כרבי מכלל דרבנן אסרי מ"ט מהרה יבנה בית המקדש ובעינן כהן הראוי לעבודה וליכא הכא אפשר דמספר ועייל
It is in accordance with the opinion of Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi. From the fact that Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi permits priests to drink wine, it may be inferred that the Rabbis prohibit it even nowadays. Why, then, isn’t it prohibited for priests to grow their hair as well? The Gemara explains: What is the reason for the prohibition? It is due to the hope: May the Temple be speedily rebuilt, and we will require a priest who is fit for the Temple service, and there will be none available, as they have all imbibed wine. The time that it will take for the effects of the wine to wear off will delay the Temple service considerably. Here, however, with regard to hair, it is possible for a priest to cut his hair and be ready to enter and perform the Temple service with minimal delay.
אי הכי שתוי יין נמי אפשר דגני פורתא ועייל כדרמי בר אבא דאמר רמי בר אבא דרך מיל ושינה כל שהוא מפיגין את היין לאו מי איתמר עלה אמר רב נחמן אמר רבה בר אבוה לא שנו אלא כששתה שיעור רביעית אבל שתה יותר מרביעית כל שכן שדרך מטרידתו ושינה משכרתו
The Gemara asks: If so, with regard to those who have drunk wine too, it is possible for him to sleep a little and then enter, in accordance with the opinion of Rami bar Abba, as Rami bar Abba said: Walking a distance of a mil, and similarly, sleeping even a minimal amount, will dispel the effect of wine that one has drunk. The Gemara rejects this proof: Wasn’t it stated about this halakha that Rav Naḥman said that Rabba bar Avuh said: They taught this only with regard to one who has drunk the measure of a quarter-log of wine, but with regard to one who has drunk more than a quarter-log, walking this distance will preoccupy and exhaust him all the more, and a small amount of sleep will further intoxicate him. For this reason, it is prohibited for priests to drink wine, lest no suitable priest will be ready for the Temple service.
רב אשי אמר שתויי יין דמחלי עבודה גזרו בהו רבנן פרועי ראש דלא מחלי עבודה לא גזרו בהו רבנן
Rav Ashi said that there is a different way to distinguish between these two halakhot. In the case of those who have drunk wine, who desecrate the Temple service, the Sages issued a decree concerning them, that priests should not drink wine even nowadays. However, with regard to those who have long hair, who do not desecrate the Temple service, the Sages did not issue a decree concerning them.
מיתיבי ואלו שהן במיתה שתויי יין ופרועי ראש בשלמא שתויי יין בהדיא כתיב בהו (ויקרא י, ט) יין ושכר אל תשת אלא פרועי ראש מנלן
The Gemara raises an objection from a baraita: And these are the transgressors who are punished by death at the hand of Heaven: Priests who enter the Temple to serve who have drunk wine, and those priests who have long hair while they serve. The Gemara asks: Granted, those who have drunk wine are punished by death, as it is explicitly written: “Drink no wine nor strong drink, neither you nor your sons with you, when you enter the Tent of Meeting, that you should not die” (Leviticus 10:9). However, with regard to those priests who have long hair, from where do we derive that they are punishable by death?
דכתיב (יחזקאל מד, כ) וראשם לא יגלחו ופרע לא ישלחו וכתיב בתריה ויין לא ישתו כל כהן בבאם אל החצר הפנימית ואיתקוש פרועי ראש לשתויי יין מה שתויי יין במיתה אף פרועי ראש במיתה
The Gemara answers that this is as it is written: “Neither shall they shave their heads, nor suffer their locks [pera] to grow long” (Ezekiel 44:20), and it is written immediately afterward: “Neither shall any priest drink wine when they enter the inner courtyard” (Ezekiel 44:21). And in this manner the prohibition concerning those who have long hair is juxtaposed with the prohibition concerning those who have drunk wine, to teach the following: Just as those who have drunk wine and perform the Temple service are subject to death, so too, those who have long hair are punishable by death.
ומינה אי מה שתויי יין דמחלי עבודה אף פרועי ראש דמחלי עבודה (לא כי איתקוש למיתה הוא דאיתקוש אבל לאחולי עבודה לא איתקוש)
The Gemara raises a difficulty: And from this comparison one can also argue as follows: If so, just as those who have drunk wine desecrate the Temple service, so too, those who have long hair desecrate the service. The Gemara rejects this contention: No, when the two cases were juxtaposed, it was with regard to death that they were juxtaposed. However, as for desecrating the Temple service, in this regard they were not juxtaposed. Consequently, Rav Ashi’s distinction concerning the practical application of these two halakhot still applies.
א"ל רבינא לרב אשי הא מקמי דאתא יחזקאל מאן אמרה א"ל וליטעמיך הא דאמר רב חסדא דבר זה מתורת משה לא למדנו ומדברי קבלה למדנו (יחזקאל מד, ט) כל בן נכר ערל לב וערל בשר לא יבוא אל מקדשי (לשרתני) הא מקמי דאתא יחזקאל מאן אמרה
On this issue, Ravina said to Rav Ashi: Before Ezekiel came and stated this halakha, who said it? From where was it derived before Ezekiel that priests may not serve with long hair? This prohibition, which is not mentioned in the Torah, could not have been innovated by Ezekiel, as prophets may not enact new halakhot. Rav Ashi said to him: And according to your reasoning, there is a similar difficulty with that which Rabbi Ḥisda said: This matter, that an uncircumcised priest may not serve in the Temple, we did not learn it from the Torah of Moses, but we learned it from the text of the tradition, i.e., Prophets and Writings: “No stranger, uncircumcised in heart or uncircumcised in flesh, shall enter my Temple” (Ezekiel 44:9). Before Ezekiel came, who said that it is prohibited for an uncircumcised priest to serve?
אלא גמרא גמיר לה ואתא יחזקאל ואסמכה אקרא הכא נמי גמרא גמיר לה ואתא יחזקאל ואסמכה אקרא (כי גמירי הלכה למיתה לאחולי עבודה לא גמירי):
Rather, you must say that it is learned as a definite tradition, like the rest of the Oral Torah, and Ezekiel came and supported it by means of a verse in his book. He did not, however, teach this halakha anew. Here too, with regard to a priest with long hair, it is learned as a tradition, and Ezekiel came and supported it by a verse. And when they learned this halakha, they learned only that one is punishable by death; however, with regard to desecrating the Temple service, they did not learn this halakha.
כל הכתוב במגילת תענית דלא למיספד לפניו אסור לאחריו מותר: תנו רבנן אלין יומיא דלא להתענאה בהון ומקצתהון דלא למיספד בהון מריש ירחא דניסן ועד תמניא ביה איתוקם תמידא דלא למיספד בהון מתמניא ביה עד סוף מועדא איתותב חגא דשבועיא דלא למיספד בהון
§ The mishna teaches: Any day concerning which it is written in Megillat Ta’anit not to eulogize on that day, it is also prohibited to fast on the day before, but it is permitted to do so on the following day. The Sages taught in Megillat Ta’anit: These are the days on which fasting is prohibited, and on some of them eulogizing is prohibited as well: From the New Moon of Nisan until the eighth of the month, the proper sacrifice of the daily offering was established, and therefore it was decreed not to eulogize on these dates. From the eighth of Nisan until the end of the festival of Passover, the festival of Shavuot was restored and it was likewise decreed not to eulogize during this period.
אמר מר מריש ירחא דניסן עד תמניא ביה איתוקם תמידא דלא למיספד למה לי מריש ירחא לימא מתרי בניסן ור"ח גופיה יו"ט הוא ואסור אמר רב לא נצרכה אלא לאסור יום שלפניו
The Gemara seeks to clarify these statements by comparing them to the ruling of the mishna. The Master said above: From the New Moon of Nisan until the eighth of the month, the daily offering was established, and therefore it was decreed not to eulogize on these dates. The Gemara asks: Why do I need Megillat Ta’anit to say: From the New Moon? Let it say: From the second of Nisan, as the New Moon is itself a holiday, and it is already prohibited to eulogize on that day. Rav said: It is necessary to mention the New Moon of Nisan only to prohibit eulogizing on the day before, in accordance with the statement in Megillat Ta’anit that fasting on the day before any of the specified commemorative days is also prohibited.
ושלפניו נמי תיפוק ליה דהוה ליה יום שלפני ראש חדש ר"ח דאורייתא הוא ודאוריית' לא בעי חיזוק
The Gemara asks: And with regard to the day before the New Moon of Nisan as well, one can derive the prohibition against eulogizing on this day from the fact that it is the day before the New Moon. Since it is prohibited to fast on the New Moon, it is likewise prohibited on the day before. The Gemara answers that as the New Moon is by Torah law and a Torah law requires no reinforcement, it is permitted to fast on the previous day.
דתניא הימים האלה הכתובין במגילת תענית לפניהם ולאחריהם אסורין שבתות וימים טובים הן אסורין לפניהן ולאחריהן מותרין ומה הפרש בין זה לזה הללו דברי תורה ודברי תורה אין צריכין חיזוק הללו דברי סופרים ודברי סופרים צריכין חיזוק
As it is taught in a baraita: With regard to these days that are written in Megillat Ta’anit, it is prohibited to fast before them and after them. However, concerning Shabbatot and Festivals, fasting on those days is prohibited, but before them and after them fasting is permitted. And what is the difference between this and that? These, Shabbat and Festivals, are statements of Torah, and statements of Torah do not require reinforcement, whereas these days mentioned in Megillat Ta’anit are statements of rabbinic law, and statements of rabbinic law require reinforcement.
אמר מר מתמניא ביה עד סוף מועדא איתותב חגא דשבועיא דלא למיספד למה לי עד סוף מועד לימא עד המועד ומועד גופיה יום טוב הוא ואסור אמר רב פפא כדאמר רב לא נצרכא
§ The Master said above: From the eighth of Nisan until the end of the festival of Passover, the festival of Shavuot was restored and it was decreed not to eulogize. The Gemara asks: Why do I need Megillat Ta’anit to say: Until the end of the Festival? Let it say: Until the Festival, as it is anyway prohibited to eulogize on the festival of Passover. Rav Pappa said that this, too, should be explained as Rav said: It is necessary to mention the first of Nisan