Tamid 31bתמיד ל״א ב
The William Davidson Talmudתלמוד מהדורת ויליאם דוידסון
Save "Tamid 31b"
Toggle Reader Menu Display Settings
31bל״א ב

הראשון בראש וברגל הראש בימינו וחוטמו כלפי זרועו קרניו בין אצבעותיו בית שחיטתו מלמעלן והפדר נתון עליה הרגל של ימין בשמאלו ובית עורן לחוץ השני בשתי ידים של ימין בימינו ושל שמאל בשמאלו ובית עורן לחוץ

The first priest stood with the head and with the right hind leg of the animal. Since it was more significant, the head was in his right hand, and its nose was turned toward the priest’s arm. Its horns were between his fingers, and the place of its slaughter was above, and the fats were placed upon it, to conceal the bloody place of slaughter. The right hind leg was in his left hand, and the outer side of the leg, from which its hide was flayed, rather than the side on which the incision was made, was facing out. The second priest stood with the two forelegs. He held the right foreleg in his right hand and the left foreleg in his left hand, and the outer side of the leg, from which its hide was flayed, was facing out.

השלישי בעוקץ וברגל העוקץ בימינו והאליה מדולדלת בין אצבעותיו ואצבע הכבד ושתי כליות עמו הרגל של שמאל בשמאלו ובית עורן לחוץ הרביעי בחזה ובגרה החזה בימינו והגרה בשמאלו וצלעותיו בין שני אצבעותיו החמישי בשתי דפנות של ימין בימינו ושל שמאל בשמאלו ובית עורן לחוץ הששי קרבים הנתונים בבזך וכרעים על גביהן מלמעלה

The third priest stood with the haunch and the left hind leg. He held the haunch in his right hand, and the tail was hanging between his fingers, and the finger-like protrusion of the liver and the two kidneys were with it. He held the left hind leg in his left hand, and the outer side of the leg, from which its hide was flayed, was facing out. The fourth priest stood with the breast and with the cud, with the breast in his right hand and the cud in his left hand, and its two ribs were attached to the cud between his two fingers. The fifth priest stood with the two flanks; the right flank was in his right hand and the left flank in his left hand, and the outer side was facing out. The sixth priest stood with the innards, which were placed in a vessel, and the lower legs were placed atop them from above.

הז' בסולת השמיני בחביתים התשיעי ביין הלכו ונתנום מחצי כבש ולמטה במערבו ומלחום וירדו ובאו להן ללשכת הגזית לקרות את שמע:

The seventh priest stood with the fine flour of the meal offering that accompanies the daily offering. The eighth priest stood with the griddle-cake offering sacrificed daily by the High Priest, half in the morning and half in the evening. The ninth priest stood with the wine for the libations that accompany the daily offering. The nine priests went and placed the items they were carrying on the area from halfway up the ramp and below, in the lower portion of the ramp, on the west side of the ramp, and they salted the limbs and the meal offering. And they descended and came to the Chamber of Hewn Stone to recite the morning Shema and the other texts that they would recite, as explained at the beginning of the next chapter.

גמ׳ תנא יד ורגל כעקידת יצחק בן אברהם:

GEMARA: The mishna teaches that the priests would bind the lamb for the daily offering. With regard to this procedure, the Sages taught in a baraita: The animal’s foreleg and hind leg are bound together, as in the binding of Isaac, son of Abraham.

לא היו כופתין את הטלה מאי טעמא רב הונא ורב חסדא חד אמר משום בזיון קדשים וחד אמר משום דמהלך בחוקי העמים

The mishna teaches that the priests would not tie the lamb by fastening all four of its legs together. The Gemara asks: What is the reason for this? The Gemara answers: This is a matter of dispute between Rav Huna and Rav Ḥisda. One of these Sages said: The animal is not tied because this would constitute degradation of sacred items; and the other one said that the animal is not tied because that method is the one adopted in pagan worship, and is therefore considered to be walking in the statutes of the nations, and the verse states: “You shall not walk in their statutes” (Leviticus 18:3).

מאי בינייהו איכא בינייהו דכפתיה בשיראי אי נמי בהוצא דדהבא

The Gemara asks: What is the practical difference between these opinions? The Gemara answers: There is a difference between them in a case where one ties the animal with silk [beshira’ei], which would be considered to be treating the offering in the manner of the nations, but it is not degrading. Alternatively, these opinions differ with regard to a case where the animal is tied with a thread of gold. As in the case of the silk, tying the animal with gold would be considered to be treating the offering in the manner of the nations, but it is not a degradation.

תנן התם שלש עשרה שולחנות היו במקדש שמונה של שיש בבית המטבחיים שעליהם מדיחין את הקרבים

§ The mishna teaches that the innards were rinsed on marble tables in the slaughterhouse in the Temple. With regard to these tables, we learned in a mishna elsewhere (Shekalim 17b) that there were thirteen tables in the Temple. Eight of them were fashioned from marble and were located in the slaughterhouse, north of the altar, where the priests would slaughter the offerings of the most sacred order. Upon these tables they would wash the innards of the offerings, as the cool marble preserved the freshness of the meat.

ב' במערבה של כבש אחד של שיש ואחד של כסף על של שיש נותנין את האברים ועל של כסף כלי שרת

There were two more tables on the western side of the ramp, south of the altar, one of marble and one of silver. On the table of marble the priests would place the limbs before they would bring them up to the altar. And on the table of silver they would place the ninety-three service vessels brought out from the Chamber of Vessels each morning for the services of that day.

ובאולם שנים מבפנים על פתח הבית אחד של כסף ואחד של זהב על של כסף נותנין לחם הפנים בכניסתו ועל של זהב ביציאתו

The mishna continues: And in the Entrance Hall there were two tables on its inside, near the opening to the Temple, one of silver and one of gold. On the table of silver the priests would place the shewbread before its entrance to the Sanctuary, after it was baked on Shabbat eve. And on the table of gold they would place the old shewbread upon its exit from the Sanctuary, to be divided among the priests.

שמעלין בקודש ולא מורידין ואחד של זהב בפנים שעליו לחם הפנים תמיד

The shewbread was not placed on a silver table upon its exit from the Sanctuary, as one promotes in matters of sanctity and one does not demote. Since in the interim the shewbread had been placed on the golden Table for the shewbread inside the Sanctuary, upon its removal it was not placed on anything other than a golden table. And lastly, there was one table of gold inside the Sanctuary. This was the Table for the shewbread, upon which the shewbread always rested (see Exodus 25:23–30).

מכדי אין עניות במקום עשירות אמאי עבדי דשיש ניעבדו דכסף ניעבדו דזהב אמר רב חיננא בשם רבי אסי ורבי אסי בשם רבי שמואל בר רב יצחק מפני שהוא מרתיח:

The Gemara asks: Since there is a principle that there may be no poverty in a place of wealth, i.e., the Temple must always be run in a lavish manner, why did they fashion any tables of marble? Let them fashion all the tables of silver, due to the grandeur of the Temple, or let them fashion them all of gold. Rav Ḥinnana says in the name of Rabbi Asi, and Rabbi Asi says in the name of Rabbi Shmuel bar Rav Yitzḥak: Gold and silver tables are unfit for the sacrificial limbs because metal scalds. Unlike marble, metal can become very hot in the sun, and this might cause the sacrificial limbs to deteriorate.

של שחר היה נשחט על קרן מזרחית צפונית: מנא הני מילי אמר רב חסדא דאמר קרא (במדבר כח, ג) שנים ליום כנגד היום

§ The mishna teaches that the daily offering of the morning was slaughtered at the northwest corner of the altar, in the first ring of the second row from the south, which is called the second ring, whereas the daily offering of the afternoon was slaughtered at the northeast corner of the altar, at the second ring. The Gemara asks: From where are these matters derived? Rav Ḥisda said: As the verse states, with regard to the daily offering: “This is the offering made by fire that you shall bring to the Lord: Lambs of the first year without blemish, two by day, for a continual burnt offering” (Numbers 28:3). The phrase “two by day” indicates that the lamb must be slaughtered opposite the light of the day. Since Eretz Yisrael is north of the equator, the sun is always in the southern part of the sky. The first ring, then, is always in the long shadow of the altar, and only the second ring falls under direct sunlight.

תניא נמי הכי שנים ליום כנגד היום אתה אומר נגד היום או אינו אלא חובת היום כשהוא אומר (במדבר כח, ד) את הכבש אחד תעשה בבקר ואת הכבש השני תעשה בין הערבים הרי חובת היום אמור הא מה אני מקיים שנים ליום נגד היום

This is also taught in a baraita, that the phrase “two by day” teaches that the lamb must be slaughtered opposite the light of the day. The baraita asks: Do you say that this means opposite the light of the day, or does it only mean that two lambs must be sacrificed for the obligation of each day? The baraita answers that when the verse states: “One lamb you shall sacrifice in the morning, and the other lamb you shall sacrifice in the afternoon” (Numbers 28:4), the obligation of each day is thereby stated explicitly. How, then, do I realize the meaning of “two by day”? This teaches that the lamb must be slaughtered opposite the light of the day.

הא כיצד תמיד של שחר היה נשחט על קרן צפונית מערבית על טבעת שניה ושל בין הערבים היה נשחט על קרן צפונית מזרחית על טבעת שניה:

The baraita concludes: How so, i.e., how can this principle be applied to both the morning and the afternoon offerings? The daily offering of the morning was slaughtered opposite the northwest corner of the altar, on the second ring, across from the sun, which rises in the east. And the daily offering of the afternoon was slaughtered opposite the northeast corner of the altar, on the fourth ring of the second row, also called the second ring, again across from the sun, which is located in the west in the afternoon.

עשרה דברים שאל אלכסנדרוס מוקדון את זקני הנגב אמר להן

§ With regard to the position of the sun, the Gemara relates that Alexander of Macedon asked the Elders of the Negev about ten matters. He said to them: