מתני׳ יום טוב הראשון של חג היו שם י"ג פרים אילים שנים ושעיר אחד נשתיירו שם י"ד כבשים לשמונה משמרות ביום ראשון ששה מקריבין שנים שנים והשאר אחד אחד
MISHNA: On the first Festival day of Sukkot there were thirteen bulls, two rams, and one goat there. The mishna proceeds to discuss the division of labor for the Festival offerings among the twenty-four priestly watches, all of which serve in the Temple on the pilgrimage Festivals. The sixteen offerings mentioned above were divided among sixteen priestly watches, one offering per watch. Fourteen sheep remained to be divided among the eight remaining watches. On the first day of the Festival, six of the eight remaining watches sacrifice two sheep each for a total of twelve, and the remaining two watches sacrifice one sheep each.
בשני חמשה מקריבין שנים שנים והשאר אחד אחד בשלישי ד' מקריבין שנים שנים והשאר אחד אחד
On the second day of the Festival, i.e., the first day of the intermediate days, when twelve bulls were sacrificed, fifteen of the priestly watches sacrifice the bulls, rams, and goat, five of the remaining watches sacrifice two sheep each, and the remaining four watches sacrifice one sheep each. On the third day of the Festival, when eleven bulls were sacrificed, fourteen of the priestly watches sacrifice the bulls, rams, and goat, four of the remaining watches sacrifice two sheep each, and the remaining six watches sacrifice one sheep each.
ברביעי שלשה מקריבין שנים שנים והשאר אחד אחד בחמישי שנים מקריבין שנים שנים והשאר אחד אחד בששי אחד מקריב שנים והשאר אחד אחד
On the fourth day of the Festival, when ten bulls were sacrificed, thirteen of the priestly watches sacrifice the bulls, rams, and goat, three of the remaining watches sacrifice two sheep each, and the remaining eight watches sacrifice one sheep each. On the fifth day, when nine bulls were sacrificed, twelve watches sacrifice the bulls, rams, and goat, two of the twelve remaining watches sacrifice two sheep each, and the remaining ten watches sacrifice one sheep each. On the sixth day, when eight bulls were sacrificed, eleven watches sacrifice the bulls, rams, and goat, one of the remaining watches sacrifices two sheep, and the remaining twelve watches sacrifice one sheep each.
בשביעי כולן שוין בשמיני חזרו לפייס כברגלים אמרו מי שהקריב פרים היום לא יקריב למחר אלא חוזרין חלילה:
On the seventh day they are all equal and bring one offering each. On the eighth day, when there was a completely different configuration of offerings, they returned to the standard lottery system used to determine which of the priestly watches would sacrifice the offerings, as they did on the other pilgrimage Festivals, which do not have as many offerings as does Sukkot. They said about the ordering of the priestly watches: One who sacrificed bulls today will not sacrifice bulls tomorrow; rather, they will sacrifice one of the other types of offerings. They rotate, so that each of the watches will have the opportunity to sacrifice bulls as well as other animals.
גמ׳ נימא מתני' רבי היא ולא רבנן דתניא פר הבא בשמיני בתחילה מפיסין עליו דברי רבי וחכמים אומרים אחת משתי משמרות דלא שלשו בפרים עושה אותו
GEMARA: The Gemara suggests: Let us say that the mishna that says that on the eighth day they returned to the standard lottery of the other pilgrimage Festivals is according to Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi and not according to the Rabbis. As it is taught in a baraita: To determine the priestly watch that would sacrifice the bull that comes as an additional offering on the Eighth Day of Assembly, they draw lots over it from the beginning; this is the statement of Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi. And the Rabbis say: One of the two watches that did not sacrifice three bulls during Sukkot sacrifices it. Only two of the twenty-four watches sacrifices two bulls over the course of Sukkot. Each of the other watches sacrifices three bulls. Since the mishna mentions that a lottery was held, apparently the mishna is in accordance with the opinion of Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi.
אפילו תימא רבנן אטו שתי משמרות לא אפוסי בעי
The Gemara rejects this suggestion: Even if you say that it is in accordance with the opinion of the Rabbis, is that to say that the two remaining priestly watches are not required to draw lots to determine which will merit sacrificing the bull?
כמאן אזלא הא דתניא כל המשמרות שונות ומשלשות חוץ משני משמרות ששונות ואין משלשות נימא רבי ולא רבנן אפי' תימא רבנן מאי לא שלשו בפרי החג
The Gemara asks: In accordance with whose opinion is that which is taught in a baraita: All of the priestly watches sacrifice a bull twice and three times, except for two watches that sacrifice a bull twice and do not sacrifice a bull three times? Let us say that it is in accordance with the opinion of Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi and not in accordance with the opinion of the Rabbis, as they hold that one of those watches sacrifices a third bull on the Eighth Day of Assembly. The Gemara rejects this suggestion: Even if you say that it is in accordance with the opinion of the Rabbis; what is the meaning of the phrase: They did not sacrifice a bull three times? It means that with regard to the bulls of the festival of Sukkot they did not sacrifice a bull three times.
ומאי קמ"ל הא קמ"ל מי שהקריב פרים היום לא יקריב למחר אלא חוזרין חלילה
The Gemara asks: With regard to the bulls sacrificed on Sukkot, what does the baraita teach us? It is a simple calculation that seventy bulls divided by twenty-four watches leaves two watches that sacrificed only two bulls. The Gemara answers: This is what the baraita comes to teach us: One who sacrificed bulls today will not sacrifice bulls tomorrow; rather, they rotate. Therefore, each watch sacrifices at least two bulls, and most of them sacrifice three.
א"ר אליעזר הני שבעים פרים כנגד מי כנגד שבעים אומות פר יחידי למה כנגד אומה יחידה
Rabbi Elazar said: These seventy bulls that are sacrificed as additional offerings over the course of the seven days of Sukkot, to what do they correspond? They correspond to the seventy nations of the world, and are brought to atone for their sins and to hasten world peace. Why is a single bull sacrificed on the Eighth Day of Assembly? It corresponds to the singular nation, Israel.
משל למלך בשר ודם שאמר לעבדיו עשו לי סעודה גדולה ליום אחרון אמר לאוהבו עשה לי סעודה קטנה כדי שאהנה ממך
The Gemara cites a parable about a king of flesh and blood who said to his servants: Prepare me a great feast that will last for several days. When the feast concluded, on the last day, he said to his beloved servant: Prepare me a small feast so that I can derive pleasure from you alone.
א"ר יוחנן אוי להם לעובדי כוכבים שאבדו ואין יודעין מה שאבדו בזמן שבהמ"ק קיים מזבח מכפר עליהן ועכשיו מי מכפר עליהן:
Rabbi Yoḥanan said: Woe unto the nations of the world that lost something and do not know what they lost. When the Temple is standing, the seventy bulls sacrificed on the altar during the festival of Sukkot atones for them. And now that the Temple is destroyed, who atones for them?
מתני׳ בשלשה פרקים בשנה היו כל משמרות שוות באימורי הרגלים ובחילוק לחם הפנים
MISHNA: At three times during the year, all twenty-four priestly watches have equal status, in that all receive a share in the Temple service independent of the standard order of the watches and all receive a share in the accompanying gifts of the priesthood: In the portions of the offerings of the Festivals sacrificed on the altar and in the distribution of the shewbread on Shabbat during the Festivals.
בעצרת אומר לו הילך מצה הילך חמץ משמר שזמנו קבוע הוא מקריב תמידין נדרים ונדבות ושאר קרבנות צבור ומקריב את הכל:
On Shavuot that coincides with Shabbat, when the two loaves offered on Shavuot would be distributed together with the distribution of the shewbread, the priest charged with the distribution says to each priest: Here is matza from the shewbread for you, and here is leavened bread from the two loaves for you. The principle is that the priestly watch whose time is fixed during the Festival sacrifices the daily offerings during the Festival, as well as vow-offerings, free-will offerings, and all other communal offerings. And that watch sacrifices all of them even during the Festival, when other aspects of the service are shared by all the watches.
גמ׳ אימורי הרגלים של גבוה נינהו אמר רב חסדא מה שאמור ברגלים
GEMARA: The Gemara wonders: How is it that the priests divide those portions of the Festival offerings? Don’t they belong to God, and must be placed on the altar? How do the priestly watches share these portions? Rav Ḥisda said: The mishna is referring not to portions sacrificed on the altar [eimurim] but to what was stated [amur] with regard to the pilgrimage Festivals, all those portions of the offerings that the Torah commanded to sacrifice at the Temple that are not burnt on the altar and are shared by the priests, e.g., hides of the burnt-offerings of appearance and the breast and thigh of the Festival peace-offerings.
ת"ר מנין שכל המשמרות שוות באימורי הרגלים ת"ל (דברים יח, ו) ובא בכל אות נפשו ושרת יכול אף בשאר ימות השנה כן תלמוד לומר מאחד שעריך לא אמרתי אלא בשעה שכל ישראל נכנסין בשער אחד:
The Sages taught: From where is it derived that all of the priestly watches have equal status in the portions of the Festival offerings? The verse states: “And if a Levite comes from any of your gates out of all Israel, where he sojourns, and comes with all the desire of his soul unto the place that the Lord shall choose; then he shall minister…as all his brethren…They shall have like portions to eat, besides the transactions of their fathers’ houses” (Deuteronomy 18:6–8). Based on these verses, one might have thought that this is the case even on the rest of the days of the year and the priestly watches would have equal status. Therefore, the verse states: From one of your gates. I said that all have equal status only when all of Israel enters through one gate, i.e., on a pilgrimage Festival.
ובחילוק לחם הפנים כו': תנו רבנן מנין שכל המשמרות שוות בחילוק לחם הפנים
The mishna continues: And in the distribution of the shewbread on the three pilgrimage Festivals, all twenty-four priestly watches have equal status. The Sages taught: From where is it derived that all of the priestly watches have equal status in the distribution of the shewbread?