מַתְנִי׳ סוּכָּה יְשָׁנָה — בֵּית שַׁמַּאי פּוֹסְלִין וּבֵית הִלֵּל מַכְשִׁירִין. וְאֵיזוֹ הִיא סוּכָּה יְשָׁנָה, כׇּל שֶׁעֲשָׂאָהּ קוֹדֶם לֶחָג שְׁלֹשִׁים יוֹם. אֲבָל אִם עֲשָׂאָהּ לְשֵׁם חַג, אֲפִילּוּ מִתְּחִילַּת הַשָּׁנָה — כְּשֵׁרָה. MISHNA: With regard to an old sukka, Beit Shammai deem it unfit for the mitzva of sukka and Beit Hillel deem it fit. And which is considered an old sukka? It is any booth that one established thirty days or more prior to the Festival without expressly designating that it was for the mitzva of sukka. In that case, the assumption is that he constructed it for some other purpose. However, if he established it expressly for the sake of the festival of Sukkot, even if he constructed it at the beginning of the previous year, it is fit for use in the fulfillment of the mitzva of sukka, even according to Beit Shammai.
גְּמָ׳ מַאי טַעְמַיְיהוּ דְּבֵית שַׁמַּאי? אָמַר קְרָא: ״חַג הַסּוּכּוֹת שִׁבְעַת יָמִים לַה׳״, סוּכָּה הָעֲשׂוּיָה לְשֵׁם חַג בָּעֵינַן. GEMARA: The Gemara asks: What is the rationale for the opinion of Beit Shammai? The Gemara explains that it is as the verse states: “The festival of Sukkot is seven days unto the Lord” (Leviticus 23:34), indicating that we require a sukka established for the sake of the Festival. A sukka not constructed expressly for the Festival is unfit.
וּבֵית הִלֵּל? הַהוּא מִיבְּעֵי לֵיהּ לְכִדְרַב שֵׁשֶׁת. דְּאָמַר רַב שֵׁשֶׁת מִשּׁוּם רַבִּי עֲקִיבָא: מִנַּיִן לַעֲצֵי סוּכָּה שֶׁאֲסוּרִין כׇּל שִׁבְעָה — תַּלְמוּד לוֹמַר: ״חַג הַסּוּכּוֹת שִׁבְעַת יָמִים לַה׳״, The Gemara asks: And how do Beit Hillel interpret this verse? The Gemara answers: In Beit Hillel’s opinion, that verse is necessary to teach in accordance with the statement of Rav Sheshet, as Rav Sheshet said in the name of Rabbi Akiva: From where is it derived that use of the wood of the sukka is prohibited for any purpose other than for the sukka all seven days of the Festival, and it is designated exclusively for the mitzva? It is derived as the verse states: “The festival of Sukkot is seven days unto the Lord.”
וְתַנְיָא, רַבִּי יְהוּדָה בֶּן בְּתִירָה אוֹמֵר: כְּשֵׁם שֶׁחָל שֵׁם שָׁמַיִם עַל הַחֲגִיגָה, כָּךְ חָל שֵׁם שָׁמַיִם עַל הַסּוּכָּה, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר: ״חַג הַסּוּכּוֹת שִׁבְעַת יָמִים לַה׳״, מָה חַג לַה׳ — אַף סוּכָּה לַה׳. And it is taught in a baraita in explanation that Rabbi Yehuda ben Beteira says: Just as the name of Heaven takes effect upon the Festival peace-offering, so too, the name of Heaven takes effect upon the sukka, as it is stated: “The festival of Sukkot is seven days unto the Lord”; just as the Festival offering is consecrated to the Lord, so too, the sukka is consecrated to the Lord.
וּבֵית שַׁמַּאי נָמֵי מִיבְּעֵי לֵיהּ לְהָכִי! אִין הָכִי נָמֵי, The Gemara asks: But don’t Beit Shammai require the verse to derive this halakha as well? The Gemara answers: Yes, indeed it is so that Beit Shammai derives the sanctity of the wood of the sukka from this verse. Therefore, the rationale for their opinion with regard to an old sukka must be based on a different verse.
אֶלָּא מַאי טַעְמַיְיהוּ דְּבֵית שַׁמַּאי — כְּתִיב קְרָא אַחֲרִינָא: ״חַג הַסּוּכּוֹת תַּעֲשֶׂה לְךָ שִׁבְעַת יָמִים״, סוּכָּה הָעֲשׂוּיָה לְשֵׁם חַג בָּעֵינַן. Rather, what is the rationale for the opinion of Beit Shammai with regard to an old sukka? Another verse is written: “You shall prepare for you the festival of Sukkot for seven days” (Deuteronomy 16:13), from which it is derived that we require a sukka established for the sake of the Festival.
וּבֵית הִלֵּל — הַהוּא מִיבְּעֵי לֵיהּ לְעוֹשִׂין סוּכָּה בְּחוּלּוֹ שֶׁל מוֹעֵד. The Gemara asks: And how do Beit Hillel interpret this verse? The Gemara answers: That verse is necessary to teach that one may establish a sukka even during the intermediate days of the Festival. If one failed to construct a sukka prior to the onset of the Festival, or if it collapsed during the Festival, he may establish it during the intermediate days, as the mitzva to establish a sukka is in effect for all seven days of the Festival.
וּבֵית שַׁמַּאי — סְבִירָא לְהוּ כְּרַבִּי אֱלִיעֶזֶר, דְּאָמַר: אֵין עוֹשִׂין סוּכָּה בְּחוּלּוֹ שֶׁל מוֹעֵד. The Gemara asks: And from where do Beit Shammai derive this halakha? They hold in accordance with the opinion of Rabbi Eliezer, who said: One may not establish a sukka during the intermediate days of the Festival. Therefore, the requirement to build the sukka for the sake of the mitzva may be derived from this verse.
וּבֵית הִלֵּל לֵית לְהוּ דְּרַב יְהוּדָה אָמַר רַב? דְּאָמַר רַב יְהוּדָה אָמַר רַב: עֲשָׂאָהּ מִן הַקּוֹצִין וּמִן הַנִּימִין וּמִן הַגְּרָדִין — פְּסוּלָה. מִן הַסִּיסִין — כְּשֵׁרָה, The Gemara proceeds to clarify Beit Hillel’s opinion: And do Beit Hillel not agree with the statement that Rav Yehuda said that Rav said? As Rav Yehuda said that Rav said: If one fashioned ritual fringes from hanging threads that remain protruding from the fabric like thorns after most of the superfluous threads were torn, and tied them into ritual fringes; or if he tied the fringes from threads that hang down after sewing; or if he tied them from the fringes [geradin] that hang from the bottom of a garment, the ritual fringes are unfit for fulfilling the mitzva. However, if the ritual fringes were tied from balls of thread that were not spun for the sake of the mitzva, they are fit.
כִּי אַמְרִיתַהּ קַמֵּיהּ דִּשְׁמוּאֵל, אָמַר לִי: אַף מִן הַסִּיסִין נָמֵי פְּסוּלָה, (אַלְמָא) דְּבָעֵינַן טְוִיָּה לִשְׁמָהּ. הָכָא נָמֵי בָּעֵינַן סוּכָּה עֲשׂוּיָה לִשְׁמָהּ! And Rav Yehuda related: When I stated this halakha in the name of Rav before Shmuel, he said to me: Even ritual fringes tied from balls of thread are unfit, as we require the spinning of the thread to be for the sake of the mitzva. Just as the threads for the ritual fringes must be spun for the sake of the mitzva, here too, let us require a sukka established for the sake of the mitzva.
שָׁאנֵי הָתָם, דְּאָמַר קְרָא: ״גְּדִילִים תַּעֲשֶׂה לָךְ״, לָךְ — לְשֵׁם חוֹבָךְ. הָכָא נָמֵי: ״חַג הַסּוּכּוֹת תַּעֲשֶׂה לְךָ״, לָךְ — לְשֵׁם חוֹבָךְ! The Gemara answers: It is different there, as the verse states: “You shall prepare for you fringes” (Deuteronomy 22:12), from which it is derived: “For you,” for the sake of your obligation. The fringes, from the beginning of their production, must be produced for the sake of the mitzva. The Gemara asks: Here, too, with regard to sukka, the verse says: “You shall prepare for you the festival of Sukkot” (Deuteronomy 16:13). Shouldn’t it be derived: “For you,” for the sake of your obligation?
הַהוּא מִיבְּעֵי לֵיהּ לְמַעוֹטֵי גְּזוּלָה. הָתָם נָמֵי מִיבְּעֵי לֵיהּ לְמַעוֹטֵי גְּזוּלָה! The Gemara answers that this term “for you” is required to exclude use of a stolen sukka; establish the sukka for you, and do not use a sukka belonging to another. The Gemara asks: There, too, with regard to ritual fringes, isn’t the term “for you” required to exclude use of stolen ritual fringes?
הָתָם כְּתִיב קְרָא אַחֲרִינָא: ״וְעָשׂוּ לָהֶם״ — מִשֶּׁלָּהֶם. The Gemara answers: There, with regard to ritual fringes, another verse is written: “And they shall make for them ritual fringes” (Numbers 15:38), from which it is derived: “For them,” of their own, to exclude the use of stolen ritual fringes. Therefore from the term “for you,” it may be derived that ritual fringes must be produced for the sake of the mitzva.