ משֶׁה מַזְהִיר אֶת יִשְׂרָאֵל וְאוֹמֵר לָהֶם: וּלְקַחְתֶּם לָכֶם בַּיּוֹם הָרִאשׁוֹן.

1 "And you shall take (acquire) for yourselves on the first day" (Leviticus 23:40). Rabbi Abba bar Kahana opened [his discourse]: "'Accept my discipline rather than silver' - accept the discipline of Torah rather than silver. 'Why do you weigh money for what is not bread' (Isaiah 55:2) - why are you weighing money for the Children of Esav for what is not bread? Since you did not sate yourselves with the bread of Torah. 'Your toil is for what does not satisfy' (Isaiah 55:2) - why are you toiling, and the nations of the world satiated without satiation? Since you did not satiate yourselves from the wine of Torah, as it is written (Proverbs 9:5), 'and drink the wine that I have mixed.'" Rabbi Berakhiah and Rabbi Chiya his father said in the name of Rabbi Yose ben Nehoria, "It is written (Jeremiah 30:20), 'And I will remember all who press him' - even charity collectors - except for the wage of scribes and teachers of Mishnah who only take the wage of their idleness alone. But there is no creature that can give the wage of one thing of the Torah [commensurate to] its reward." It was taught, "The sustenance of a man is fixed from Rosh Hashanah, except for what he expends [for] Shabbat, holidays, Rosh Chodesh and what the infants take to the house of their teacher - if he adds [to this], it is added to him; if he lessens, it is lessened from him." Rabbi Yochanan was travelling, he left from Tiveria [to go] to Tsipporin, and Rabbi Chiya bar Abba was helping him. They reached a plot of farmland. [Rabbi Yochanan] said, "This farmland was mine, but I sold it in order to acquire Torah." They reached one that was a vineyard. He said, "This vineyard was mine, but I sold it in order to acquire Torah." They reached one that was an olive grove. He said, "This olive grove was mine, but I sold it in order to acquire Torah." Rabbi Chiya started to cry. Rabbi Yochanan said, "Why are you crying?" He said to him, "Since you did not leave anything for your old age." He said to him, "Is what I did light in your eyes, that I sold something created in six days and purchased something that was given over forty days, as it is stated (Exodus 34:28), 'And he was there with the Lord forty days and forty nights'; and it is written (Deuteronomy 9:9), 'and I dwelt on the mountain forty days and forty nights.'" When Rabbi Yochanan [died], his generation read about him (Song of Songs 8:7), "if a man offered all the wealth of his home for love" - as Rabbi Yochanan loved the Torah - "he would surely be scorned." When Rabbi Hoshaya, the man of Tirya [died], they saw his bier flying in the air; and his generation read about him (Song of Songs 8:7), "if a man offered all the wealth of his home for love" - as the Holy One, blessed be He, loved Abba Hoshaya, the man of Tirya - "he would surely be scorned." When Rabbi Elazar beRabbi Shimon [died], his generation read about him (Song of Songs 3:6), "Who is she that comes up from the desert like columns of smoke, in clouds of myrrh and frankincense, from all the powders of the merchant?" What is [the understanding of] "from all the powders of the merchant?" Rather [it is] since he read and studied, was a lyricist and an orator. Rabbi Abba bar Kahana said "You learn the reward of purchasing from the reward of purchasing: About Egypt, it is written (Exodus 12:22), 'And acquire a bunch of hyssop.' What is its price? Four small coins. But it caused Israel to possess the spoils of the [Reed Sea], the spoils of Sichon and Og and the spoils of [the] thirty-one kings [of Canaan]. All the more so [is this true] of a lulav, which can become a man's for a little money and has several commandments with it. Hence Moshe warns Israel and says to them (Leviticus 23:40), 'And you shall take (acquire) for yourselves on the first day.'"

2 ב

דָּבָר אַחֵר, וּלְקַחְתֶּם לָכֶם, הֲדָא הוּא דִכְתִיב (תהלים טז, יא): תּוֹדִיעֵנִי אֹרַח חַיִּים שׂבַע שְׂמָחוֹת, אָמַר דָּוִד לִפְנֵי הַקָּדוֹשׁ בָּרוּךְ הוּא תּוֹדִיעֵנִי בְּאֵיזֶה פִּילוֹן מְפֻלָּשׁ לְחַיֵּי הָעוֹלָם הַבָּא, רַבִּי יוּדָן אָמַר, אָמַר הַקָּדוֹשׁ בָּרוּךְ הוּא לְדָוִד אִם חַיִּים אַתָּה צָרִיךְ, יִסּוּרִין אַתָּה צָרִיךְ, כְּדִכְתִיב (משלי ו, כג): וְדֶרֶךְ חַיִּים תּוֹכְחוֹת מוּסָר. שׂבַע שְׂמָחוֹת, שִׂבְּעָנוּ בַּחֲמִשָּׁה שְׂמָחוֹת, מִקְרָא, מִשְׁנָה, תַּלְמוּד, תּוֹסֶפְתָּא וְאַגָּדוֹת. דָּבָר אַחֵר, שׂבַע שְׂמָחוֹת אֶת פָּנֶיךָ, אֵלּוּ שֶׁבַע כִּתּוֹת שֶׁל צַדִּיקִים שֶׁעֲתִידִים לְהַקְבִּיל פְּנֵי שְׁכִינָה וּפְנֵיהֶם דּוֹמוֹת לַחַמָּה וּלְבָנָה, לָרָקִיעַ, לַכּוֹכָבִים, לַבְּרָקִים וּלְשׁוֹשַׁנִּים וְלַמְּנוֹרָה הַטְּהוֹרָה שֶׁהָיְתָה בְּבֵית הַמִּקְדָּשׁ. לַחַמָּה מִנַּיִן, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (שיר השירים ו, י): בָּרָה כַּחַמָּה. לַלְּבָנָה מִנַּיִן, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (שיר השירים ו, י): יָפָה כַלְּבָנָה. לָרָקִיעַ מִנַּיִן, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (דניאל יב, ג): וְהַמַּשְׂכִּלִים יַזְהִרוּ כְּזֹהַר הָרָקִיעַ. לַכּוֹכָבִים מִנַּיִן, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (דניאל יב, ג): וּמַצְדִּיקֵי הָרַבִּים כַּכּוֹכָבִים לְעוֹלָם וָעֶד. לַבְּרָקִים מִנַּיִן, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (נחום ב, ה): מַרְאֵיהֶן כַּלַּפִּידִים כַּבְּרָקִים יְרוֹצֵצוּ. לְשׁוֹשַׁנִּים מִנַּיַן, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (תהלים מה, א): לַמְנַצֵּחַ עַל שׁשַׁנִּים. לַמְּנוֹרָה הַטְּהוֹרָה מִנַּיִן, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (זכריה ד, ב): וַיֹּאמֶר אֵלַי מָה אַתָּה רֹאֶה וָאֹמַר רָאִיתִי וְהִנֵּה מְנוֹרַת זָהָב כֻּלָּהּ. (תהלים טז, יא): נְעִמוֹת בִּימִינְךָ נֶצַח, וְכִי מִי מוֹדִיעֵנוּ אֵיזוֹ כַּת הַחֲבִיבָה וְהַנְּעִימָה שֶׁבָּהֶן, תְּרֵין אָמוֹרָאִין, חַד אָמַר זוֹ שֶׁבָּאָה מִכֹּחָהּ שֶׁל תּוֹרָה וּמִכֹּחָן שֶׁל מִצְווֹת, וְאָחֳרָנָא אָמַר אֵלּוּ סוֹפְרִין וּמַשְׁנִין שֶׁמְּלַמְּדִין תִּינוֹקוֹת בַּאֲמִתָּן, שֶׁהֵן עֲתִידִין לַעֲמֹד בִּימִינוֹ שֶׁל הַקָּדוֹשׁ בָּרוּךְ הוּא, הֲדָא הוּא דִכְתִיב: נְעִמוֹת בִּימִינְךָ נֶצַח. דָּבָר אַחֵר, שׂבַע שְׂמָחוֹת, אַל תְּהִי קוֹרֵא כֵּן אֶלָּא שֶׁבַע שְׂמָחוֹת, אֵלּוּ שֶׁבַע מִצְווֹת שֶׁבֶּחָג, וְאֵלּוּ הֵן, אַרְבָּעָה מִינִין שֶׁבַּלּוּלָב, וְסֻכָּה, חֲגִיגָה וְשִׂמְחָה. אִם שִׂמְחָה לָמָּה חֲגִיגָה וְאִם חֲגִיגָה לָמָּה שִׂמְחָה, אָמַר רַבִּי אָבִין מָשָׁל לִשְׁנַיִם שֶׁנִּכְנְסוּ אֵצֶל הַדַּיָּן וְלֵית אֲנַן יָדְעִין מַאן הוּא נוֹצֵחַ, אֶלָּא מַאן דְּנָסַב בָּאיָין בִּידֵיהּ, אֲנַן יָדְעִין דְּהוּא נָצוֹחַיָיא, כָּךְ יִשְׂרָאֵל וְאֻמּוֹת הָעוֹלָם בָּאִין וּמְקַטְרְגִים לִפְנֵי הַקָּדוֹשׁ בָּרוּךְ הוּא בְּרֹאשׁ הַשָּׁנָה וְלֵית אֲנַן יָדְעִין מַאן נָצַח, אֶלָּא בַּמֶּה שֶׁיִּשְׂרָאֵל יוֹצְאִין מִלִּפְנֵי הַקָּדוֹשׁ בָּרוּךְ הוּא וְלוּלָבֵיהֶן וְאֶתְרוֹגֵיהֶן בְּיָדָן, אָנוּ יוֹדְעִין דְיִשְׂרָאֵל אִינוּן נָצוֹחַיָּא, לְפִיכָךְ משֶׁה מַזְהִיר לְיִשְׂרָאֵל וְאוֹמֵר לָהֶם: וּלְקַחְתֶּם לָכֶם בַּיּוֹם הָרִאשׁוֹן.

2 Another interpretation of, "And you shall take for yourselves" (Leviticus 23:40): This is [the understanding of] that which is written (Psalms 16:11), "You will inform me the path of life, complete joy." David said in front of the Holy One, blessed be He, "Teach me through which gate it is straight to life in the world to come." Rabbi Yudan said, "The Holy One, blessed be He, said to David, 'If you need life, you need afflictions, as it is written, "And the path of life is the rebuke that disciplines."'" "Complete joy (literally, satiation of joys)" - He has satiated us with five joys: Scripture, Mishna, Mishnah, Talmud, Tosefta, and aggadot. Another interpretation of "complete (sova) joy" (Psalms 16:11) - these are the seven (sheva) groups of the righteous that will greet the face of the Divine Presence in the future. And their faces are similar to the sun, the moon, the firmament, the stars, lightning, lilies and the pure menorah that was in the Temple. From where [do we know] the sun? Since it is stated (Song of Songs 6:10), "radiant as the sun." From where [do we know] the moon? Since it is stated (Song of Songs 6:10), "beautiful as the moon." From where [do we know] the firmament? Since it is stated (Daniel 12:3), "And the knowledgeable will be radiant like the bright firmament." From where [do we know] the stars? Since it is stated (Daniel 12:3), "and those who lead the many to righteousness will be like the stars forever and ever." From where [do we know] lightning? Since it is stated (Nahum 2:5), "they appear like torches, they race like lightning." From where [do we know] lilies? Since it is stated (Psalms 45:11), "For the choirmaster; upon lilies." From where [do we know] the pure menorah? Since it is stated (Zechariah 4:2), "He said to me, 'What do you see?' And I said, 'I see a menorah all of gold.'" "Pleasant things are ever in Your right hand" (Psalms 16:11). And who will inform us which group are the most beloved and pleasant among them? Two Amoraiam (scholars of the Talmudic period) [differed about this]. One said, "That is [the one] that comes with the power of Torah and the power of [the] commandments." And the other said, "Those are the scribes and the teachers of Mishnah who teach infants truthfully and will stand in the future in the right hand of the Holy One, blessed be He." This is [the understanding of] that which is written, 'Pleasant things are ever in Your right hand.'" Another interpretation of "Complete (sova) joy" (Psalms 16:11) - these are the seven (sheva) commandments of the festival, and these are them: The four species that are in the lulav, the sukkah (hut), the festival offering and the offering of joy. If there is an offering of joy, why is there a festival offering; and if there is a festival offering, why is there an offering of joy? Rabbi Avin said, "[There is a relevant] parable about two that went into a judge and we do not know who was victorious. Rather we know that the one that [comes out] carrying a palm branch is the winner. So [too] Israel and the nations of the world come and prosecute [each other] before the Holy One, blessed be He, on Rosh Hashanah and we do not know who won. Rather when we see that Israel is coming out from in front of the Holy One, blessed be He, with their lulavs and citrons in their hands, we know that Israel are the winners (and that creates a need to offer an offering of joy, as well as the holiday offering). Hence, Moshe warns Israel and says to them (Leviticus 23:40), 'And you shall take for yourselves.'"

3 ג

דָּבָר אַחֵר, וּלְקַחְתֶּם לָכֶם בַּיּוֹם הָרִאשׁוֹן, הֲדָא הוּא דִכְתִיב (תהלים קב, יח): פָּנָה אֶל תְּפִלַּת הָעַרְעָר וְלֹא בָזָה אֶת תְּפִלָּתָם, שֶׁנִּצְּחוּ יִשְׂרָאֵל בַּדִּין וְנִמְחֲלוּ עֲוֹנוֹתֵיהֶם וְהֵן אוֹמְרִים נָצְחוּ יִשְׂרָאֵל, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (שמואל א טו, כט): וְגַם נֵצַח יִשְׂרָאֵל לֹא יְשַׁקֵּר וְלֹא יִנָּחֵם, הוּא שֶׁדָּוִד אוֹמֵר לְיִשְׂרָאֵל אִם קִיַּמְתֶּם מִצְוַת לוּלָב שֶׁנִּקְרָא נָעִים, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (תהלים טז, יא): נְעִמוֹת בִּימִינְךָ נֶצַח, הֲרֵי אַתָּה מְבֻשָּׂר שֶׁנִּצַּחְתָּ לְאֻמּוֹת הָעוֹלָם, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר: וְגַם נֵצַח יִשְׂרָאֵל, לְפִיכָךְ משֶׁה מַזְהִיר לְיִשְׂרָאֵל וְאוֹמֵר לָהֶם: וּלְקַחְתֶּם לָכֶם. אָמַר רַבִּי אָבִין, פָּנָה אֶל תְּפִלַּת הָעַרְעָר, וְאָמַר רַבִּי אָבִין אֵין אָנוּ יְכוֹלִין לַעֲמֹד עַל אַפּוֹ שֶׁל דָּוִד, פְּעָמִים שֶׁקּוֹרֵא עַצְמוֹ עָנִי, פְּעָמִים שֶׁקּוֹרֵא עַצְמוֹ מֶלֶךְ, הָא כֵיצַד בְּשָׁעָה שֶׁהָיָה צוֹפֶה וּמַבִּיט שֶׁצַּדִּיקִים עֲתִידִין לַעֲמֹד מִמֶּנּוּ כְּגוֹן: אָסָא, יְהוֹשָׁפָט, חִזְקִיָּה וְיֹאשִׁיָּה, הָיָה קוֹרֵא עַצְמוֹ מֶלֶךְ, שֶׁנֶאֱמַר (תהלים עב, א): אֱלֹהִים מִשְׁפָּטֶיךָ לְמֶלֶךְ תֵּן, וּבְשָׁעָה שֶׁצּוֹפֶה רְשָׁעִים יוֹצְאִים מִמֶּנּוּ, כְּגוֹן: אָחָז, מְנַשֶּׁה, אָמוֹן, הָיָה קוֹרֵא עַצְמוֹ עָנִי, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (תהלים קב, א): תְּפִלָּה לְעָנִי כִי יַעֲטֹף. רַבִּי אֲלֶכְּסַנְדְּרִי פָּתַר קְרָיָה בַּפּוֹעֵל הַזֶּה, מָה הַפּוֹעֵל הַזֶּה יוֹשֵׁב וּמְשַׁמֵּר לִכְשֶׁיַּפְלִיג מְלַאכְתּוֹ קִמְעָא וְיַלְקִישֶׁנָּה בַּסּוֹף כְּמָה דְאַתְּ אָמַר (בראשית ל, מב): וְהָיוּ הָעֲטֻפִים לְלָבָן, מַהוּ הָעֲטֻפִים, רַבִּי יִצְחָק בְּרַבִּי חִלְקִיָה אָמַר לַקִּישָׁא. דָּבָר אַחֵר, פָּנָה אֶל תְּפִלַּת הָעַרְעָר, הָיָה לוֹ לוֹמַר לֹא בָזָה תְּפִלָּתוֹ, וְאִם לֹא בָזָה תְּפִלָּתָם, הָיָה לוֹ לוֹמַר פָּנָה אֶל תְּפִלַּת הָעַרְעָרִים, אֶלָּא פָּנָה אֶל תְּפִלַּת הָעַרְעָר, זֶה תְּפִלָּתוֹ שֶׁל מְנַשֶּׁה מֶלֶךְ יְהוּדָה, שֶׁהָיָה עַרְעָר מִמַּעֲשִׂים טוֹבִים, וְלֹא בָזָה אֶת תְּפִלָּתָם, זוֹ תְּפִלָּתוֹ וּתְפִלַּת אֲבוֹתָיו, דִּכְתִיב (דברי הימים ב לג, יג): וַיִּתְפַּלֵּל אֵלָיו וַיֵּעָתֶר לוֹ, מַהוּ וַיֵּעָתֶר לוֹ, אָמַר רַבִּי אֶלְעָזָר בַּר רַבִּי שִׁמְעוֹן בַּעֲרָבְיָא צָוְוחִין לַחֲתִירָתָא עֲתִירָתָא. (דברי הימים ב לג, יג): וַיְשִׁיבֵהוּ יְרוּשָׁלִַם לְמַלְכוּתוֹ, בַּמֶּה הֱשִׁיבוֹ רַבִּי שְׁמוּאֵל בַּר יוֹנָה אָמַר בְּשֵׁם רַבִּי אַחָא, בָּרוּחַ הֱשִׁיבוֹ, כְּמָה דְאַתְּ אָמַר מַשִּׁיב הָרוּחַ, בְּאוֹתָהּ שָׁעָה (דברי הימים ב לג, יג): וַיֵּדַע מְנַשֶּׁה כִּי ה' הוּא הָאֱלֹהִים, בְּאוֹתָהּ שָׁעָה אָמַר מְנַשֶּׁה אִית דִּין וְאִית דַּיָּנָא. רַבִּי יִצְחָק פָּתַר קְרָיָא בַּדּוֹרוֹת הַלָּלוּ שֶׁאֵין לָהֶם לֹא מֶלֶךְ וְלֹא נָבִיא, לֹא כֹהֵן וְלֹא אוּרִים וְתֻמִּים, וְאֵין לָהֶם אֶלָּא תְּפִלָּה זוֹ בִּלְבָד, אָמַר דָּוִד לִפְנֵי הַקָּדוֹשׁ בָּרוּךְ הוּא רִבּוֹנוֹ שֶׁל עוֹלָם אַל תִּבְזֶה אֶת תְּפִלָּתָם, (תהלים קב, יט): תִּכָּתֶב זֹאת לְדוֹר אַחֲרוֹן, מִכָּאן שֶׁהַקָּדוֹשׁ בָּרוּךְ הוּא מְקַבֵּל הַשָּׁבִים, (תהלים קב, יט): וְעַם נִבְרָא יְהַלֶּל יָהּ, שֶׁהַקָּדוֹשׁ בָּרוּךְ הוּא בּוֹרֵא אוֹתָן בְּרִיָּה חֲדָשָׁה. דָּבָר אַחֵר, תִּכָּתֶב זֹאת לְדוֹר אַחֲרוֹן, זֶה דּוֹרוֹ שֶׁל חִזְקִיָּהוּ, שֶׁהָיָה נָטוּי לְמִיתָה, וְעַם נִבְרָא יְהַלֶּל יָהּ, שֶׁבְּרָאָן הַקָּדוֹשׁ בָּרוּךְ הוּא בְּרִיָּה חֲדָשָׁה, דָּבָר אַחֵר, תִּכָּתֶב זֹאת לְדוֹר אַחֲרוֹן, זֶה דּוֹרוֹ שֶׁל מָרְדְּכַי שֶׁהָיוּ נְטוּיִין לְמִיתָה, וְעַם נִבְרָא יְהַלֶּל יָהּ, שֶׁבְּרָאָן בְּרִיָּה חֲדָשָׁה. דָּבָר אַחֵר, תִּכָּתֶב זֹאת לְדוֹר אַחֲרוֹן, אֵלּוּ דּוֹרוֹת הַלָּלוּ שֶׁהֵם נְטוּיִין לְמִיתָה, וְעַם נִבְרָא יְהַלֶּל יָהּ, שֶׁהַקָּדוֹשׁ בָּרוּךְ הוּא עָתִיד לִבְראוֹת אוֹתָן בְּרִיָּה חֲדָשָׁה, וּמֶה עָלֵינוּ לַעֲשׂוֹת, לִקַּח לוּלָב וְאֶתְרוֹג וּנְקַלֵּס לְהַקָּדוֹשׁ בָּרוּךְ הוּא, לְפִיכָךְ משֶׁה מַזְהִיר אֶת יִשְׂרָאֵל וְאוֹמֵר לָהֶם: וּלְקַחְתֶּם לָכֶם בַּיּוֹם הָרִאשׁוֹן.

3 Another interpretation of, "And you shall take for yourselves" (Leviticus 23:40): This is [the understanding of] that which is written (Psalms 102:18), "He has turned to the prayer of the destitute and has not spurned their prayer" - for Israel was victorious in the trial and their iniquities were forgiven. And [the angels] say, "Israel has been victorious," as it is stated (I Samuel 15:29), "Moreover, the Victory of Israel does not deceive or change His mind." And this is that which David says to Israel, "If you kept the commandment of lulav - which is called pleasant, as it is stated (Psalms 16:11), 'pleasant things are ever in Your right hand' - it will certainly be announced to you that you have been victorious over the nations of the world, as it is stated, 'Moreover, the Victory of Israel.'" Hence, Moshe warns and says to Israel (Leviticus 23:40), 'And you shall take for yourselves.'" Rabbi Avin said, "He has turned to the prayer of the destitute" (Psalms 102:18). And Rabbi Avin said, "We are not able to determine David's disposition: Sometimes he calls himself a poor person; sometimes he calls himself a king. How is this? At the time that he would foresee and observe that righteous ones were to rise from him in the future - such as Asa, Yehoshafat, Hizkiyah and Yoshiyah - he would call himself a king, as it is stated (Psalms 72:1), 'God, give your judgments to the king.' But at the time that he would foresee and observe that evil ones were to rise from him in the future - such as Achaz, Menashe and Amon - he would call himself a poor person, as it is stated (Psalms 102:10), 'A prayer for the poor person when he is faint (yaatof).'" Rabbi Alexandri explained the reading with this worker: Just like this worker sits and waits for his work to end a little and he will leave [his prayer] until the end. It is like you say (Genesis 30:42), "and the atufim were for Lavan." What is [the understanding of ]atufim? Rabbi Yitschak beRabbi Chilkiyah said, "late ones." Another interpretation of (Psalms 102:18), "He has turned to the prayer of the destitute": It should have said, "he has not spurned his prayer. And if [it wanted to write] "not spurned their prayer," it should have said, "He has turned to the prayer of the destitute ones." Rather, "He has turned to the prayer of the destitute" - that is the prayer of Menashe, king of Yehudah, who was destitute of good deeds; "and has not spurned their prayer" - that is his prayer and the prayer of his ancestors. For it is written (II Chronicles 33:13), "He prayed to Him, and He was reconciled to him." What is [the understanding of], "He was reconciled (vayeater) to him?" Rabbi Elazar bar Rabbi Shimon said, "In Arabia, they enunciate, chatiratah (drilling), atirata. "And returned him to Jerusalem to his kingdom." With what did He return him? Rabbi Shmuel bar Yonah said in the name of Rabbi Acha, "He returned (vayeshivehu) him with a wind" - as you say (in the daily prayers), 'make blow (mashiv) the wind.'" At that time, "and Menashe knew that the Lord was God." At that time Menashe said, "There is a law and there is a Judge." Rabbi Yitschak explained the reading to be about those generations that have no king, no prophet, no priest and no urim and tumim. And all they have is prayer alone. David said in front of the Holy One, blessed be He, "Master of the world, do not spurn their prayers." "May this be written for the last generation" (Psalms 102:19) - from here, [we know] that the Holy One, blessed be He, accepts penitents; "and a people to be created will praise the Lord" - that the Holy One, blessed be He, will create them as a new creature. Another interpretation of "May this be written for the last generation" - this is the generation of Hizkiyah, as he was leaning towards death; "and a people to be created will praise the Lord" - that the Holy One, blessed be He, created them as a new creature. Another interpretation of "May this be written for the last generation" - this is the generation of Mordechai, as they were leaning towards death; "and a people to be created will praise the Lord" - that He created them as a new creature. Another interpretation of "May this be written for the last generation" - these are these generations, as they are leaning towards death; "and a people to be created will praise the Lord" - that the Holy One, blessed be He, will create them in the future as a new creature. And what is there for us to do? To take the lulav and the citron and laud the Holy One, blessed be He. Hence, Moshe warns Israel and says to them (Leviticus 23:40), "And you shall take for yourselves."

4 ד

דָּבָר אַחֵר, וּלְקַחְתֶּם לָכֶם בַּיּוֹם הָרִאשׁוֹן, הֲדָא הוּא דִכְתִיב (תהלים צו, יב): יַעֲלֹז שָׂדַי וְכָל אֲשֶׁר בּוֹ, יַעֲלֹז שָׂדַי, זֶה הָעוֹלָם, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (בראשית ד, ח): וַיְהִי בִּהְיוֹתָם בַּשָּׂדֶה. וְכָל אֲשֶׁר בּוֹ, אֵלּוּ הַבְּרִיּוֹת, כְּמָה דְאַתְּ אָמַר (תהלים כד, א): לַה' הָאָרֶץ וּמְלוֹאָהּ, (דברי הימים א טז, לג): אָז יְרַנְּנוּ עֲצֵי הַיָּעַר, אָמַר רַבִּי אַחָא הַיָּעַר, (תהלים צו, יב): וְכָל עֲצֵי הַיָּעַר. הַיָּעַר אֵלּוּ אִילָנוֹת שֶׁעוֹשִׂין פֵּרוֹת, וְכָל עֲצֵי הַיָּעַר, אֵלּוּ אִילָנוֹת שֶׁאֵינָן עוֹשִׂין פֵּרוֹת, לִפְנֵי מִי, (תהלים צח, ט): לִפְנֵי ה', לָמָּה, (תהלים צח, ט): כִּי בָא בְּרֹאשׁ הַשָּׁנָה וְיוֹם הַכִּפּוּרִים, מַה לַּעֲשׂוֹת (תהלים צח, ט): יִשְׁפֹּט תֵּבֵל בְּצֶדֶק וְעַמִּים בְּמֵישָׁרִים.

4 Another interpretation of, "And you shall take for yourselves on the first day" (Leviticus 23:40). This is [the understanding of] that which is written (Psalms 96:12), "The fields exult and everything in them": "The fields exult" - that is this world, as it is stated (Genesis 4:8), "and it was when they were in the field." "And everything in them" - these are the creatures, like you say (Psalms 24:1), "The earth is the Lord’s and all that it holds, [the world and its inhabitants]." "Then shall the trees of the forest shout for joy" (I Chronicles 16:33). Rabbi Acha said, "[Here it states,] 'the forest,' [but in Psalms 96:12 above, it states,] 'and all the trees of the forest.' 'The forest' - those are the trees that produce fruit; 'all the trees of the forest' - those are the trees that do not produce fruit." In front of whom? "In front of the Lord" (Psalms 98:9). Why? "For He is coming," on Rosh Hashanah and Yom Kippur. To do what? "He will judge the world with righteousness, and its peoples with equity."

5 ה

דָּבָר אַחֵר, וּלְקַחְתֶּם לָכֶם בַּיּוֹם הָרִאשׁוֹן, הֲדָא הוּא דִכְתִיב (תהלים כו, ו): אֶרְחַץ בְּנִקָּיוֹן כַּפָּי, בְּמִקָּח וְלֹא בְגָזֵל, דִּתְנִינַן תַּמָּן לוּלָב הַגָּזוּל וְהַיָּבֵשׁ פָּסוּל, שֶׁל אֲשֵׁרָה וְשֶׁל עִיר הַנִּדַּחַת פָּסוּל. (תהלים כו, ו): וַאֲסֹבְבָה אֶת מִזְבַּחֲךָ ה', כְּהַהִיא דִּתְנִינַן תַּמָּן, בְּכָל יוֹם וָיוֹם מַקִּיפִין אֶת הַמִּזְבֵּחַ פַּעַם אַחַת וְאוֹמֵר אָנָא ה' הוֹשִׁיעָה נָא, אָנָא ה' הוֹשִׁיעָה נָא, רַבִּי יְהוּדָה אוֹמֵר אֲנִי וָהוֹ הוֹשִׁיעָה נָא, אוֹתוֹ הַיּוֹם מַקִּיפִין הַמִּזְבֵּחַ שִׁבְעָה פְּעָמִים, (תהלים כו, ז): לַשְׁמִעַ בְּקוֹל תּוֹדָה, אֵלּוּ הַקָּרְבָּנוֹת, (תהלים כו, ז): וּלְסַפֵּר כָּל נִפְלְאוֹתֶיךָ, אָמַר רַבִּי אָבִין זֶה הַלֵּל, שֶׁיֵּשׁ בּוֹ לְשֶׁעָבַר וְיֵשׁ בּוֹ לֶעָתִיד לָבוֹא וְיֵשׁ בּוֹ לַדּוֹרוֹת הַלָּלוּ וְיֵשׁ בּוֹ לִימוֹת הַמָּשִׁיחַ וְיֵשׁ בּוֹ לִימוֹת גּוֹג וּמָגוֹג, (תהלים קיד, א): בְּצֵאת יִשְׂרָאֵל מִמִּצְרָיִם, לְשֶׁעָבַר, (תהלים קטו, א): לֹא לָנוּ ה', לַדּוֹרוֹת הַלָּלוּ. (תהלים קטז, א): אָהַבְתִּי כִּי יִשְׁמַע ה', לִימוֹת הַמָּשִׁיחַ. (תהלים קיח, י): כָּל גּוֹיִם סְבָבוּנִי, לִימוֹת גּוֹג וּמָגוֹג. (תהלים קיח, כח): אֵלִי אַתָּה וְאוֹדֶךָּ אֱלֹהַי אֲרוֹמְמֶךָּ, לֶעָתִיד לָבוֹא.

5 Another interpretation of, "And you shall take for yourselves on the first day" (Leviticus 23:40). This is [the understanding of] that which is written (Psalms 26:6), "I wash my hands in innocence" - with a purchase and not with theft, as we have learned there (Sukkah 29b): A stolen or dry lulav is disqualified, of a tree-god or a condemned city is disqualified. "And walk around Your altar, O Lord" - like that which we learned there (Sukkah 45a): Each day they would circle the altar one time and say, "O Lord, please save us; O Lord, please save us" (Psalms 118:25). Rabbi Yehudah says, "Ani vaho, please save us." And on [the seventh] day, they would circle the altar seven times. "Raising my voice in thanksgiving" - these are the sacrifices. "And telling all Your wonders" - Rabbi Avin said, That is Hallel, as it has of the past within it, and it has of the future within it, and it has these generations within it and it has the days of the Messiah within it, and it has the days of Gog and Magog within it: "In the coming out of Israel from Egypt" (Psalms 114:1) is of the past; "Not to us, O Lord" (Psalms 115:1) is of these generations; "I have loved that You heard, O Lord" (Psalms 116:1) is for the days of the Messiah; "All the nations surrounded me" (Psalms 118:10) is for the days of Gog and Magog; "You are my God and I will praise You, my God and I will exalt You" (Psalms 118:28) is for the future to come.

6 ו

דָּבָר אַחֵר, וּלְקַחְתֶּם לָכֶם, תָּנֵי רַבִּי חִיָּא בְּמִקָּח וְלֹא בְגָזֵל. לָכֶם, לְכָל אֶחָד וְאֶחָד מִכֶּם. לָכֶם, מִשֶּׁלָּכֶם וְלֹא הַגָּזוּל. אָמַר רַבִּי לֵוִי מִי שֶׁלּוֹקֵחַ לוּלָב גָּזוּל לְמָה הַדָּבָר דּוֹמֶה לְלִסְטִים שֶׁיּוֹשֵׁב בְּפָרָשַׁת דְּרָכִים וּמְקַפֵּחַ לְעוֹבְרִים וְשָׁבִים, חַד זְמַן עֲבַר עֲלוֹי חַד לִגְיוֹן לְמִגְבֵּי דִּימוֹסְיָא דְּהַהִיא מְדִינְתָּא קָם קֳדָמֵיהּ וְקַפְּחֵיהּ וּנְסַב כָּל מַה דַּהֲוָה בִּידֵיהּ, בָּתַר יוֹמִין אִצְתַּיַּד הַהוּא לִיסְטָא וְאִתְחֲבַשׁ בַּפִּילָקֵי, שָׁמַע הַהוּא לִגְיוֹנָא וַאֲזַל לְגַבֵּיהּ וַאֲמַר לֵיהּ הַב לִי מַה דְּקַפַּחְתָּנִי וַאֲנָא מַלֵּיף עֲלָיךְ זְכוּ קֳדָם מַלְכָּא, אֲמַר לֵיהּ מִן כָּל מַה דְּקַפַּחִית וּמִן כָּל מַה דִּנְסֵבִית לֵית לֵיהּ לְהַהוּא גַבְרָא כְּלוּם, אֶלָּא הָדֵין טַפֵּיטָא דִּתְחוֹתִי וְהוּא מִן דִּידָךְ, אֲמַר לֵיהּ הַב יָתֵהּ לִי וַאֲנָא מַלֵּיף עֲלָךְ זְכוּ קֳדָם מַלְכָּא, אֲמַר לֵיהּ נַסְבֵיהּ. אֲמַר לֵיהּ תֶּהֱוֵי יָדַע דְאַתְּ עָלֵיל לְמָחָר קֳדָם מַלְכָּא לְדִינָא וְהוּא שָׁאֵיל וַאֲמַר לָךְ אִית לָךְ בַּר נָשׁ מַלֵּיף עֲלָךְ זְכוּ, וְאַתְּ אֲמַר לֵיהּ אִית לִגְיוֹן פְּלַן מוֹלִיף עָלַי זְכוּ, וְהוּא מְשַׁלַּח וְקָרֵי לִי וַאֲנָא אָתֵי לְמֵילַף עֲלָךְ זְכוּ קֳדָמוֹי, לְמָחָר אוֹקִימְתֵּיהּ קֳדָם מַלְכָּא בְּדִינָא, שָׁאַל לֵיהּ מַלְכָּא אֲמַר לֵיהּ אִית לָךְ בַּר נָשׁ מַלֵיף עֲלָךְ זְכוּ, אֲמַר לֵיהּ אִית לִגְיוֹן פְּלוֹנִי מַלֵּיף עָלַי זְכוּ. שְׁלַח מַלְכָּא וְקַרְיָא לֵיהּ, אֲמַר לֵיהּ חָכֵם אַתְּ עַל הָדֵין גַּבְרָא זְכוּ, אֲמַר לֵיהּ חָכֵם אֲנָא כַּד שְׁלַחְתַּנִי לְמִגְבֵּי דֵימוֹסְיָא דְהַהוּא מְדִינְתָּא קָם קֳדָמַי וְקַפַּח וְנָסַב כָּל מַה דַּהֲוָה עִמִּי וְהָדֵין טַפֵּיטָא דְּהוּא מִן דִּידִי מַסְהִיד עֲלוֹי, כָּל הָעָם צָוְחִין וְאָמְרִין אוֹי לוֹ לָזֶה שֶׁנַּעֲשָׂה סַנֵּיגוֹרוֹ קַטֵּיגוֹרוֹ. כָּךְ אָדָם לוֹקֵחַ לוּלָב לִזְכּוֹת בּוֹ, וְאִם הָיָה גָזוּל צוֹוֵחַ לִפְנֵי הַקָּדוֹשׁ בָּרוּךְ הוּא וְאוֹמֵר גָּזוּל אֲנִי חָמוּס אֲנִי, וּמַלְאֲכֵי הַשָּׁרֵת אוֹמְרִים אוֹי לָזֶה שֶׁנַּעֲשָׂה סָנֵגוֹרוֹ קָטֵגוֹרוֹ.

To what is one who takes a stolen lulav compared to? To a thief [... who] one time stole everything a tax collector had on him. Eventually he was caught [...] the tax collector came to him said to him and said, "Return the money to me, and I will defend you before the king. The thief said, "I have nothing left from what I took except for a saddle." [...] The next day, the thief was brought before the king, and the king asked him if he had anyone to defend him. The thief says that the tax collector would. The tax collector said, “I was out collecting, and this thief took all of my money. The saddle still in his possession is proof that he stole it all.” All those present cried, “Woe to the one whose defense attorney becomes his prosecutor!” So too someone who takes a lulav to gain merit – if the lulav was stolen, it cries out to Hashem saying “I’m stolen property!” and the angels say, “Woe to the one whose defense attorney becomes his prosecutor!”

7 ז

בַּיּוֹם הָרִאשׁוֹן, זֶה חֲמִשָּׁה עָשָׂר, וְאַתָּה אוֹמֵר בַּיּוֹם הָרִאשׁוֹן, רַבִּי מָנָא דִּשְׁאָב וְרַבִּי יְהוֹשֻׁעַ דְּסִכְנִין בְּשֵׁם רַבִּי לֵוִי אָמַר, מָשָׁל לִמְדִינָה שֶׁחַיֶּבֶת לִיפָס לַמֶּלֶךְ, וְהָלַךְ הַמֶּלֶךְ לִגְבּוֹתָהּ, בְּתוֹךְ עֲשָׂרָה מִילִין יָצְאוּ גְּדוֹלֵי הַמְדִינָה וְקִלְסוּהוּ, הִתִּיר לָהֶם שְׁלִישׁ מִדָּמוֹסָא שֶׁלָּהֶם, בְּתוֹךְ חֲמִשָּׁה מִילִין יָצְאוּ בֵּינוֹנֵי הַמְדִינָה וְקִלְסוּהוּ, הִתִּיר לָהֶם עוֹד שְׁלִישׁ, כֵּיוָן שֶׁנִּכְנַס לַמְדִינָה יָצְאוּ כָּל בְּנֵי הַמְדִינָה אֲנָשִׁים וְנָשִׁים וְטַף וְקִלְסוּהוּ וְהִתִּיר לָהֶם הַכֹּל, אֲמַר לְהוֹן מַלְכָּא מַה דַּאֲזַל אֲזַל, מִן הָכָא נָחֵיל חֻשְׁבְּנָא. כָּךְ בְּעֶרֶב רֹאשׁ הַשָּׁנָה גְּדוֹלֵי הַדּוֹר מִתְעַנִּין וְהַקָּדוֹשׁ בָּרוּךְ הוּא מַתִּיר לָהֶם שְׁלִישׁ מֵעֲוֹנוֹתֵיהֶן, וּמֵרֹאשׁ הַשָּׁנָה וְעַד יוֹם הַכִּפּוּרִים הַיְחִידִים מִתְעַנִּין וְהַקָּדוֹשׁ בָּרוּךְ הוּא מַתִּיר לָהֶם שְׁלִישׁ מֵעֲוֹנוֹתֵיהֶן, וּבְיוֹם הַכִּפּוּרִים כֻּלָּן מִתְעַנִּין אֲנָשִׁים וְנָשִׁים וְטַף, וְהַקָּדוֹשׁ בָּרוּךְ הוּא אוֹמֵר לָהֶם לְיִשְׂרָאֵל מַה דַּאֲזַל אֲזַל מִן הָכָא וּלְהַלָּן נָחֵיל חֻשְׁבְּנָא. וּמִיּוֹם הַכִּפּוּרִים עַד הֶחָג כָּל יִשְׂרָאֵל עֲסוּקִין בְּמִצְווֹת, זֶה עוֹסֵק בְּסֻכָּתוֹ וְזֶה בְּלוּלָבוֹ, וּבְיוֹם טוֹב הָרִאשׁוֹן שֶׁל חָג כָּל יִשְׂרָאֵל עוֹמְדִין לִפְנֵי הַקָּדוֹשׁ בָּרוּךְ הוּא וְלוּלָבֵיהֶן וְאֶתְרוֹגֵיהֶן לִשְׁמוֹ שֶׁל הַקָּדוֹשׁ בָּרוּךְ הוּא, וְאוֹמֵר לָהֶם, מַה דַּאֲזַל אֲזַל, מִן הָכָא נָחֵיל חֻשְׁבָּנָא. לְפִיכָךְ משֶׁה מַזְהִיר לְיִשְׂרָאֵל: וּלְקַחְתֶּם לָכֶם בַּיּוֹם הָרִאשׁוֹן. אָמַר רַב אַחָא (תהלים קל, ד): כִּי עִמְךָ הַסְּלִיחָה, מֵרֹאשׁ הַשָּׁנָה הַסְּלִיחָה מַמְתֶּנֶת אֶצְלְךָ, כָּל כָּךְ לָמָּה, לְמַעַן תִּוָּרֵא, בִּשְׁבִיל לִתֵּן אֵימָתְךָ עַל בְּרִיּוֹתֶיךָ.

7 "On the first day" (Leviticus 23:40). That is the fifteenth, and you say, "On the first?" Rabbi Mana of Shav and Rabbi Yehoshua of Sakhnin said in the name of Rabbi Levi, "[There is a relevant] parable about a province that owed a [certain tax] to the king and the king went to collect it. [When he was] within ten mil, the leaders of the province went out to laud him, [so] he cancelled a third of [that tax]; within five mil, the middling people of the province went out to laud him, [so] he cancelled another third; when he entered the province, all of the residents of the province - men, women and children - came out and lauded him, and he cancelled it all. He said, 'What is past is past. From now, let us start a [new] reckoning.' So [too] on the eve of Rosh Hashanah, the greats of the generations fast, and the Holy One, blessed be He, cancels a third of their iniquities; and from Rosh Hashanah to Yom Kippur, the [select] individuals fast, and the Holy One, blessed be He, cancels [another] third of their iniquities; and on Yom Kippur, everyone fasts - men, women and children. So the Holy One, blessed be He, says to Israel, 'What is past is past. From now, let us start a [new] reckoning.'" And from Yom Kippur to Sukkot, all of Israel is involved in commandments. This one is involved with his sukkah, that one is involved with his lulav. And on the first day of the festival, all of Israel stand in front of the Holy One, blessed be He, [with] their lulavs and citrons for the sake of the Holy One, blessed be He. And He say to them, "What is past is past. From now, let us start a [new] reckoning." Hence, Moshe warns Israel (Leviticus 23:40), "And you shall take for yourselves on the first day." Rabbi Acha says, "'For forgiveness is with You' (Psalms 130:4) - from Rosh Hashanah, forgiveness is waiting with You. Why so much? 'In order that You will be feared' - so as to instill fear of You upon Your creatures."

8 ח

בַּיּוֹם הָרִאשׁוֹן, בַּיּוֹם וְלֹא בַּלַּיְלָה, בַּיּוֹם וַאֲפִלּוּ בְּשַׁבָּת, בַּיּוֹם הָרִאשׁוֹן, אֵינוֹ דוֹחֶה אֶת הַשַּׁבָּת אֶלָּא יוֹם הָרִאשׁוֹן בִּלְבָד. (ויקרא כג, מ): פְּרִי עֵץ הָדָר, תָּנֵי רַבִּי חִיָּא עֵץ שֶׁטַּעַם עֵצוֹ וּפִרְיוֹ שָׁוֶה, זֶה אֶתְרוֹג. הָדָר, בֶּן עַזַּאי אָמַר הַדָּר בְּאִילָנוֹ מִשָּׁנָה לְשָׁנָה. תַּרְגּוּם עֲקִילַס הַגֵּר, הָדָר, שֶׁהוּא דָר עַל הַמָּיִם. (ויקרא כג, מ): כַּפֹּת תְּמָרִים, רַבִּי טַרְפוֹן אוֹמֵר: כָּפוּת, אִם הָיָה פָּרוּד יִכְפְּפֶנּוּ. (ויקרא כג, מ): וַעֲנַף עֵץ עָבֹת, שֶׁעֲנָפָיו חוֹפִין אֶת עֵצוֹ, הֱוֵי אוֹמֵר זֶה הֲדַס. (ויקרא כג, מ): וְעַרְבֵי נָחַל, אֵין לִי אֶלָּא שֶׁל נַחַל שֶׁל בִּקְעָה וְשֶׁל הָרִים מִנַּיִן, תַּלְמוּד לוֹמַר וְעַרְבֵי נָחַל. אַבָּא שָׁאוּל אוֹמֵר וְעַרְבֵי נָחַל שְׁנַיִם, עֲרָבָה לַלּוּלָב וַעֲרָבָה לַמִּקְדָּשׁ, רַבִּי שִׁמְעוֹן אוֹמֵר: פְּרִי עֵץ הָדָר, אֶחָד. וְכַפֹּת תְּמָרִים, אֶחָד. וַעֲנַף עֵץ עָבֹת, שְׁלשָׁה, וְעַרְבֵי נָחַל, שְׁתֵּי דָּלִיּוֹת וְאַחַת שֶׁאֵינָה קְטוּמָה. רַבִּי טַרְפוֹן אוֹמֵר אֲפִלּוּ שְׁלָשְׁתָּן קְטוּמוֹת.

8 "On the first day" (Leviticus 23:40) - during the day, and not during the night; during the day, and even on Shabbat. "On the first day" - only the first day alone overrides Shabbat. "The fruit of a pleasant (hadar) tree" - Rabbi Chiya taught, "A tree in which the taste of its tree and its fruit are the same." Hadar - Ben Azzai said, "One that resides (hadar) in its tree from [one] year to [another]." Achilles the convert translated hadar (from the Greek), that it resides over the water. "Branches (kapot) of date palms" (Leviticus 23:40) - Rabbi Tarfon says, "Bound (kafut), if it is spread out, bind it." "And boughs of a dense-leaved tree" (Leviticus 23:40) - a tree whose leaves obscure its tree. Hence, I would say this is a myrtle. "Willows of the brook" (Leviticus 23:40) - I only [know that] of a brook. From where [do I know] a willow of the valley or of the mountains? We learn to say, "and willows of the brook" (in plural, to teach that different types of willows are allowed). Abba Shaul says, "And willows of the brook" is two - a willow for the lulav and a willow for the Temple." Rabbi Shimon says, "'The fruit of a pleasant tree' is one; 'branches of a date palm' is one; 'boughs of a dense-leaved tree' are three, 'and willows of the brook' are two two branches and one that is not cut off." Rabbi Tarforn says, "Even three that are cut off."

9 ט

דָּבָר אַחֵר, פְּרִי עֵץ הָדָר, זֶה הַקָּדוֹשׁ בָּרוּךְ הוּא שֶׁכָּתוּב בּוֹ (תהלים קד, א): הוֹד וְהָדָר לָבָשְׁתָּ. כַּפֹּת תְּמָרִים, זֶה הַקָּדוֹשׁ בָּרוּךְ הוּא שֶׁכָּתוּב בּוֹ (תהלים צב, יג): צַדִּיק כַּתָּמָר יִפְרָח. וַעֲנַף עֵץ עָבֹת, זֶה הַקָּדוֹשׁ בָּרוּךְ הוּא, דִּכְתִיב (זכריה א, ח): וְהוּא עֹמֵד בֵּין הַהֲדַסִּים. וְעַרְבֵי נָחַל, זֶה הַקָּדוֹשׁ בָּרוּךְ הוּא, דִּכְתִיב בֵּיהּ (תהלים סח, ה): סֹלּוּ לָרֹכֵב בָּעֲרָבוֹת בְּיָהּ שְׁמוֹ.

10 י

דָּבָר אַחֵר, פְּרִי עֵץ הָדָר, זֶה אַבְרָהָם שֶׁהִדְּרוֹ הַקָּדוֹשׁ בָּרוּךְ הוּא בְּשֵׂיבָה טוֹבָה, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (בראשית כד, א): וְאַבְרָהָם זָקֵן בָּא בַּיָּמִים, וּכְתִיב (ויקרא יט, לב): וְהָדַרְתָּ פְּנֵי זָקֵן. כַּפֹּת תְּמָרִים, זֶה יִצְחָק, שֶׁהָיָה כָּפוּת וְעָקוּד עַל גַּבֵּי הַמִּזְבֵּחַ. וַעֲנַף עֵץ עָבֹת, זֶה יַעֲקֹב, מָה הֲדַס זֶה רָחוּשׁ בְּעָלִין, כָּךְ הָיָה יַעֲקֹב רָחוּשׁ בְּבָנִים. וְעַרְבֵי נָחַל, זֶה יוֹסֵף, מָה עֲרָבָה זוֹ כְּמוּשָׁה לִפְנֵי שְׁלשָׁה מִינִין הַלָּלוּ, כָּךְ מֵת יוֹסֵף לִפְנֵי אֶחָיו. דָּבָר אַחֵר, פְּרִי עֵץ הָדָר, זוֹ שָׂרָה שֶׁהִדְּרָהּ הַקָּדוֹשׁ בָּרוּךְ הוּא בְּשֵׂיבָה טוֹבָה, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (בראשית יח, יא): וְאַבְרָהָם וְשָׂרָה זְקֵנִים. כַּפֹּת תְּמָרִים, זוֹ רִבְקָה, מַה תְּמָרָה זוֹ יֵשׁ בָּהּ אֹכֶל וְיֵשׁ בָּהּ עֳקָצִין, כָּךְ הֶעֱמִידָה רִבְקָה צַדִּיק וְרָשָׁע. וַעֲנַף עֵץ עָבֹת, זוֹ לֵאָה, מָה הֲדַס זֶה רָחוּשׁ בְּעָלִין, כָּךְ הָיְתָה לֵאָה רְחוּשָׁה בְּבָנִים. וְעַרְבֵי נָחַל, זוֹ רָחֵל, מָה עֲרָבָה זוֹ כְּמוּשָׁה לִפְנֵי שְׁלשֶׁת הַמִּינִין, כָּךְ רָחֵל מֵתָה לִפְנֵי אֲחוֹתָהּ.

Another explanation: "The fruit of a beautiful tree (ets hadar)" - this is [referring to] the Holy One, blessed be He, as it is written about Him (Psalms 104:1), "You were dressed in splendor and beauty (hadar)." "The branches of a date palm" - this is [referring to] the Holy One, blessed be He, as it is written about Him (Psalms 92:13), "The righteous One flourishes like a date palm." "And a branch of a braided tree (a myrtle)" - this is [referring to] the Holy One, blessed be He, as it is written (Zechariah 1:8), "and He is standing among the myrtles." "And brook willows (arvei nachal)" - this is [referring to] the Holy One, blessed be He, as it is written about Him (Psalms 68:5), "praise the One that rides in the skies (aravot), with His name of the Lord."

11 יא

דָּבָר אַחֵר, פְּרִי עֵץ הָדָר, זוֹ סַנְהֶדְרֵי גְדוֹלָה שֶׁל יִשְׂרָאֵל שֶׁהִדְּרָם הַקָּדוֹשׁ בָּרוּךְ הוּא בְּשֵׂיבָה טוֹבָה, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (ויקרא יט, לב): מִפְּנֵי שֵׂיבָה תָּקוּם. כַּפֹּת תְּמָרִים, אֵלּוּ תַּלְמִידֵי חֲכָמִים שֶׁכּוֹפִין אֶת עַצְמָן לִלְמֹד תּוֹרָה אֵלּוּ מֵאֵלּוּ. וַעֲנַף עֵץ עָבֹת, אֵלּוּ שָׁלשׁ שׁוּרוֹת שֶׁל תַּלְמִידִים שֶׁיּוֹשְׁבִין לִפְנֵיהֶם. וְעַרְבֵי נָחַל, אֵלּוּ שְׁנֵי סוֹפְרִים שֶׁל דַּיָּנִין שֶׁעוֹמְדִים לִפְנֵיהֶם וְכוֹתְבִין דִּבְרֵי הַמְזַכִּים וְדִבְרֵי הַמְחַיְּבִין.

Another explanation: "The fruit of a beautiful tree (ets hadar)" - this is [referring to] our father, Avraham, who the Holy One, blessed be He, graced (hider) with a good old age, as it is stated (Genesis 24:1), "And Avraham was old, had come along in days;" and it is written (Leviticus 19:32), "and you shall grace (hadarta) the old." "The branches (kappot) of a date palm" - this is [referring to] Yitschak, who was bound (kafut which is spelled with the same letters as kappot) and tied up on top of the altar. "And a branch of a braided tree (a myrtle)" - this is [referring to] Yakov. Just like this myrtle bustles with leaves, so too was Yakov bustling with children. "And brook willows" - this is [referring to] Yosef. Just like this willow gets withered before these three [other] species, so too did Yosef die before his brothers. Another explanation: "The fruit of a beautiful tree (ets hadar)" - this is [referring to] Sarah, who the Holy One, blessed be He, graced (hider) with a good old age, as it is stated (Genesis 18:11), "And Avraham and Sarah were old." "The branches of a date palm" - this is [referring to] Rivka. Just like this date palm, it has food and it has thorns, so too Rivkah brought up a righteous one and an evildoer. "And a branch of a braided tree (a myrtle)" - this is [referring to] Leah. Just like this myrtle bustles with leaves, so too was Leah bustling with children. "And brook willows" - this is [referring to] Rachel. Just like this willow gets withered before these three [other] species, so too did Rachel die before her sister.

12 יב

דָּבָר אַחֵר, פְּרִי עֵץ הָדָר, אֵלּוּ יִשְׂרָאֵל, מָה אֶתְרוֹג זֶה יֵשׁ בּוֹ טַעַם וְיֵשׁ בּוֹ רֵיחַ, כָּךְ יִשְׂרָאֵל יֵשׁ בָּהֶם בְּנֵי אָדָם שֶׁיֵּשׁ בָּהֶם תּוֹרָה וְיֵשׁ בָּהֶם מַעֲשִׂים טוֹבִים. כַּפֹּת תְּמָרִים, אֵלּוּ יִשְׂרָאֵל, מָה הַתְּמָרָה הַזּוֹ יֵשׁ בּוֹ טַעַם וְאֵין בּוֹ רֵיחַ, כָּךְ הֵם יִשְׂרָאֵל יֵשׁ בָּהֶם שֶׁיֵּשׁ בָּהֶם תּוֹרָה וְאֵין בָּהֶם מַעֲשִׂים טוֹבִים. וַעֲנַף עֵץ עָבֹת, אֵלּוּ יִשְׂרָאֵל, מָה הֲדַס יֵשׁ בּוֹ רֵיחַ וְאֵין בּוֹ טַעַם, כָּךְ יִשְׂרָאֵל יֵשׁ בָּהֶם שֶׁיֵּשׁ בָּהֶם מַעֲשִׂים טוֹבִים וְאֵין בָּהֶם תּוֹרָה. וְעַרְבֵי נָחַל, אֵלּוּ יִשְׂרָאֵל, מָה עֲרָבָה זוֹ אֵין בָּהּ טַעַם וְאֵין בָּהּ רֵיחַ, כָּךְ הֵם יִשְׂרָאֵל יֵשׁ בָּהֶם בְּנֵי אָדָם שֶׁאֵין בָּהֶם לֹא תּוֹרָה וְלֹא מַעֲשִׂים טוֹבִים, וּמָה הַקָּדוֹשׁ בָּרוּךְ הוּא עוֹשֶׂה לָהֶם, לְאַבְּדָן אִי אֶפְשָׁר, אֶלָּא אָמַר הַקָּדוֹשׁ בָּרוּךְ הוּא יֻקְשְׁרוּ כֻלָּם אֲגֻדָּה אַחַת וְהֵן מְכַפְּרִין אֵלּוּ עַל אֵלּוּ, וְאִם עֲשִׂיתֶם כָּךְ אוֹתָהּ שָׁעָה אֲנִי מִתְעַלֶּה, הֲדָא הוּא דִכְתִיב (עמוס ט, ו): הַבּוֹנֶה בַשָּׁמַיִם מַעֲלוֹתָו, וְאֵימָתַי הוּא מִתְעֲלֶה כְּשֶׁהֵן עֲשׂוּיִין אֲגֻדָּה אַחַת, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (עמוס ט, ו): וַאֲגֻדָּתוֹ עַל אֶרֶץ יְסָדָהּ, לְפִיכָךְ משֶׁה מַזְהִיר לְיִשְׂרָאֵל: וּלְקַחְתֶּם לָכֶם בַּיּוֹם הָרִאשׁוֹן.

Another explanation: "The fruit of a beautiful tree (ets hadar)" - this is [referring to] the Great Sanhedrins (high courts) of Israel, who the Holy One, blessed be He, graced (hider) with a good old age, as it is stated (Leviticus 19:32), "And you shall get up in front of a venerable one." "The branches (kappot) of a date palm" - this is [referring to] the Torah scholars who force (kofin) themselves to learn one from the other. "And a branch of a braided tree (a myrtle)" - this is [referring to] the three rows of students who would sit in front of them (since three myrtle branches are customarily waved). "And brook willows" - this is [referring to] the two judges' scribes who would stand in front of them and write down the words of those who would render innocent and the words of those who would render guilty (since two willow branches are customarily waved).

13 יג

רַבִּי יְהוּדָה בְּשֵׁם רַבִּי שִׁמְעוֹן בֶּן פָּזִי פָּתַח (משלי ד, י): שְׁמַע בְּנִי וְקַח אֲמָרָי, הַרְבֵּה קִיחוֹת צִוִּיתִי אֶתְכֶם בִּשְׁבִיל לְזַכּוֹתְכֶם, אָמַרְתִּי אֲלֵיכֶם (במדבר יט, ב): וְיִקְחוּ אֵלֶיךָ פָרָה אֲדֻמָּה תְּמִימָה, שֶׁמָּא בִּשְׁבִילִי, אֶלָּא בִּשְׁבִילְכֶם לְטַהֵר אֶתְכֶם, דִּכְתִיב (במדבר יט, יט): וְהִזָּה הַטָּהֹר עַל הַטָּמֵא. אָמַרְתִּי לָכֶם (שמות כה, ב): וְיִקְחוּ לִי תְּרוּמָה, בִּשְׁבִיל שֶׁאָדוּר בֵּינֵיכֶם. (שמות כה, ה): וְעָשׂוּ לִי מִקְדָּשׁ, כִּבְיָכוֹל אָמַר הַקָּדוֹשׁ בָּרוּךְ הוּא קְחוּ אוֹתִי וְאָדוּר בֵּינֵיכֶם, וְיִקְחוּ תְרוּמָה אֵינוֹ אוֹמֵר אֶלָּא וְיִקְחוּ לִי, אוֹתִי אַתֶּם לוֹקְחִים. אָמַרְתִּי לָכֶם (ויקרא כד, ב): וְיִקְחוּ אֵלֶיךָ שֶׁמֶן זַיִת זָךְ, וְכִי אוֹרָה שֶׁלָּכֶם אֲנִי צָרִיךְ, וְהָא כְתִיב (דניאל ב, כב): וּנְהוֹרָא עִמֵּהּ שְׁרֵא, אֶלָּא בִּשְׁבִיל לְזַכּוֹתְכֶם וּלְכַפֵּר עַל נַפְשׁוֹתֵיכֶם שֶׁמְּשׁוּלָה כַּנֵּר, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (משלי כ, כז): נֵר ה' נִשְׁמַת אָדָם חֹפֵשׂ כָּל חַדְרֵי בָטֶן, וְעַכְשָׁיו שֶׁאָמַרְתִּי לָכֶם: וּלְקַחְתֶּם לָכֶם בַּיּוֹם הָרִאשׁוֹן, כְּדֵי לְזַכּוֹתְכֶם כְּדֵי שֶׁאוֹרִיד לָכֶם מָטָר, לְכָךְ משֶׁה מַזְהִיר לְיִשְׂרָאֵל: וּלְקַחְתֶּם לָכֶם בַּיּוֹם הָרִאשׁוֹן.

Another explanation: "The fruit of a beautiful tree" - these are [referring to] Israel. Just like this citron (etrog), which has taste and has smell, so too Israel has among them people that have Torah and have good deeds. "The branches of a date palm" - these are [referring to] Israel. Just like this date, which has taste and has no smell, so too Israel has among them those that have Torah but do not have good deeds. "And a branch of a braided tree (a myrtle)" - these are [referring to] Israel. Just like this myrtle, which has smell and has no taste, so too Israel has among them those that have good deeds but do not have Torah. "And brook willows" - these are [referring to] Israel. Just like this willow, which has no smell and has no taste, so too Israel has among them people that have no Torah and have no good deeds. And what does the Holy One, blessed be He, do to them? To destroy them is impossible, but rather the Holy One, blessed be He, said "bind them all together [into] one grouping and these will atone for those." And if you will have done that, I will be elevated at that time. This is [the meaning of] what is written (Amos 9:6), "He Who built the upper chambers in the heavens" (indicating his elevation). And when is He elevated? When they make one grouping, as it is stated (Ibid.), "and established His grouping on the earth." Hence Moshe warned Israel, "And you shall take for yourselves on the first day."

14 יד

רַבִּי מָנֵי פָּתַח (תהלים לה, י): כָּל עַצְמֹתַי תֹּאמַרְנָה ה' מִי כָמוֹךָ, לֹא נֶאֱמַר פָּסוּק זֶה אֶלָּא בִּשְׁבִיל לוּלָב, הַשִּׁדְרָה שֶׁל לוּלָב דּוֹמָה לַשִּׁדְרָה שֶׁל אָדָם, וְהַהֲדַס דּוֹמֶה לָעַיִן, וַעֲרָבָה דּוֹמָה לַפֶּה, וְהָאֶתְרוֹג דּוֹמֶה לַלֵּב, אָמַר דָּוִד אֵין בְּכָל הָאֵיבָרִים גָּדוֹל מֵאֵלּוּ, שֶׁהֵן שְׁקוּלִין כְּנֶגֶד כָּל הַגּוּף, הֱוֵי: כָּל עַצְמוֹתַי תֹּאמַרְנָה.

Rabbi Yehuda opened in the name of Rabbi Shimon ben Pazi, "'Listen my son and take my words' (Proverbs 4:10). Many takings have I commanded you in order to give you merit. I said to you (Numbers 19:2), 'and you will take to you a pure red cow.' [Was it] maybe for My sake? But rather it was for your sake, to purify you, as it is written (Numbers 19:19), 'And the pure one will sprinkle on the impure one.' I said to you (Exodus 25:2), 'and they shall take an offering for Me' in order that I will dwell among you: 'And make for Me a sanctuary' (Ibid., verse 8). As if it were possible, the Holy One, blessed be He, said, 'take Me and I will dwell among you' - it does not say, 'and they shall take an offering,' but rather, 'and they shall take (for) Me:' they are taking Me. I said to you (Leviticus 24:2), 'and they shall take to you pure olive oil.' And do I need your light - behold, it is written (Daniel 2:22), 'and light dwells with Him?' But rather to give you merit and to atone for your souls which is compared to a candle, as it is stated (Proverbs 20:27), 'The candle of God is the soul of a man, it searches all of the chambers of the innards.' And now that I have said to you, 'And you shall take for yourselves on the first day,' it is to give you merit, so that I will bring down the rain for you. Hence Moshe warned Israel, 'And you shall take for yourselves on the first day.'"

15 טו

דָּבָר אַחֵר, וּלְקַחְתֶּם לָכֶם בַּיּוֹם הָרִאשׁוֹן, אַחַר כָּל אוֹתָהּ הַחָכְמָה שֶׁכָּתוּב בִּשְׁלֹמֹה (דברי הימים ב א, יב): הַחָכְמָה וְהַמַּדָּע נָתוּן לָךְ, (מלכים א ה, י יא): וַתֵּרֶב חָכְמַת שְׁלֹמֹה וַיֶּחְכַּם מִכָּל הָאָדָם, יָשַׁב לוֹ תָּמֵהַּ עַל אַרְבָּעָה מִינִין הַלָּלוּ, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (משלי ל, יח): שְׁלשָׁה הֵמָּה נִפְלְאוּ מִמֶּנִּי, שְׁלשָׁה הֵמָּה פֶּסַח, מַצָּה וּמָרוֹר, (משלי ל, יח): וְאַרְבָּעָה לֹא יְדַעְתִּים, אֵלּוּ אַרְבָּעָה מִינִים שֶׁבַּלּוּלָב שֶׁבִּקֵּשׁ לַעֲמֹד עֲלֵיהֶם. פְּרִי עֵץ הָדָר, מִי יֹאמַר שֶׁהוּא אֶתְרוֹג, כָּל הָאִילָנוֹת עוֹשִׂין פֵּרוֹת הָדָר. כַּפֹּת תְּמָרִים, הַתּוֹרָה אָמְרָה טֹל שְׁתֵּי כַפּוֹת תְּמָרִים לְהַלֵּל בָּהֶן, וְהוּא אֵינוֹ נוֹטֵל אֶלָּא לוּלָב, לִבָּהּ שֶׁל תְּמָרָה. וַעֲנַף עֵץ עָבֹת, מִי יֹאמַר שֶׁהוּא הֲדַס, הֲרֵי הוּא אוֹמֵר בְּמָקוֹם אַחֵר (נחמיה ח, טו): צְאוּ הָהָר וְהָבִיאוּ עֲלֵי זַיִת וגו'. וְעַרְבֵי נָחַל, כָּל הָאִילָנוֹת גְּדֵלִין בַּמַּיִם. וְאַרְבָּעָה לֹא יְדַעְתִּים, חָזַר וּמַזְכִּירָן פַּעַם אַחֶרֶת, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (משלי ל, כט): שְׁלשָׁה הֵמָּה מֵיטִיבֵי וגו', אֵלּוּ אַרְבָּעָה מִינִין שֶׁכָּל אֶחָד וְאֶחָד מִיִּשְׂרָאֵל הוֹלֵךְ וְרָץ וְלוֹקֵחַ לוֹ מֵהֶן לְהַלֵּל לְהַקָּדוֹשׁ בָּרוּךְ הוּא, וְהֵם נִרְאִים קְטַנִּים בְּעֵינֵי אָדָם וּגְדוֹלִים הֵמָּה לִפְנֵי הַקָּדוֹשׁ בָּרוּךְ הוּא. וּמִי פֵּרַשׁ לָהֶם לְיִשְׂרָאֵל עַל אַרְבָּעָה הַמִּינִין הָאֵלּוּ שֶׁהֵן אֶתְרוֹג לוּלָב הֲדַס וַעֲרָבָה, חֲכָמִים, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (משלי ל, כד): וְהֵמָּה חֲכָמִים מְחֻכָּמִים.

Rabbi Mani opened, "'All of my bones shall say, "Lord, who is like you"' (Psalms 35:10). This verse was only stated for the sake of the lulav (the four species). The spine of the palm branch is similar to the spine of man. And the myrtle is similar to the eye. And the willow is similar to the mouth. And the etrog (citron), is similar to the heart. David said, 'In all of the limbs, there are no greater ones than these, as they are compared to the entire body.' This is [what is meant] by 'All of my bones shall say.'"

16 טז

רַבִּי בְּרֶכְיָה בְּשֵׁם רַבִּי לֵוִי אָמַר, בִּזְכוּת וּלְקַחְתֶּם לָכֶם בַּיּוֹם הָרִאשׁוֹן, הֲרֵי אֲנִי נִגְלָה לָכֶם רִאשׁוֹן, וּפוֹרֵעַ לָכֶם מִן הָרִאשׁוֹן זֶה עֵשָׂו הָרָשָׁע, דִּכְתִיב בֵּיהּ (בראשית כה, כה): וַיֵּצֵא הָרִאשׁוֹן, וּבוֹנֶה לָכֶם רִאשׁוֹן, זֶה בֵּית הַמִּקְדָּשׁ, דִּכְתִיב בֵּיהּ (ירמיה יז, יב): כִּסֵּא כָבוֹד מָרוֹם מֵרִאשׁוֹן מְקוֹם מִקְדָּשֵׁנוּ. וּמֵבִיא לָכֶם רִאשׁוֹן, זֶה מֶלֶךְ הַמָּשִׁיחַ, דִּכְתִיב בֵּיהּ (ישעיה מא, כז): רִאשׁוֹן לְצִיּוֹן הִנֵּה הִנָּם וְלִירוּשָׁלִַם מְבַשֵּׂר אֶתֵּן.

Another explanation: "And you shall take for yourselves on the first day" - in spite of all of that wisdom that is written about Shlomo (II Chronicles 2:1), "wisdom and knowledge are granted to you;" (I Kings 5:10-11) "And the wisdom of Shlomo grew... And Shlomo was wiser than all men," these four species were perplexing to him, as it is stated (Proverbs 30:18), "Three are there that are wondrous beyond me" - these three are the Pesach sacrifice, matsa and marror (bitter herbs) - "and four which I did not know" - these four are the four species of the lulav, that he sought to understand: "The fruit of a beautiful tree" - who will tell me that it is a citron (etrog)? All of the trees make beautiful fruit (and are hence called beautiful trees). "The branches of a date palm" - the Torah said, "take two palm branches (as 'branches' is in the plural) to praise with" and he only takes a [singular] lulav, which is the heart of the date palm. "And a branch of a braided tree (a myrtle)" - who will tell me that it is a myrtle? Behold, in another place it says (Nechemiah 8:15), "Go out to the mountain and bring olive branches, etc" (the verse continues to list several species and mentions myrtles alongside branches of a braided tree, seemingly indicating that they are two different species). "And brook willows" - all trees grow in the water! [Hence,] "and four which I did not know." He came back and mentioned them a different time, as it is stated (Proverbs 30:29), "There are three that are good, etc." - these are the four species, that each and every one in Israel goes and runs and takes from them for himself, to praise the Holy One, blessed be He. And [the four species] appear small in the eyes of man but they are great in front of the Holy One, blessed be He. And who explained to Israel that they were these four species, which are the citron, the palm branch, the myrtle, the willow? The Sages; as it is stated (Ibid., verse 24), "they are very wise sages."

17 יז

... Rabbi Brachya in the name of Rabbi Levi says. in the merit of fulfilling the verse you should take for yourself on the first day.I will reveal myself to you and take revenge for you from the first -the Beit Hamikdash- of which it is written " A glorious throne on high from the first the place of the sanctuary"(Jeremiah 17:12). And bring for you the First-King moshiach- of whom it is written "The first shall say to Tzion(Isaiah 41:17)