וּבְיָמִים טוֹבִים הַכְּתוּבִין בִּמְגִילַּת תַּעֲנִית. and for commemorative holidays that are written in Megillat Ta’anit, which contains a list of dates on which the Sages prohibited fasting.
תָּנוּ רַבָּנַן: אַל יֹאמַר אָדָם תַּלְמִיד אֲנִי, אֵינִי רָאוּי לִהְיוֹת יָחִיד, אֶלָּא: כׇּל תַּלְמִידֵי חֲכָמִים יְחִידִים. אֵיזֶהוּ יָחִיד וְאֵיזֶהוּ תַּלְמִיד? יָחִיד — כֹּל שֶׁרָאוּי לְמַנּוֹתוֹ פַּרְנָס עַל הַצִּבּוּר, תַּלְמִיד — כׇּל שֶׁשּׁוֹאֲלִין אוֹתוֹ דָּבָר הֲלָכָה בְּתַלְמוּדוֹ וְאוֹמֵר, וַאֲפִילּוּ בְּמַסֶּכְתָּא דְכַלָּה. The Sages taught in a baraita: A person should not say: I am only a student, and consequently I am unworthy to be considered an individual who fasts, as stated in the mishna. Rather, with regard to the fasts of individuals, all Torah scholars are individuals. The baraita elaborates: Who is an individual and who is a student? An individual is anyone who is learned in Torah and worthy to be appointed leader and teacher over the community. A student is any Torah scholar who is asked a matter of halakha in his studies and he says the correct answer, and this is the case even if he is familiar only with the tractate of the kalla month, i.e., the tractate the community studied that year.
תָּנוּ רַבָּנַן: לֹא כׇּל הָרוֹצֶה לַעֲשׂוֹת עַצְמוֹ יָחִיד עוֹשֶׂה, תַּלְמִיד — עוֹשֶׂה, דִּבְרֵי רַבִּי מֵאִיר. רַבִּי יוֹסֵי אוֹמֵר: עוֹשֶׂה, וְזָכוּר לַטּוֹב, לְפִי שֶׁאֵין שֶׁבַח הוּא לוֹ, אֶלָּא צַעַר הוּא לוֹ. The Sages taught in another baraita: Not everyone who wishes to make himself an individual and conduct himself accordingly may do so, and nor may everyone who wants to act like a student do so. This is the statement of Rabbi Meir. Rabbi Yosei says: One may do so, and he is even remembered for good, as the conduct of a Torah student is not a source of praise for him, but it is a source of pain for him. It is proper for one to take these obligations upon himself and he is not considered to be acting inappropriately.
תַּנְיָא אִידַּךְ: לֹא כׇּל הָרוֹצֶה לַעֲשׂוֹת עַצְמוֹ יָחִיד עוֹשֶׂה, תַּלְמִיד — עוֹשֶׂה, דִּבְרֵי רַבִּי שִׁמְעוֹן בֶּן אֶלְעָזָר. רַבָּן שִׁמְעוֹן בֶּן גַּמְלִיאֵל אוֹמֵר: בַּמֶּה דְּבָרִים אֲמוּרִים: בְּדָבָר שֶׁל שֶׁבַח, אֲבָל בְּדָבָר שֶׁל צַעַר — עוֹשֶׂה, וְזָכוּר לַטּוֹב, שֶׁאֵין שֶׁבַח הוּא לוֹ, אֶלָּא צַעַר הוּא לוֹ. It is taught in another baraita: Not everyone who wishes to make himself an individual may do so, and nor may everyone who wishes to act like a student do so. This is the statement of Rabbi Shimon ben Elazar. Rabban Shimon ben Gamliel says: In what case is this statement said? It is said with regard to a matter of praise, e.g., adorning oneself with the garments of a Torah scholar. However, with regard to a matter of pain, when Torah scholars act strictly, one may do so, and one who acts strictly is remembered for good, as it is not a source of praise for him, but it is a source of pain for him.
תָּנוּ רַבָּנַן: מִי שֶׁהָיָה מִתְעַנֶּה עַל הַצָּרָה וְעָבְרָה, עַל הַחוֹלֶה וְנִתְרַפֵּא — הֲרֵי זֶה מִתְעַנֶּה וּמַשְׁלִים. הַהוֹלֵךְ מִמְּקוֹם שֶׁאֵין מִתְעַנִּין לִמְקוֹם שֶׁמִּתְעַנִּין — הֲרֵי זֶה מִתְעַנֶּה עִמָּהֶן. מִמְּקוֹם שֶׁמִּתְעַנִּין לִמְקוֹם שֶׁאֵין מִתְעַנִּין — הֲרֵי זֶה מִתְעַנֶּה וּמַשְׁלִים. The Sages taught in a baraita: With regard to one who was fasting for a certain trouble and the trouble passed, or if one was fasting for the recovery of a sick person and that person was healed, one may not cease his fast merely because its cause has been removed; rather, he completes his fast. The baraita continues: With regard to one who goes from a place where they are not fasting to a place where they are fasting, he fasts with them. Conversely, with regard to one who goes from a place where they are fasting to a place where they are not fasting, he completes his fast as a resident of his hometown.
שָׁכַח וְאָכַל וְשָׁתָה — אַל יִתְרָאֶה בִּפְנֵי הַצִּבּוּר, וְאַל יַנְהִיג עִידּוּנִין בְּעַצְמוֹ, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר: ״וַיֹּאמֶר יַעֲקֹב לְבָנָיו לָמָּה תִּתְרָאוּ״, אָמַר לָהֶם יַעֲקֹב לְבָנָיו: אַל תַּרְאוּ עַצְמְכֶם כְּשֶׁאַתֶּם שְׂבֵעִין, לֹא בִּפְנֵי עֵשָׂו וְלֹא בִּפְנֵי יִשְׁמָעֵאל, כְּדֵי שֶׁלֹּא יִתְקַנְּאוּ בָּכֶם. With regard to one who forgot the fast and ate and drank, he should not show himself before the community while satiated, and he should not indulge in luxuries. One should not think that because one has already eaten, his fast is completely nullified, and one may conduct himself as if it were not a fast day at all. Rather, one should minimize one’s eating, as it is stated: “And Jacob said to his sons: Why do you show yourselves?” (Genesis 42:1). Jacob said to his sons: Do not show yourselves when you are satiated, not before the members of the house of Esau, nor before those of Ishmael, so that they not be jealous of you, as they suffer from hunger. This teaches that one should not show he is full when others are hungry.
״אַל תִּרְגְּזוּ בַּדָּרֶךְ״, אָמַר רַבִּי אֶלְעָזָר, אָמַר לָהֶם יוֹסֵף לְאֶחָיו: אַל תִּתְעַסְּקוּ בִּדְבַר הֲלָכָה, שֶׁמָּא תְּרַגְּזוּ עֲלֵיכֶם הַדֶּרֶךְ. § The Gemara presents another piece of advice related to the story of Joseph and his brothers. Joseph said to them: “See that you not fall out by the way” (Genesis 45:24). Rabbi Elazar said that Joseph said to his brothers: Do not become occupied in a matter of halakha, lest you fall out on the way. If you discuss a halakha while traveling you might get into an argument, and it is important for travelers to remain on good terms.
אִינִי? וְהָאָמַר רַבִּי אִלְעַאי בַּר בֶּרֶכְיָה: שְׁנֵי תַּלְמִידֵי חֲכָמִים שֶׁמְּהַלְּכִים בַּדֶּרֶךְ וְאֵין בֵּינֵיהֶן דִּבְרֵי תוֹרָה — רְאוּיִין לִישָּׂרֵף, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר: ״וַיְהִי הֵמָּה הֹלְכִים הָלוֹךְ וְדַבֵּר וְהִנֵּה רֶכֶב אֵשׁ וְסוּסֵי אֵשׁ וַיַּפְרִדוּ בֵּין שְׁנֵיהֶם״, טַעְמָא דְּאִיכָּא דִּיבּוּר, הָא לֵיכָּא דִּיבּוּר — רְאוּיִין לִישָּׂרֵף! The Gemara asks: Is that so? But didn’t Rabbi Elai bar Berekhya say: With regard to two Torah scholars who are walking along the road and there are no Torah matters discussed between them, they are worthy of being burned, as it is stated: “And it came to pass, as they still went on, and talked, that, behold, there appeared a chariot of fire, and horses of fire, which parted them both asunder” (II Kings 2:11). The reason that the chariot of fire did not harm Elisha is because there was a Torah matter between them, from which it may be inferred that had they not been discussing a Torah matter, they would have been worthy of being burned.
לָא קַשְׁיָא: הָא — לְמִיגְרַס, הָא — לְעַיּוֹנֵי. The Gemara answers: This is not difficult. This opinion of Rabbi Elai bar Berekhya is referring to studying by rote, by reviewing material one has already learned, which is permitted and even appropriate while traveling, whereas that opinion of Rabbi Elazar is referring to examining a halakha in depth, in which case it is likely that the scholars will come into conflict.
בְּמַתְנִיתָא תָּנָא: אַל תַּפְסִיעוּ פְּסִיעָה גַּסָּה, וְהַכְנִיסוּ חַמָּה לָעִיר. אַל תַּפְסִיעוּ פְּסִיעָה גַּסָּה — דְּאָמַר מָר: פְּסִיעָה גַּסָּה נוֹטֶלֶת אֶחָד מֵחֲמֵשׁ מֵאוֹת מִמְּאוֹר עֵינָיו שֶׁל אָדָם. It is taught in a baraita that Joseph said to his brothers: Do not take long strides and bring the sun into the city, i.e., you should enter the city to spend the night there before the sun has set. The Gemara elaborates: Do not take long strides, as the Master said: A long stride takes away one five-hundredth of a person’s eyesight, and this loss is not worth the time saved.
וְהַכְנִיסוּ חַמָּה לָעִיר — כִּדְרַב יְהוּדָה אָמַר רַב. דְּאָמַר רַב יְהוּדָה אָמַר רַב: לְעוֹלָם יֵצֵא אָדָם בְּ״כִי טוֹב״ וְיִכָּנֵס בְּ״כִי טוֹב״, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר: ״הַבֹּקֶר אוֹר וְהָאֲנָשִׁים שֻׁלְּחוּ״. The Gemara further explains: And bring the sun into the city, this is in accordance with a statement that Rav Yehuda said that Rav said. As Rav Yehuda said that Rav said: A person should always leave the place where he has spent the night with “it is good” (Genesis 1:4), i.e., after sunrise, as the Torah uses the expression “it is good” with regard to the creation of light. This goodness is manifest in the sense of security one feels when it is light. And likewise, when one comes into an unfamiliar city he should enter with “it is good,” before sunset, as it is stated: “As soon as the morning was light, the men were sent away” (Genesis 44:3).
אָמַר רַב יְהוּדָה אָמַר רַבִּי חִיָּיא: הַמְהַלֵּךְ בַּדֶּרֶךְ — אַל יֹאכַל יוֹתֵר מִשְּׁנֵי רְעָבוֹן. מַאי טַעְמָא? הָכָא תַּרְגִּימוּ: מִשּׁוּם מַעְיָינָא. בְּמַעְרְבָא אָמְרִי: מִשּׁוּם מְזוֹנֵי. מַאי בֵּינַיְיהוּ? אִיכָּא בֵּינַיְיהוּ, Similarly, Rav Yehuda said that Rabbi Ḥiyya said: One who is walking along the road should not eat more each day than he would normally eat each day in a year of famine. The Gemara asks: What is the reason for this? Here in Babylonia they interpreted that the reason is due to one’s bowels. Since the exertion of traveling can damage full bowels, it is preferable to eat less than the normal amount. In the West, Eretz Yisrael, they say that the reason is due to food, i.e., if one eats too much, his food may not last the entire journey, and therefore he should ration his meals. The Gemara asks: What is the practical difference between these two opinions? The Gemara answers: The practical difference between them