Temurah 26aתמורה כ״ו א
The William Davidson Talmudתלמוד מהדורת ויליאם דוידסון
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26aכ״ו א

גמ׳ א"ר יצחק ברבי יוסי א"ר יוחנן הכל מודים באומר תחול זו ואחר כך תחול זו דברי הכל תפוס לשון ראשון

GEMARA: Rabbi Yitzḥak, son of Rabbi Yosei, says that Rabbi Yoḥanan says, with regard to the disagreement between Rabbi Meir and Rabbi Yosei: Everyone concedes in a case where one says: The consecration of this animal as a substitute for a burnt offering will take effect and afterward the consecration of this animal as a substitute for a peace offering will take effect. In this case, everyone agrees that one attends only to the first statement, i.e., the sanctity of the burnt offering takes effect but the sanctity of the peace offering does not take effect.

לא תחול זו אא"כ חלתה זו תרווייהו קדשי

Likewise, everyone agrees that in a case where one says: Consecration of this animal as a substitute for a burnt offering shall not take effect unless the consecration of this animal as a substitute for a peace offering shall also take effect, the animal is consecrated as both a burnt offering and a peace offering.

לא נחלקו אלא כגון משנתינו דאמר תמורת עולה תמורת שלמים דר' מאיר סבר מדהוה ליה למימר תמורת עולה ושלמים ואמר תמורת עולה תמורת שלמים הויא ליה כאומר תחול זו ואח"כ תחול זו

Rabbi Meir and Rabbi Yosei disagree only with regard to a case such as the one in our mishna, where one said: This animal is the substitute of the burnt offering, the substitute of the peace offering. As Rabbi Meir holds: Since if he wanted both sanctities to take effect, he should have said: The substitute of the burnt offering and the peace offering, but instead he said: The substitute of the burnt offering, the substitute of the peace offering, he is considered like one who says: The consecration of this animal as a substitute for a burnt offering will take effect and afterward the consecration of this animal as a substitute for a peace offering will take effect. Therefore, according to Rabbi Meir only the first sanctity takes effect; the second sanctity cannot take effect because the animal is already consecrated.

ורבי יוסי סבר אי אמר תמורת עולה ושלמים הוה אמינא קדושה ואינה קריבה קמ"ל

And Rabbi Yosei holds that from the outset he intended for both sanctities to take effect, and he did not say: The substitute of the burnt offering and the peace offering, because he reasoned that if he said that, one would say that he intends for the animal to be consecrated with two sanctities, half as a substitution of the burnt offering and half as a substitution of the peace offering. And if so, the animal cannot be sacrificed in the Temple, because it is impossible to sacrifice half the animal as one type of offering and half as another type of offering. Therefore, Rabbi Yosei teaches us that when he says: The substitute of the burnt offering the substitute of the peace offering, he intends for the animal to be both entirely a burnt offering and entirely a peace offering, as he mistakenly thinks that such an animal can be sacrificed in the Temple. But since he intended for both types of sanctity to take effect, the animal is half a burnt offering and half a peace offering.

ת"ר האומר בהמה זו חציה תמורת עולה וחציה תמורת שלמים כולה תקרב עולה דברי ר"מ וחכ"א תרעה עד שתסתאב ותימכר ויביא בדמי חציה תמורת עולה ובדמי חציה תמורת שלמים

§ The Sages taught in a baraita: In the case of one who had two animals standing before him, one a burnt offering and one a peace offering, and he said with regard to one of his non-sacred animals: This animal, half of it is the substitute of the burnt offering, and half of it is the substitute of the peace offering, that animal is the substitute of the burnt offering and is therefore entirely sacrificed as a burnt offering. This is the statement of Rabbi Meir. And the Rabbis say: It is left to graze until it becomes blemished, and then it is sold, and the owner brings a substitute burnt offering with the payment for half the animal and a substitute peace offering with the payment for half the animal.

א"ר יוסי אם לכך נתכוון מתחלה הואיל וא"א להוציא שני שמות כאחת דבריו קיימין רבי יוסי היינו רבנן כולה רבי יוסי קתני לה

The baraita concludes: Rabbi Yosei said: If that was his intent from the outset, then since it is impossible to call two designations simultaneously, his statement stands, and the animal is half a burnt offering and half a peace offering. The Gemara objects: The opinion of Rabbi Yosei is identical to the opinion of the Rabbis. The Gemara explains: Rabbi Yosei taught the entire baraita, and the opinion of the Rabbis in the baraita is Rabbi Yosei’s opinion.

תניא אידך בהמה חציה עולה וחציה חטאת (כולה) תיקרב עולה דברי ר"מ

It is taught in another baraita: In a case where one says: This animal, half of it is designated as a burnt offering and half of it is designated as a sin offering, Rabbi Meir holds that we attend only to the first statement that he uttered, and therefore half of the animal becomes consecrated as a burnt offering. Since the animal cannot live if half of its body were removed, the sanctity spreads to the entire animal and it is sacrificed entirely as a burnt offering. This is the statement of Rabbi Meir.

ר' יוסי אומר תמות ושוין באומר חציה חטאת וחציה עולה שתמות

Rabbi Yosei says: Both sanctities take effect, and as an animal cannot be sacrificed as two offerings, it must be left to die. The baraita adds: And Rabbi Meir and Rabbi Yosei agree in a case where one says: Half of this animal is designated as a sin offering and half of it is designated as a burnt offering, that the animal must be left to die.

שוין מני ר"מ פשיטא

The Gemara clarifies: That case with regard to which the baraita states that Rabbi Meir and Rabbi Yosei agree, who is conceding to whom? Clearly Rabbi Meir concedes to Rabbi Yosei that in that case the halakha is that the animal must be left to die. The Gemara asks: Isn’t it obvious that Rabbi Meir concedes in that case? Just as in the first case of the baraita where one mentioned the burnt offering first and the sin offering second, Rabbi Meir holds that only the first expression takes effect, so too if one mentioned the sin offering first and the burnt offering second, only the first expression takes effect; this means that the animal is a sin offering, and therefore it must be left to die, as he is not obligated to bring a sin offering.

מהו דתימא אי לאו דאשמעינן הוה אמינא טעמא דר"מ לאו משום תפוס לשון ראשון אלא היינו טעמא חטאת מעורבת קריבה

The Gemara explains that the ruling of the baraita is necessary, lest you say: If it hadn’t taught us the opinion of Rabbi Meir in the latter case, I would say that the reason for the ruling of Rabbi Meir in the first clause of the mishna is not that we attend only to the first statement. Rather, I would say that this is Rabbi Meir’s reason: In a case of the sanctity of a sin offering that is mixed with another sanctity in the same animal, the animal is sacrificed, and that is the reason Rabbi Meir rules that the animal is sacrificed as a burnt offering despite the fact that the sanctity of a sin offering is also mixed with it.

ואפילו כי אמר חציה חטאת והדר אמר חציה עולה קריבה קמ"ל דלא

And if that is Rabbi Meir’s reasoning, then even if one said: Half of this animal is designated as a sin offering, and then said: Half of it is designated as a burnt offering, the animal is sacrificed. Therefore, the baraita teaches us that this is not the reason for Rabbi Meir’s opinion. Rather, his ruling is due to the principle that we attend only to the first statement, and therefore Rabbi Meir and Rabbi Yosei agree in the latter clause of the baraita that the animal must be left to die.

תניא אידך אמר בהמה זו חציה עולה וחציה שלמים קדושה ואינה קריבה עושה תמורה ותמורתו כיוצא בו

It is taught in another baraita: In the case of one who said: This animal, half of it is designated as a burnt offering and half of it is designated as a peace offering, the animal is consecrated but is not sacrificed. The animal grazes until it becomes blemished, at which point it is sold, and the owner brings a burnt offering with the money of half the animal and a peace offering with the money of half the animal. This animal renders a non-sacred animal that it is exchanged for consecrated as a substitute, and its substitute is treated like it, i.e., it is not sacrificed; rather, it grazes until it becomes blemished, and it is then sold, and the owner brings a burnt offering with the money of half the animal and a peace offering with the money of half the animal.

מני רבי יוסי היא פשיטא דקדושה ואינה קריבה

The Gemara asks: In accordance with whose opinion is the baraita taught? It is in accordance with the opinion of Rabbi Yosei, who holds one accountable for both expressions that he uttered. The Gemara asks: Isn’t it obvious that Rabbi Yosei holds that in that case the animal is consecrated but is not sacrificed? Why is it necessary to teach this?

תמורתה איצטריך ליה דמהו דתימא נהי דהיא לא קרבה תמורתה תקרב קא משמע לן מאי שנא היא דלא קרבה דהויא לה קדושה דחויה תמורתה נמי מכח קדושה דחויה קאתיא

The Gemara answers: It was necessary for the baraita to teach that its substitute is also not sacrificed. Lest you say: Granted that the animal itself is not sacrificed, but its substitute is sacrificed, therefore the baraita teaches us that the substitute is also not sacrificed. The Gemara explains the ruling of the baraita: What is different about the animal itself, that it is not sacrificed? It is not sacrificed because its sanctity is deferred from the altar, since it is neither entirely a burnt offering nor fully a peace offering. So too its substitute, whose sanctity comes from the force of deferred sanctity, as it was the substitution of an animal whose sanctity was deferred, may not be sacrificed either.

אמר רבי יוחנן בהמה של שני שותפים הקדיש חציה שלו וחזר ולקח חציה אחרת והקדישה קדושה ואינה קריבה ועושה תמורה ותמורתה

§ Rabbi Yoḥanan says: With regard to an animal that belongs to two partners, if one of the partners consecrated his half of the animal, and then he acquired the other half of the animal from his partner and consecrated it, the animal is consecrated but is not sacrificed. When he originally consecrated his half of the animal, the animal was not fit for sacrifice, as only half of it was consecrated. Although the animal is now fully consecrated, it can never again become fit for sacrifice, since it was once disqualified. And this animal renders a non-sacred animal that it is exchanged for it consecrated as a substitute, and its substitute