אָמַר רַב פָּפָּא: הִלְכָּךְ בַּר יִשְׂרָאֵל דְּאִית לֵיהּ דִּינָא בַּהֲדֵי נׇכְרִי, לִישְׁתְּמִיט מִינֵּיהּ בְּאָב — דְּרִיעַ מַזָּלֵיהּ, וְלַימְצֵי נַפְשֵׁיהּ בַּאֲדָר — דְּבָרִיא מַזָּלֵיהּ. Rav Pappa said: Therefore, in the case of a Jew who has litigation with a gentile, let him avoid him in the month of Av, when the Jews’ fortune is bad, and he should make himself available in Adar, when his fortune is good.
״לָתֵת לָכֶם אַחֲרִית וְתִקְוָה״, אָמַר רַב יְהוּדָה בְּרֵיהּ דְּרַב שְׁמוּאֵל בַּר שִׁילַת מִשְּׁמֵיהּ דְּרַב: אֵלּוּ דְּקָלִים וּכְלֵי פִשְׁתָּן. ״וַיֹּאמֶר רְאֵה רֵיחַ בְּנִי כְּרֵיחַ שָׂדֶה אֲשֶׁר בֵּרְכוֹ ה׳״, אָמַר רַב יְהוּדָה בְּרֵיהּ דְּרַב שְׁמוּאֵל בַּר שִׁילַת מִשְּׁמֵיהּ דְּרַב: כְּרֵיחַ שָׂדֶה שֶׁל תַּפּוּחִים. The Gemara mentions a couple of other statements in the name of the same Sages mentioned above. First, it cites a verse that is referring to the Babylonian exile. “To give to you a future and a hope” (Jeremiah 29:11). Rav Yehuda, son of Rav Shmuel bar Sheilat, said in the name of Rav: These are palm trees and garments of linen, which are long-lasting and bring benefit as long as they exist. With regard to Isaac’s comment about Jacob: “And he said: See, the smell of my son is as the smell of a field which the Lord has blessed” (Genesis 27:27), Rav Yehuda, son of Rav Shmuel bar Sheilat, said in the name of Rav: This smell was like that of a field of apple trees.
שַׁבָּת שֶׁחָל תִּשְׁעָה בְּאָב לִהְיוֹת בְּתוֹכָהּ, אֲסוּרִין לְסַפֵּר וּלְכַבֵּס. אָמַר רַב נַחְמָן: לֹא שָׁנוּ אֶלָּא לְכַבֵּס וְלִלְבּוֹשׁ, אֲבָל לְכַבֵּס וּלְהַנִּיחַ — מוּתָּר. וְרַב שֵׁשֶׁת אָמַר: אֲפִילּוּ לְכַבֵּס וּלְהַנִּיחַ אָסוּר. אָמַר רַב שֵׁשֶׁת: תֵּדַע, דְּבָטְלִי קַצָּרֵי דְּבֵי רַב. § The mishna taught: During the week in which the Ninth of Av occurs, it is prohibited to cut one’s hair and to launder clothes. Rav Naḥman said: They taught that it is prohibited only to launder and to wear clean clothes before the Ninth of Av; however, if one wishes to launder garments and to set them aside, this is permitted. And Rav Sheshet said: Even to launder them and to set them aside is prohibited. Rav Sheshet said: Know that I am correct, as the launderers of Rav’s household were idle during this week, which shows that laundering in and of itself is prohibited.
מֵתִיב רַב הַמְנוּנָא: בַּחֲמִישִׁי מוּתָּרִים, מִפְּנֵי כְּבוֹד הַשַּׁבָּת. לְמַאי? אִילֵימָא לְכַבֵּס וְלִלְבּוֹשׁ — מַאי כְּבוֹד שַׁבָּת אִיכָּא? Rav Hamnuna raised an objection against Rav Naḥman’s ruling from the mishna: On Thursday, these actions are permitted in deference to Shabbat. The Gemara clarifies: To which actions is this referring? If we say that it is permitted to launder and to wear clothing immediately, what deference to Shabbat is there in wearing a garment on Thursday?
אֶלָּא לְהַנִּיחַ. וּבַחֲמִישִׁי הוּא דִּשְׁרֵי, אֲבָל הַשַּׁבָּת כּוּלָּהּ — אָסוּר! לְעוֹלָם לְכַבֵּס וְלִלְבּוֹשׁ, וּכְשֶׁאֵין לוֹ אֶלָּא חָלוּק אֶחָד. דְּאָמַר רַב אַסִּי אָמַר רַבִּי יוֹחָנָן: מִי שֶׁאֵין לוֹ אֶלָּא חָלוּק אֶחָד מוּתָּר לְכַבְּסוֹ בְּחוּלּוֹ שֶׁל מוֹעֵד. אִיתְּמַר נָמֵי, אָמַר רַבִּי בִּנְיָמִין אָמַר רַבִּי אֶלְעָזָר: לֹא שָׁנוּ אֶלָּא לְכַבֵּס וְלִלְבּוֹשׁ, אֲבָל לְהַנִּיחַ — מוּתָּר. Rather, it must mean that one can wash and set aside the garment until Shabbat, and this washing is permitted only on Thursday; however, during the rest of the entire week it is prohibited. The Gemara rejects this contention: Actually, the mishna permits one to launder and wear a garment immediately on Thursday, and this ruling is referring to one who has only one shirt [ḥaluk]. This laundering is also considered in deference to Shabbat because if one does not wash his shirt now, on Thursday, he will not have the opportunity to do so later, as the mishna is referring to a case when the Ninth of Av occurs on a Friday. As Rabbi Asi said that Rabbi Yoḥanan said: One who has only one shirt is permitted to launder it on the intermediate days of a Festival, when it is normally prohibited to do so. It was also stated that Rabbi Binyamin said that Rabbi Elazar said: They taught that it is prohibited only to launder and to wear immediately; however, if one launders to set it aside, this is permitted.
מֵיתִיבִי: אָסוּר לְכַבֵּס לִפְנֵי תִּשְׁעָה בְּאָב, אֲפִילּוּ לְהַנִּיחַ לְאַחַר תִּשְׁעָה בְּאָב. וְגִיהוּץ שֶׁלָּנוּ, כְּכִיבּוּס שֶׁלָּהֶן. וּכְלֵי פִשְׁתָּן אֵין בָּהֶם מִשּׁוּם גִּהוּץ. תְּיוּבְתָּא. The Gemara raises an objection from a baraita: It is prohibited to launder before the Ninth of Av, even if one intends to set aside the clothes until after the Ninth of Av. And our fine laundering [gihutz] in Babylonia is like their plain laundering in Eretz Yisrael. But our plain washing in Babylonia is not considered laundering at all, and it is permitted. And with regard to linen garments, the process of fine laundry does not apply to them, as this category applies only to woolen garments. In any case, this baraita indicates that laundering clothes and setting them aside is prohibited, which means it is a conclusive refutation of the opinion of Rav Naḥman.
שְׁלַח רַב יִצְחָק בַּר גִּיּוֹרֵי מִשְּׁמֵיהּ דְּרַבִּי יוֹחָנָן: אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁאָמְרוּ כְּלֵי פִשְׁתָּן אֵין בָּהֶם מִשּׁוּם גִּהוּץ, אֲבָל אָסוּר לְלוֹבְשָׁן בְּשַׁבָּת שֶׁחָל תִּשְׁעָה בְּאָב לִהְיוֹת בְּתוֹכָהּ. Rav Yitzḥak bar Giyorei sent in the name of Rabbi Yoḥanan: Although the Sages said that with regard to linen garments, the process of fine laundry does not apply to them; still, it is prohibited to wear them during the week in which the Ninth of Av occurs.
אָמַר רַב: לֹא שָׁנוּ אֶלָּא לְפָנָיו, אֲבָל לְאַחֲרָיו — מוּתָּר. וּשְׁמוּאֵל אָמַר: אֲפִילּוּ לְאַחֲרָיו נָמֵי אָסוּר. מֵיתִיבִי: שַׁבָּת שֶׁחָל תִּשְׁעָה בְּאָב לִהְיוֹת בְּתוֹכָהּ — אָסוּר לְסַפֵּר וּלְכַבֵּס, וּבַחֲמִישִׁי — מוּתָּרִין מִפְּנֵי כְּבוֹד הַשַּׁבָּת. כֵּיצַד? חָל לִהְיוֹת בְּאֶחָד בְּשַׁבָּת — מוּתָּר לְכַבֵּס כׇּל הַשַּׁבָּת כּוּלָּהּ. With regard to these restrictions and prohibitions, which apply during the week of the Ninth of Av, Rav said: They taught that these prohibitions apply only before the Ninth of Av, but after the fast laundering is permitted. And Shmuel said: Even after the Ninth of Av, laundering is also prohibited until the end of the week. The Gemara raises an objection: During the week in which the Ninth of Av occurs, it is prohibited to cut one’s hair and to launder clothes, but on Thursday these actions are permitted in deference to Shabbat. How so? If the Ninth of Av occurs on a Sunday, it is permitted to launder the entire preceding week.
בַּשֵּׁנִי בַּשְּׁלִישִׁי בָּרְבִיעִי וּבַחֲמִישִׁי, לְפָנָיו — אָסוּר, לְאַחֲרָיו — מוּתָּר. חָל לִהְיוֹת בְּעֶרֶב שַׁבָּת — מוּתָּר לְכַבֵּס בַּחֲמִישִׁי מִפְּנֵי כְּבוֹד הַשַּׁבָּת. וְאִם לֹא כִּבֵּס בַּחֲמִישִׁי בְּשַׁבָּת — מוּתָּר לְכַבֵּס בְּעֶרֶב שַׁבָּת מִן הַמִּנְחָה וּלְמַעְלָה. לָיֵיט עֲלַהּ אַבָּיֵי וְאִיתֵּימָא רַב אַחָא בַּר יַעֲקֹב, אַהָא. If the Ninth of Av occurs on a Monday, Tuesday, Wednesday, or Thursday, on the days before the Ninth of Av, laundering is prohibited, but after the fast it is permitted. If the Ninth of Av occurs on a Friday, it is permitted to launder on Thursday in deference to Shabbat. And if, for whatever reason, one did not launder on the Thursday of that week, he is permitted to launder on Friday from minḥa time onward, despite the fact that it is the Ninth of Av. Abaye, and some say Rav Aḥa bar Ya’akov, cursed those who do this.
חָל לִהְיוֹת בְּשֵׁנִי וּבַחֲמִישִׁי — קוֹרִין שְׁלֹשָׁה וּמַפְטִיר אֶחָד. בַּשְּׁלִישִׁי וּבָרְבִיעִי — קוֹרֵא אֶחָד וּמַפְטִיר אֶחָד. רַבִּי יוֹסֵי אוֹמֵר: לְעוֹלָם קוֹרִין שְׁלֹשָׁה וּמַפְטִיר אֶחָד. תְּיוּבְתָּא דִּשְׁמוּאֵל! The Gemara resumes its citation of the baraita: If the Ninth of Av occurs on a Monday or on a Thursday, three people are called to read from the Torah, as on a regular week, and one of them recites the portion from the Prophets. If the Ninth of Av occurs on a Tuesday or on a Wednesday, one individual reads the Torah and the same one recites the portion from the Prophets. Rabbi Yosei says: Actually, three people are called to read, no matter what day of the week it is, and one of them recites the portion from the Prophets for the Ninth of Av. In any case, the baraita apparently presents a conclusive refutation of the opinion of Shmuel, as it clearly states that one is permitted to launder during the weekdays following the Ninth of Av.
אָמַר לְךָ שְׁמוּאֵל: תַּנָּאֵי הִיא. דְּתַנְיָא: תִּשְׁעָה בְּאָב שֶׁחָל לִהְיוֹת בְּשַׁבָּת, וְכֵן עֶרֶב תִּשְׁעָה בְּאָב שֶׁחָל לִהְיוֹת בְּשַׁבָּת — אוֹכֵל וְשׁוֹתֶה כׇּל צָרְכּוֹ, וּמַעֲלֶה עַל שׁוּלְחָנוֹ אֲפִילּוּ כִּסְעוּדַת שְׁלֹמֹה בִּשְׁעָתוֹ. וְאָסוּר לְסַפֵּר וּלְכַבֵּס מֵרֹאשׁ חֹדֶשׁ וְעַד הַתַּעֲנִית, דִּבְרֵי רַבִּי מֵאִיר. רַבִּי יְהוּדָה אוֹמֵר: כׇּל הַחֹדֶשׁ כּוּלּוֹ אָסוּר. רַבָּן שִׁמְעוֹן בֶּן גַּמְלִיאֵל אוֹמֵר: אֵינוֹ אָסוּר אֶלָּא אוֹתָהּ שַׁבָּת בִּלְבָד. Shmuel could have said to you: This is a dispute between tanna’im, as it is taught in a baraita: In the case of the Ninth of Av that occurs on Shabbat, and so too, on the eve of the Ninth of Av that occurs on Shabbat, one need not reduce the amount of food he eats; rather, he may eat and drink as much as he requires and put on his table a meal even like that of King Solomon in his time. And it is prohibited to cut one’s hair and to launder from the New Moon until after the fast. This is the statement of Rabbi Meir. Rabbi Yehuda says: These activities are prohibited throughout the entire month. Rabban Shimon ben Gamliel says: They are prohibited only during that week of the Ninth of Av.
וְתַנְיָא אִידַּךְ: וְנוֹהֵג אֵבֶל מֵרֹאשׁ חֹדֶשׁ וְעַד הַתַּעֲנִית, דִּבְרֵי רַבִּי מֵאִיר. רַבִּי יְהוּדָה אוֹמֵר: כׇּל הַחֹדֶשׁ כּוּלּוֹ אָסוּר, רַבָּן שִׁמְעוֹן בֶּן גַּמְלִיאֵל אוֹמֵר: אֵינוֹ אָסוּר אֶלָּא אוֹתָהּ שַׁבָּת בִּלְבָד. And it is taught in another baraita: And one must observe the rites of mourning from the New Moon until after the fast; this is the statement of Rabbi Meir. Rabbi Yehuda says: These activities are prohibited throughout the entire month. Rabban Shimon ben Gamliel says: They are prohibited only during that week. These baraitot show that there are at least two tanna’im, Rabbi Yehuda and Rabban Shimon ben Gamliel, who prohibit certain activities even after the fast, like Shmuel.
אָמַר רַבִּי יוֹחָנָן: וּשְׁלׇשְׁתָּן מִקְרָא אֶחָד דָּרְשׁוּ, דִּכְתִיב: ״וְהִשְׁבַּתִּי כׇּל מְשׂוֹשָׂהּ חַגָּהּ חׇדְשָׁהּ וְשַׁבַּתָּהּ״. מַאן דְּאָמַר מֵרֹאשׁ חֹדֶשׁ וְעַד הַתַּעֲנִית — Rabbi Yoḥanan said: And all three of these tanna’im derived their opinions from one verse, from which they drew different conclusions, as it is written: “And I will cause all her mirth to cease, her Festival, her New Moon, and her Shabbat” (Hosea 2:13). The one who said that these activities are prohibited from the New Moon until after the fast, Rabbi Meir,