אלו כתובין חסרון וי"ו וקוראין בוי"ו ויעלהו אמרו ויאמרו וידברו (ויקחו) [יקחו] ויתנהו ואכלו יחדיו (יהללו) [וחללהו] ויעלו (שמו) [שויו] וקבלו מלכיה וחילופיהן רגלי שמטוה ויצוה נכחו שער העין ויקראו לו ויקהל תפס: The following words are written without a waw,1At the end of the word. but are to be read with the waw: and offered it;21 Sam. 7, 9. said;3ibid. 19. Here and in the other verses which are cited the kethib is the singular and the ḳerë the plural. and [they] said;4ibid. XII, 10. and they spoke;51 Kings 12, 7. shall they take away;62 Kings 20, 18. and let them deliver;7ibid. XXII, 5. and eat;8Isa. 37, 30. together;9Jer. 48, 7, yaḥdaw to be read for yaḥad. and they shall profane it;10Ezek. 7, 21. and they offered;11Ezra 3, 3. was made;12Dan. 5, 21. and took upon them;13Esth. 9, 27. Hananiah;14Added by GRA and H. The name Hananiah indicates Neh. 3, 30 where the text omits the waw at the end of ’aḥaraw (after him). Malchijah.15Indicating ibid. 31 where the waw at the end of ’aḥaraw is also omitted. The reverse of this [occurs in the following words]:16A superfluous waw is written but not read. my feet;172 Sam. 22, 34; the kethib is ‘his feet’. [Although not included here, in the preceding verse my way is ‘his way’ in the kethib.] throw her down;182 Kings 9, 33. [The added waw is due to dittography and superfluous.] and … commanded;19ibid. XVI, 15. The kethib means ‘commanded him’. straight before him;20In Ezek. 46, 9 where the verb shall go forth is written as plural but to be read as singular. the fountain gate;21In Neh. 3, 15 where the kethib is ‘they set up’ and the ḳerë (he) set up. and called him;22In 1 Kings 12, 3. The reference is to the word which follows which is plural in the kethib and singular in the ḳerë. and he assembled;23ibid. 21. Here the reference is to the first verb was come which is written as plural but to be read as singular. took.24In 2 Kings 14, 13. The reference is again to the verb came with the singular to be read for the plural in the text.
אלו כותבין [בה"א] ולא קוראין וארא ואביא הארי דשמואל (מוצא) [נמצא] ותרא הזאת רע הרע בא ובא וקו וקו (הרע) אוהבי ורע יעש פקח אריאל (צור) [ציד] וחלופן (וארכה הגונה) [וארבה הגגה] והמה יהיה והיתה (ונראה) (והמה יהיה) [הנה] שתול גדליהו ותעגבה המדה ואכבדה שלשה (דממה) [זממה] טעמה קומי זכור השיבנו הגדתה קללת (שמתה) [שתה] עשית נבהלה פתוחיה תזנותיה שבנה (אבלה) [אגלה] (שקטה) [שכת] ויראה: The following are written with a he which is not pronounced: when I saw;25Josh. 7, 21, written wa’er’eh and read wa’erë’. and I brought;26ibid. XXIV, 8, written wa’abih and read wa’abi. the lion272 Sam. 23, 20, written ha’aryeh and read ha’ari. in the Book of Samuel;28This excludes the parallel passage in 1 Chron. 11, 22 where ha’ari is both written and read. was he found;29Jer. 48, 27, written nimẓa’ah but the reading is nimẓa’. and … saw;30ibid. III, 7, written wattir’eh and read watter’ë’. this [city];31ibid. XXVI, 6, written hazzothah and read hazzoth. evil;32Micah 3, 2, written ra‘ah and read ra‘. [the] evil;33Jer. 18, 10, written hara‘ah and read hara‘. gone down;34ibid. XV, 9, written ba’ah and read ba’. and he shall come;35ibid. XLIII, 11, written uba’ah and read uba’. and a line;361 Kings 7, 23, written weḳaweh and read weḳaw. and a line;37Zech. 1, 16, as in the preceding note. thoroughly;38V incorrectly gives the keyword as wera‘. Ps. 51, 4, written harbeh and read hereb. them that love me;39Prov. 8, 17, written ’ohabehah and read ’ohabai. and … friend;40ibid. XXVII, 10, written were‘eh and read were‘a. deal;41Ruth 1, 8, written ya‘aseh and read ya‘as. open;42Dan. 9, 18, written piḳḥah and read peḳaḥ. a lion;43Lam. 3, 10, written ’aryeh and read ’ari. V incorrectly connects this with the next word joining them together as one. these;44Ezra 5, 15, written ’elleh and read ’el. venison.45V incorrectly reads ẓur. Gen. 27, 3, written ẓedah and read ẓayid.
The reverse is the case with the following:46In the preceding a written he is not pronounced, but the following are spelt without a he which is to be pronounced. and multiplied;47Josh. 24, 3, written wa’ereb and read wa’arbeh. on the housetop;481 Sam. 9, 26, written haggag and read haggagah. and they;492 Sam. 21, 9, written wehem and read wehemmah. be he;501 Kings 1, 37, written yehi and read yihyeh. and … shal be;512 Kings 9, 37, written wehayath and read wehayethah. and behold;52Isa. 41, 23, written wenerë and read wenireh. behold;53ibid. LIV, 16, written hen and read hinneh. planted;54In Jer. 17, 8, referring to yireh (shall … see) which is spelt without the final hei. Gedaliah;55ibid. XL, 16, referring to ta‘aseh (do) which is without the final hei. and … she doted;56Ezek. 23, 16, written watta‘gob and read watta‘gebah. the measure;57ibid. XLV, 3, where ḥamesh (five) is written and ḥamishshah read. and I shall be glorified;58Hag. 1, 8, written we’ekkabed and read we’ekkabedah. three;59In Prov. 30, 18, we’arba‘ (yea, four) is written and we’arba‘ah read. she considereth;60ibid. XXXI, 16, naṭa‘ (planteth) is written and naṭ‘ah read. she perceiveth;61ibid. 18, ballayil (by night) is written and ballayelah read. arise;62In Lam. 2, 19, the same variant occurs as in the preceding. remember;63ibid. V, 1, habbeṭ (behold) is written and habbiṭah read. turn Thou us;64ibid. 21, wenashub (and we shall be turned) is written and wenashubah read. thou hast declared;651 Sam XXIV, 19, we’at is written and we’attah read. thou … hast cursed;66Eccles. 7, 22, where the same variant occurs as in the preceding. Thou hast set;67Ps. 90, 8, written shatta and read shattah. Thou hast made;68Neh. 9, 6, written ’at and read ’attah. is sore affrighted;69In Ps. 6, 4 the same variant occurs as in the preceding. the carved work thereof;70ibid. LXXIV, 6, written we‘at and read we‘attah. with her harlotries;71In Ezek. 23, 43, written ‘at and read ‘attah. turn back;72In Ruth 1, 12, lekna (go your way) omits the final hei. disclose;73ibid. IV, 4, where we’eda‘ (that I may know) is written and read we’ede‘ah. Thou [hast] made an hedge;74In Job 1, 10, ’at (Thou) is written and ’attah read. and [he] saw.75ibid. XLII, 16, written wayyar and read wayyireh.
אלו כותבין דבר אחד וקוראין שנים בא גד אש דת (אשתונן) [מאש תם] מה לכם והנה הוא (באנת׳) מה הם בני מן לבן ימיני חל כאים (כי שימות) [ישי מות] לגאיונים מן הסערה מן סערה (מן) [הם] פרוצים וחילופיהן כטוב (מן בנימין) [מבנימין] למרבה מהמערה מאתי בחרבותיהם מבת כיענים: The following are written as one word and read as two words: fortune is come;76Gen. 30, 11, written baggad and read ba’gad. a fiery law;77Deut. 33, 2, written ’eshdath and read ’esh dath. consumed of the fire;78Jer. 6, 29, written me’eshtam and read me’esh tam. what mean ye;79Isa. 3, 15, written mallakem and read mah lakem. and, behold, he;80Jer. 18, 3, written wehinnehu and read wehinneh hu’. what they;81Ezek. 8, 6, written mahem and read mah hem. Bani, of;821 Chron. 9, 4, written Binyamin and read Bani min. of the Benjamites;83ibid. XXVII, 12, written lebenyemini and read labben yemini. the helpless;84Ps. 10, 10, written ḥelka’im and read ḥel ka’im. may He incite death;85ibid. LV, 16, written yashshimaweth and read yashshi maweth. of the proud oppressors;86ibid. CXXIII, 4, written lig’eyonim and read lig’ë yonim. out of the whirlwind;87Job 38, 1, written minhasse‘arah and read min hasse‘arah. out of a whirlwind;88ibid. XL, 6, written minse‘arah and read min se‘arah. were broken down.89Neh. 2, 13, written hammeperuẓim and read hem peruẓim.
The reverse of the above are the following:90Which are written as two words and read as one. when … were merry;91Judg. 16, 25, written ki ṭob and read ḳetob. of Benjamin;921 Sam. 9, 1, written mibben yamin and read mibbinyamin. that … may be increased;93Isa. 9, 6, written lamed-mem resh-beth-he and read lemarbeh. out of the cave;941 Sam. 24. 8, written min hamme‘arah and read mehamme‘arah. by Myself;95Isa. 44, 24, written mi’itti and read me’itti. with their axes;962 Chron. 34, 6, written beḥar bothehem and read beḥarbothehem. from the daughter;97Lam. 1, 6, written min bath and read mibbath. like the ostriches.98ibid. IV, 3, written kaye ‘enim and read kayye‘enim.
אלו כותבין וי"ו וקוראין יו"ד (אסורים) [אסורי] אבוגיל אנועך אולי אושר ארוצם בעוני (ביד) [בור] בהליכתם החפשות (דרכי) התעיף (המכעיסנו) [הכעסוני] הישר הנתינים המבינים ברזות גול דהיא היצא החרסית הלחות המביא הבציר (אילנו ושח עיניה) [וילונו ושחצומה] וצניף ואליל ותרמית וסוס ואתיקיהא ותילון (וחיאל) והכינו חוקך יציעו יעיר יעביר (ועיאל) יניעון יכסימו יכשילו לרוב לשור ליש לדיגים לסיג למשיסה למעניתם מיפעת מניות נטוות נוב נובי נפישסים שום עשיות עיפי (עברים) עתודים תניינא צעיריהם צעיריה (צעיפי) [צפיעי] : The following are spelt with a waw but read with a yod: prisoners;99Gen. 39, 20, written ’asurë and read ’asirë. Abigail;1001 Sam. 25, 18, written Abugail and read Abigail. I make thee … go up and down;1012 Sam. 15, 20, written anu‘aka and read ani‘aka. chief men;1022 Kings 24, 15, written ’ulë and read ’elë. I will … make … straight;103Isa. 45, 2, written ’aushir and read ’ayashsher. I will … make them run away;104Jer. 50, 44, written ’aruẓem and read ’ariẓem. on mine eye;1052 Sam. 16, 12, written ba‘awoni and read be‘eni. cistern;106Jer. 6, 7, written bor and read bayir. in their march;107Nahum 2, 6, written bahalokotham and read bahalikotham. set apart;1082 Chron. 26, 21, written haḥofshuth and read haḥofshith. V inserts here another example, viz. ‘my way’, but N.Y. declares it to be incorrect and H omits it. wilt thou set;109Prov. 23, 5, written hata‘uf and read hata‘if. ye might provoke Me;110Jer. 25, 7, written hik‘oseni and read hak‘iseni. make straight;111Ps. 5, 9, written haushar and read hayeshar. who were set;112Ezra 8, 17, written hannethunim and read hannethinim. that taught;1132 Chron. 35, 3, written hammebonim and read hammebinim. Birzaith;1141 Chron. 7, 31, written Birzoth and read Birzaith. will greatly rejoice;115Prov. 23, 24, written gol yagul and read gil yagil. Dehites;116Ezra 4, 9, written Dehawë and read Dehayë. bring forth;117Gen. 8, 17, written hawẓë’ and read hayẓë’. Harsith;118Jer. 19, 2, written haḥarsoth and read haḥarsith. Luhith;119ibid. XLVIII, 5, written halluḥoth and read halluḥith. the entry;120Ezek. 42, 9, written hammebo’ and read hammebi’. the strong;121Zech. 11, 2, written habbaẓur and read habbaẓir. made to murmur;122Numb. 14, 36, written wayyillonu and read wayyalinu. and Shahazim;123Josh. 19, 22, written weshaḥaẓumah and read weshaḥaẓimah. and a royal diadem;124Isa. 62, 3, written uẓenuf and read uẓenif. and a thing of nought and the deceit;125Jer. 14, 14, written we’elul wetarmuth and read we’elil wetarmith. and the swallow;126ibid. VIII, 7, written wesus and read wesis. and the galleries thereof;127Ezek. 41, 15, written we’attoḳeha and read we’attiḳeha. and Tilon;1281 Chron. 4, 20, written wetolon and read wetilon. Jehiel;1292 Chron. 29, 14, written Jeḥu’el and read Jeḥi’el. and prepare ye;130ibid. XXXV, 4, written wehikkonu and read wehakkinu. thy bosom;131Ps. 74, 11, written ḥoḳeka and read ḥeḳeka. a side-structure;1321 Kings 6, 5, written yaẓu‘a and read yaẓi‘a. Jair;1331 Chron. 20, 5, written Ya‘or and read Ya‘ir. alienate;134Ezek. 48, 14, written ya‘abor and read ya‘abir. Jeiel;1351 Chron. 9, 35, written Je‘u’el and read Je‘i’el. they wander up and down;136Ps. 59, 16, written yenu‘un and read yeni‘un. let … cover them;137ibid. CXL, 10, written yekassumo and read yekassemo. they cause … to fall;138Prov. 4, 16, written yiksholu and read yakshilu. to strive;139Judg. 21, 22, written larub and read larib. singing;1401 Sam. 18, 6, written lashur and read lashir. Laish;1412 Sam. 3, 15, written Lush and read Layish. for fishers;142Jer. 16, 16, written ledogim and read ledayyagim. dross;143Ezek. 22, 18, written lesog and read lesig. for a spoil;144Isa. 42, 24, written limshoseh and read limshissah. their furrows;145Ps. 129, 3, written lema‘anotham and read lema‘anitham. Mephaath;146Jer. 48, 21, written mopha‘ath and read mepa‘ath. from Naioth;1471 Sam. 20, 1, written minnawoth and read minnayoth. stretched-forth;148Isa. 3, 17, written neṭuwothn and read neṭioth. fruit;149ibid. LVII, 19, written nob and read nib. Nebai;150Neh. 10, 20, written Nubai and read Nebai. Nephishesim;151ibid. VII, 52, written Nefushesim and read Nefishesim. leave;1522 Sam. 14, 7, written sum and read sim. ready dressed;1531 Sam. 25, 18, written ‘asuwoth and read ‘asiyoth. Ephai;154Jer. 40, 8, written ‘ufai and read ‘ephai. Ephrain;1552 Chron. 13, 19, written ‘Efron and read ‘Efrain. V incorrectly reads ‘Abarim. the second156This excludes the first ready in Esth. 3, 14. ready;157Esth. 8, 13, written ‘athudim and read ‘athidim. their lads;158Jer. 14, 3, written ẓe‘orehem and read ẓe‘irehem. her little ones;159ibid. XLVIII, 4, written ẓe‘oreha and read ẓe‘ireha. dung.160Ezek. 4, 15, written ẓefu‘ë and read ẓefi‘ë. [38b]