Taanit 6bתענית ו׳ ב
The William Davidson Talmudתלמוד מהדורת ויליאם דוידסון
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6bו׳ ב

הנודר עד הגשמים משירדו גשמים עד שתרד רביעה שניה

In the case of one who vows to prohibit from himself a type of benefit until the rains, the vow is in effect from when the rains begin to fall until the second rainfall, as this is considered the time of the rains.

רב זביד אמר לזיתים דתנן מאימתי כל אדם מותרין בלקט בשכחה ובפאה משילכו הנמושות בפרט ובעוללות משילכו עניים בכרם ויבואו בזיתים משתרד רביעה שניה

Rav Zevid said: The time of the second rainfall is also significant with regard to a halakha that deals with olives, as we learned in a mishna: From when is any person permitted to collect gleanings, forgotten sheaves, and pe’a, produce of the corners of a field, which may normally be taken only by the poor? Any individual is permitted to collect them only from when the searchers [namoshot], the last of the poor to arrive, have left the field. From when may anyone collect yield of the vineyard in the case of the single grapes and small, incompletely formed clusters of grapes, likewise reserved for the poor? From when the poor have left the vineyard and come back after the second time, an indication that they have collected all that they wish. From when may anyone collect yield of the trees in the case of forgotten olives? From when the second rainfall falls.

מאי נמושות אמר ר' יוחנן סבי דאזלי אתיגרא ר"ל אמר לקוטי בתר לקוטי

Incidentally, the Gemara asks: What is the meaning of the term for searchers, namoshot? Rabbi Yoḥanan said: It is referring to elders who walk with a staff [atigra]. Since they walk very slowly, they certainly see everything they wish to collect. Reish Lakish said: It is referring to the gleaners who come after all the gleaners, i.e., who arrive after two rounds of the poor have passed through the field.

רב פפא אמר כדי להלך בשבילי הרשות דאמר מר מהלכין כל אדם בשבילי הרשות עד שתרד רביעה שניה

Rav Pappa said that the time of the second rainfall is significant so that one can know until when it is permitted to walk on the permitted paths in fields. One may utilize certain paths on private property, provided no damage is caused to the field. As the Master said: Anyone may walk on the permitted paths until the second rainfall falls. One who walks on them at a later point in time is likely to trample the plowed field and damage its crops.

רב נחמן בר יצחק אמר לבער פירות שביעית דתנן עד מתי נהנין ושורפין בתבן ובקש של שביעית עד שתרד רביעה שניה

Rav Naḥman bar Yitzḥak said that the time of the second rainfall is significant for determining when to remove the produce of the Sabbatical Year from one’s possession. As we learned in a mishna: Until when may one derive benefit and burn the straw and the hay of the Sabbatical Year? Until the second rainfall falls.

מאי טעמא דכתיב (ויקרא כה, ז) ולבהמתך ולחיה אשר בארצך כל זמן שחיה אוכלת בשדה האכל לבהמתך בבית כלה לחיה מן השדה כלה לבהמתך מן הבית

The Gemara asks: What is the reason that one must remove the produce of the Sabbatical Year from one’s possession? The Gemara answers: As it is written with regard to the Sabbatical Year: “And for your cattle and for the beasts in your land all its increase shall be for food” (Leviticus 25:7). This verse indicates that as long as a beast, i.e., a non-domesticated animal, is able to find and eat produce in the field, you may feed your cattle, your domesticated animals, from that type of food in the house. However, when a given type of produce has ceased to be available to the beast in the field, cease providing it to your cattle in the house. After the time of the second rainfall there is no longer any straw or hay in the fields.

אמר רבי אבהו מאי לשון רביעה דבר שרובע את הקרקע כדרב יהודה דאמר רב יהודה מיטרא בעלה דארעא הוא שנאמר (ישעיהו נה, י) כי כאשר ירד הגשם והשלג מן השמים ושמה לא ישוב כי אם הרוה את הארץ והולידה והצמיחה

§ The Gemara returns to the subject of rain. Rabbi Abbahu said: What is the meaning of the term for rainfall, revia? It is referring to a matter that penetrates [rove’a], i.e., which causes the earth to bear fruit. This is in accordance with the opinion of Rav Yehuda, as Rav Yehuda said: Rain is the husband of the earth, as it is stated: “For as the rain comes down and the snow from heaven, and returns not there, except it waters the earth, and makes it give birth and sprout” (Isaiah 55:10). This verse indicates that rain fructifies the earth in the manner of a husband and wife.

ואמר רבי אבהו רביעה ראשונה כדי שתרד בקרקע טפח שניה כדי לגוף בה פי חבית אמר רב חסדא גשמים שירדו כדי לגוף בהן פי חבית אין בהן משום ועצר

And Rabbi Abbahu further said: For rainfall to be considered the first rainfall it must be sufficient to enter the ground and saturate it to a depth of one handbreadth. The second rainfall must be sufficient that the soil is moistened enough to seal the opening of a barrel with its mud. Rav Ḥisda said: Rains which fall and create sufficient mud to seal the opening of a barrel with them means that the year does not constitute a fulfillment of the verse: “And He will close up the heavens and there will be no rain” (Deuteronomy 11:17).

ואמר רב חסדא גשמים שירדו קודם ועצר אין בהן משום ועצר

And Rav Ḥisda said: Rain that falls early in the day, prior to the recitation of Shema, which includes the verse: “And He will close up the heavens,” is enough to ensure that the hour does not constitute a fulfillment of the verse: “And He will close up the heavens,” even if no more rain falls at that time.

אמר אביי לא אמרן אלא קודם ועצר דאורתא אבל קודם ועצר דצפרא יש בהן משום ועצר דאמר רב יהודה בר יצחק הני ענני דצפרא לית בהו מששא דכתיב (הושע ו, ד) מה אעשה לך אפרים מה אעשה לך יהודה וחסדכם כענן בקר וגו'

Abaye said: We said this only if the rain fell during the day, prior to the recitation of “and He will close up” of the evening Shema. However, if a small amount of rain falls prior to the recitation of “and He will close up” of the morning Shema, this rain could still constitute an expression of “and He will close up.” As Rav Yehuda bar Yitzḥak said: These morning clouds have no substance; they generally yield minimal or no rain. As it is written: “What can I do for you, Ephraim, what can I do for you, Judah, for your goodness is like a morning cloud” (Hosea 6:4). This verse indicates that morning clouds contain little benefit.

א"ל רב פפא לאביי והא אמרי אינשי במפתח בבי מיטרא בר חמרא מוך שקך וגני לא קשיא הא דקטיר בעיבא הא דקטיר בענני

Rav Pappa said to Abaye: But people say the well-known maxim: When the gates, i.e., doors, are opened in the morning and there is rain, donkey-driver, fold your sack and go to sleep, as it is certain to rain all day, which will render the work of donkey-drivers infeasible. This shows that morning clouds are a sign that it will rain all day. The Gemara answers: This is not difficult. This statement of Rav Pappa is referring to when the sky is overcast with heavy clouds, from which rain will fall all day, whereas that statement of Rav Ḥisda is referring to a morning when the sky is overcast with light clouds which will not bring substantial rain.

אמר רב יהודה טבא לשתא דטבת ארמלתא איכא דאמרי דלא ביירי תרביצי ואיכא דאמרי דלא שקיל שודפנא איני והאמר רב חסדא טבא לשתא דטבת מנוולתא לא קשיא הא דאתא מיטרא מעיקרא הא דלא אתא מיטרא מעיקרא

§ Rav Yehuda said: It is good for the year when the month of Tevet is a widower, i.e., when it features no rainfall. The Gemara explains: Some say that this is so that the gardens [tarbitzei] should not be desolate, as too much rain damages vegetables. And some say: The reason is that it should not suffer blight caused by excessive rain. The Gemara asks: Is that so? But didn’t Rav Ḥisda say: It is good for the year when the month of Tevet is disgusting, i.e., muddy from rain. The Gemara answers: This is not difficult. This statement of Rav Yehuda is referring to a year when it rained initially, i.e., before Tevet, in which case rain during Tevet is not beneficial. That statement of Rav Ḥisda is referring to a year when it did not rain initially, before Tevet, and therefore rain during Tevet is beneficial.

ואמר רב חסדא גשמים שירדו על מקצת מדינה ועל מקצת מדינה לא ירדו אין בהן משום ועצר איני והכתיב (עמוס ד, ז) וגם אנכי מנעתי מכם את הגשם בעוד שלשה חדשים לקציר והמטרתי על עיר אחת ועל עיר אחת לא אמטיר חלקה אחת תמטר וגו' ואמר רב יהודה אמר רב שתיהן לקללה

And Rav Ḥisda also said: Rain that fell on one part of a country and did not fall on another part of the country does not constitute a fulfillment of the verse: “And He will close up the heavens.” The Gemara raises an objection: Is that so? But isn’t it written: “And I have also withheld the rain from you, when there were yet three months to the harvest; and I would cause it to rain upon one city, and caused it not to rain upon another city; one piece was rained upon, and the piece upon which it did not rain withered” (Amos 4:7). And Rav Yehuda said that Rav said: Both the area that receives rain and the area that does not receive rain are cursed. This statement indicates that rain that falls on only part of a country is a curse.

לא קשיא הא דאתא טובא הא דאתא כדמבעי ליה אמר רב אשי דיקא נמי דכתיב תמטר תהא מקום מטר ש"מ

The Gemara answers: This is not difficult. This, Rav Yehuda’s statement, is referring to a case when excessive rain falls in one part of the country and causes damage; whereas that, Rav Ḥisda’s statement, is referring to a situation when the requisite amount of rain falls in one part of the country. In this case, it is not a sign of a curse, but is a blessing for that particular part of the country. Rav Ashi said: The language is also precise in the verse in Amos that deals with excessive rain in one place, as it is written: “Was rained upon,” which indicates that it shall be a place of rain, i.e., an area filled with rain and water. The Gemara concludes: Indeed, learn from it that this is the correct interpretation.

א"ר אבהו מאימתי מברכין על הגשמים משיצא חתן לקראת כלה

Rabbi Abbahu said: From when does one recite a blessing over rain? From when the groom goes out to meet the bride, that is, when there are puddles of water on the ground such that the water below, represented as the bride in this metaphor, is splashed from above by the raindrops, represented as the groom.

מאי מברך אמר רב יהודה אמר רב מודים אנחנו לך ה' אלהינו על כל טפה וטפה שהורדת לנו ור' יוחנן מסיים בה הכי אילו פינו מלא שירה כים ולשוננו רנה כהמון גליו כו' עד אל יעזבונו רחמיך ה' אלהינו ולא עזבונו ברוך רוב ההודאות

The Gemara asks: What blessing does one recite over rain? Rav Yehuda said that Rav said: We thank you, O Lord our God, for each and every drop that You have made fall for us. And Rabbi Yoḥanan concludes the blessing as follows: If our mouth were as full of song as the sea, and our tongue with singing like the multitude of its waves, etc. And one continues with the formula of the nishmat prayer recited on Shabbat morning, until: May Your mercy not forsake us, O Lord our God, and You have not forsaken us. Blessed are You, O Lord, to Whom abundant thanksgivings are offered.

רוב ההודאות ולא כל ההודאות אמר רבא אימא אל ההודאות אמר רב פפא הלכך

The Gemara asks: Why does the blessing specify abundant thanksgivings and not all thanksgivings? Rava said: Emend the formula of the blessing and say: God of thanksgivings. Rav Pappa said: Therefore, as there are differences of opinion on this,