ובימים טובים הכתובין במגילת תענית
and for commemorative holidays that are written in Megillat Ta’anit, which contains a list of dates on which the Sages prohibited fasting.
תנו רבנן אל יאמר אדם תלמיד אני איני ראוי להיות יחיד אלא כל תלמידי חכמים יחידים אי זהו יחיד ואיזהו תלמיד יחיד כל שראוי למנותו פרנס על הצבור תלמיד כל ששואלין אותו דבר הלכה בלמודו ואומר ואפילו במסכת דכלה
The Sages taught in a baraita: A person should not say: I am only a student, and consequently I am unworthy to be considered an individual who fasts, as stated in the mishna. Rather, with regard to the fasts of individuals, all Torah scholars are individuals. The baraita elaborates: Who is an individual and who is a student? An individual is anyone who is learned in Torah and worthy to be appointed leader and teacher over the community. A student is any Torah scholar who is asked a matter of halakha in his studies and he says the correct answer, and this is the case even if he is familiar only with the tractate of the kalla month, i.e., the tractate the community studied that year.
תנו רבנן לא כל הרוצה לעשות עצמו יחיד עושה תלמיד עושה דברי ר' מאיר רבי יוסי אומר עושה וזכור לטוב לפי שאין שבח הוא לו אלא צער הוא לו
The Sages taught in another baraita: Not everyone who wishes to make himself an individual and conduct himself accordingly may do so, and nor may everyone who wants to act like a student do so. This is the statement of Rabbi Meir. Rabbi Yosei says: One may do so, and he is even remembered for good, as the conduct of a Torah student is not a source of praise for him, but it is a source of pain for him. It is proper for one to take these obligations upon himself and he is not considered to be acting inappropriately.
תניא אידך לא כל הרוצה לעשות עצמו יחיד עושה תלמיד עושה דברי רבי שמעון בן אלעזר רבן שמעון בן גמליאל אומר במה דברים אמורים בדבר של שבח אבל בדבר של צער עושה וזכור לטוב שאין שבח הוא לו אלא צער הוא לו
It is taught in another baraita: Not everyone who wishes to make himself an individual may do so, and nor may everyone who wishes to act like a student do so. This is the statement of Rabbi Shimon ben Elazar. Rabban Shimon ben Gamliel says: In what case is this statement said? It is said with regard to a matter of praise, e.g., adorning oneself with the garments of a Torah scholar. However, with regard to a matter of pain, when Torah scholars act strictly, one may do so, and one who acts strictly is remembered for good, as it is not a source of praise for him, but it is a source of pain for him.
ת"ר מי שהיה מתענה על הצרה ועברה על החולה ונתרפא הרי זה מתענה ומשלים ההולך ממקום שאין מתענין למקום שמתענין הרי זה מתענה עמהן ממקום שמתענין למקום שאין מתענין הרי זה מתענה ומשלים
The Sages taught in a baraita: With regard to one who was fasting for a certain trouble and the trouble passed, or if one was fasting for the recovery of a sick person and that person was healed, one may not cease his fast merely because its cause has been removed; rather, he completes his fast. The baraita continues: With regard to one who goes from a place where they are not fasting to a place where they are fasting, he fasts with them. Conversely, with regard to one who goes from a place where they are fasting to a place where they are not fasting, he completes his fast as a resident of his hometown.
שכח ואכל ושתה אל יתראה בפני הצבור ואל ינהיג עידונין בעצמו שנאמר (בראשית מב, א) ויאמר יעקב לבניו למה תתראו אמר להם יעקב לבניו אל תראו עצמכם כשאתם שבעין לא בפני עשו ולא בפני ישמעאל כדי שלא יתקנאו בכם
With regard to one who forgot the fast and ate and drank, he should not show himself before the community while satiated, and he should not indulge in luxuries. One should not think that because one has already eaten, his fast is completely nullified, and one may conduct himself as if it were not a fast day at all. Rather, one should minimize one’s eating, as it is stated: “And Jacob said to his sons: Why do you show yourselves?” (Genesis 42:1). Jacob said to his sons: Do not show yourselves when you are satiated, not before the members of the house of Esau, nor before those of Ishmael, so that they not be jealous of you, as they suffer from hunger. This teaches that one should not show he is full when others are hungry.
(בראשית מה, כד) אל תרגזו בדרך אמר רבי אלעזר אמר להם יוסף לאחיו אל תתעסקו בדבר הלכה שמא תרגזו עליכם הדרך
§ The Gemara presents another piece of advice related to the story of Joseph and his brothers. Joseph said to them: “See that you not fall out by the way” (Genesis 45:24). Rabbi Elazar said that Joseph said to his brothers: Do not become occupied in a matter of halakha, lest you fall out on the way. If you discuss a halakha while traveling you might get into an argument, and it is important for travelers to remain on good terms.
איני והאמר ר' אלעאי בר ברכיה שני תלמידי חכמים שמהלכים בדרך ואין ביניהן דברי תורה ראויין לישרף שנאמר (מלכים ב ב, יא) ויהי המה הולכים (הולך) ודבר והנה רכב אש וסוסי אש ויפרידו בין שניהם טעמא דאיכא דיבור הא ליכא דיבור ראויין לישרף
The Gemara asks: Is that so? But didn’t Rabbi Elai bar Berekhya say: With regard to two Torah scholars who are walking along the road and there are no Torah matters discussed between them, they are worthy of being burned, as it is stated: “And it came to pass, as they still went on, and talked, that, behold, there appeared a chariot of fire, and horses of fire, which parted them both asunder” (II Kings 2:11). The reason that the chariot of fire did not harm Elisha is because there was a Torah matter between them, from which it may be inferred that had they not been discussing a Torah matter, they would have been worthy of being burned.
לא קשיא הא למיגרס הא לעיוני
The Gemara answers: This is not difficult. This opinion of Rabbi Elai bar Berekhya is referring to studying by rote, by reviewing material one has already learned, which is permitted and even appropriate while traveling, whereas that opinion of Rabbi Elazar is referring to examining a halakha in depth, in which case it is likely that the scholars will come into conflict.
במתניתא תנא אל תפסיעו פסיעה גסה והכניסו חמה לעיר אל תפסיעו פסיעה גסה דאמר מר פסיעה גסה נוטלת אחד מחמש מאות ממאור עיניו של אדם
It is taught in a baraita that Joseph said to his brothers: Do not take long strides and bring the sun into the city, i.e., you should enter the city to spend the night there before the sun has set. The Gemara elaborates: Do not take long strides, as the Master said: A long stride takes away one five-hundredth of a person’s eyesight, and this loss is not worth the time saved.
והכניסו חמה לעיר כדרב יהודה אמר רב דאמר רב יהודה אמר רב לעולם יצא אדם בכי טוב ויכנס בכי טוב שנאמר (בראשית מד, ג) הבקר אור והאנשים שלחו
The Gemara further explains: And bring the sun into the city, this is in accordance with a statement that Rav Yehuda said that Rav said. As Rav Yehuda said that Rav said: A person should always leave the place where he has spent the night with “it is good” (Genesis 1:4), i.e., after sunrise, as the Torah uses the expression “it is good” with regard to the creation of light. This goodness is manifest in the sense of security one feels when it is light. And likewise, when one comes into an unfamiliar city he should enter with “it is good,” before sunset, as it is stated: “As soon as the morning was light, the men were sent away” (Genesis 44:3).
אמר רב יהודה אמר רבי חייא המהלך בדרך אל יאכל יותר משני רעבון מאי טעמא הכא תרגימו משום מעיינא במערבא אמרי משום מזוני מאי בינייהו איכא בינייהו
Similarly, Rav Yehuda said that Rabbi Ḥiyya said: One who is walking along the road should not eat more each day than he would normally eat each day in a year of famine. The Gemara asks: What is the reason for this? Here in Babylonia they interpreted that the reason is due to one’s bowels. Since the exertion of traveling can damage full bowels, it is preferable to eat less than the normal amount. In the West, Eretz Yisrael, they say that the reason is due to food, i.e., if one eats too much, his food may not last the entire journey, and therefore he should ration his meals. The Gemara asks: What is the practical difference between these two opinions? The Gemara answers: The practical difference between them