Sukkah 54aסוכה נ״ד א
The William Davidson Talmudתלמוד מהדורת ויליאם דוידסון
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54aנ״ד א
1 א

מהו דתימא אפילו כרבנן ולאפוקי מדרבי יוחנן דאמר שמע תשע תקיעות בתשע שעות ביום יצא קמ"ל

The Gemara answers: It is not obvious that Rav Kahana’s statement was stated in accordance with the opinion of Rabbi Yehuda. Lest you say that Rav Kahana’s statement is even in accordance with the opinion of the Rabbis, and that he is coming to exclude the opinion of Rabbi Yoḥanan who said: If one heard nine blasts in nine different hours on the day of Rosh HaShana, despite the considerable gap between them, he fulfilled his obligation. Therefore, the Gemara teaches us that Rav Kahana holds in accordance with the opinion of Rabbi Yehuda alone and he does not allow even a brief pause between the sounds of the shofar.

2 ב

ואימא הכי נמי אם כן מאי ולא כלום:

The Gemara asks: And say it is indeed so that Rav Kahana holds in accordance with the opinion of the Rabbis and he merely comes to exclude the view of Rabbi Yoḥanan. The Gemara answers: If so, what is the meaning of the phrase: At all, in Rav Kahana’s statement: There is no pause between a tekia and a terua at all? This indicates that Rav Kahana does not allow even a slight pause between blasts, and that could be only in accordance with Rabbi Yehuda.

3 ג

ע"ש שבתוך החג כו': ואילו למעלה עשירית לא קתני מתניתין מני רבי אליעזר בן יעקב היא דתניא שלש למעלה עשירית ר' אליעזר בן יעקב אומר שלש על גבי המזבח

§ The mishna enumerates the number of blasts sounded on Shabbat eve during the festival of Sukkot. Among those blasts were three sounded when pouring the water libation upon the altar. The Gemara infers: However, the mishna is not teaching that the trumpet blasts were sounded when the person carrying the water reached the tenth stair. According to whose opinion is the mishna? It is according to the opinion of Rabbi Eliezer ben Ya’akov, as it is taught in a baraita: Three blasts were sounded when arriving at the tenth stair. Rabbi Eliezer ben Ya’akov says: Three blasts were sounded when pouring the water libation upon the altar.

4 ד

האומר למעלה עשירית אינו אומר ע"ג המזבח והאומר ע"ג המזבח אינו אומר למעלה עשירית

The Gemara explains: The one who says that the trumpets were sounded upon arriving at the tenth stair does not say that they sounded the trumpets when pouring the water libation upon the altar; and the one who says that they sounded the trumpets when pouring the water libation upon the altar does not say that the trumpets were sounded upon arriving at the tenth stair.

5 ה

מ"ט דר' אליעזר בן יעקב כיון דתקע לפתיחת שערים למעלה עשירית למה לי דתקע האי לאו שער הוא הלכך ע"ג המזבח עדיף ורבנן סברי כיון דתקע למילוי המים ע"ג המזבח למה לי הלכך למעלה העשירית עדיף

The Gemara asks: What is the rationale for the opinion of Rabbi Eliezer ben Ya’akov? The Gemara answers: Since he sounded the trumpet for the opening of the gates, for what do I need to sound it again when arriving at the tenth stair? That is not a gate. Therefore, it is preferable to sound the trumpets when pouring the water libation upon the altar. And the Rabbis hold that since he sounded the trumpets for the filling of the vessel with the water, why do I need an additional trumpet blast when pouring the water libation upon the altar? Therefore, it is preferable to sound the trumpets when arriving at the tenth stair.

6 ו

כי אתא ר' אחא בר חנינא מדרומא אייתי מתניתא בידיה (במדבר י, ח) ובני אהרן הכהנים יתקעו בחצוצרות שאין ת"ל יתקעו שכבר נאמר (במדבר י, י) ותקעתם בחצוצרות על עולותיכם ועל זבחי שלמיכם ומה ת"ל יתקעו הכל לפי המוספין תוקעין הוא תני לה והוא אמר לה לומר שתוקעין על כל מוסף ומוסף

§ When Rabbi Aḥa bar Ḥanina came from the south of Eretz Yisrael, from Judea, he brought a baraita with him that he received from the Sages there. It is written: “And the children of Aaron, the priests, will sound the trumpets” (Numbers 10:8). There is no need for the verse to state: “Shall sound,” as it is already stated: “And you shall sound the trumpets for your burnt-offerings and your peace-offerings” (Numbers 10:10). And what then is the meaning when the verse states: “Shall sound”? It appears to be teaching a new halakha; it is all according to the additional offerings that one sounds trumpet blasts. The Gemara notes: Rabbi Aḥa bar Ḥanina teaches the baraita, and he said its explanation: The verse comes to say that one sounds trumpet blasts for each and every additional offering in and of itself.

7 ז

תנן ע"ש שבתוך החג היו שם מ"ח ואם איתא ליתני שבת שבתוך החג משכחת לה חמשין וחד א"ר זירא לפי שאין תוקעין לפתיחת שערים בשבת

The Gemara asks: We learned in the mishna: On Shabbat eve during the festival of Sukkot there were forty-eight blasts, and that was the highest number of blasts sounded on any day in the Temple. And if it is so, Rabbi Aḥa bar Ḥanina says: Let the mishna teach the case of Shabbat during the Festival, when you find that there are fifty-one blasts, including additional blasts for the additional offerings of Shabbat. Rabbi Zeira said: Although based on the baraita taught by Rabbi Aḥa bar Ḥanina there would indeed be additional blasts for the additional offerings of Shabbat, they would total forty-eight blasts, because one does not sound the three blasts for the opening of the gates on Shabbat; those blasts were merely a signal.

8 ח

אמר רבא מאן הא דלא חש לקימחא חדא דבכל יום תנן ועוד אי נמי כהדדי נינהו ליתני שבת שבתוך החג היו שם ארבעים ושמונה דשמעת מינה תרתי שמעת מינה דרבי אליעזר בן יעקב ושמעת מינה דר' אחא בר חנינא

Rava said: Who is this who is not concerned about the flour that his mill is producing, i.e., who is making unconsidered statements? First, the mishna contradicts the explanation of Rabbi Zeira, as, with regard to the order of the blasts, including those for the opening of the gates, we learned that this was the practice each day, including Shabbat. And furthermore, even if they are equal to each other, i.e., the same number of blasts were sounded on Shabbat during the Festival and on Friday during the Festival, let the mishna teach: On Shabbat during the Festival there are forty-eight blasts. You would learn two matters from that case: You would learn from it that the mishna is in accordance with the opinion of Rabbi Eliezer ben Ya’akov that the trumpets are not sounded at the tenth step but when pouring the water libation upon the altar. And you would learn from it that halakha of Rabbi Aḥa bar Ḥanina, that the trumpet is sounded for each and every additional offering.

9 ט

אלא אמר רבא לפי שאין תוקעין למילוי מים בשבת דבצרי טובא וליתני נמי ר"ה שחל להיות בשבת דהא איכא תלתא מוספין מוסף דר"ה מוסף דר"ח מוסף דשבת

Rather, Rava said: The reason that the number of offerings on Shabbat during the Festival does not exceed forty-eight is because one does not sound the trumpet for filling the vessels with water on Shabbat, as the mishna stated that they did not draw water from the Siloam pool on Shabbat. Therefore, the blasts sounded on Shabbat during the Festival were considerably fewer than those sounded on Friday. The Gemara asks: And let the mishna also teach the case of Rosh HaShana that occurs on Shabbat, as in that case there are three additional offerings: The additional offering of Rosh HaShana, the additional offering of the New Moon, and the additional offering of Shabbat. The total would be forty-eight blasts. The fact that the mishna did not cite this case indicates that it is contrary to the opinion of Rabbi Aḥa bar Ḥanina.

10 י

ע"ש שבתוך החג אצטריך ליה לאשמעינן כדרבי אליעזר בן יעקב אטו מי קאמר ליתני הא ולא ליתני הא ליתני הא וליתני הא תנא ושייר מאי שייר דהאי שייר

The Gemara rejects that conclusion. The reason that the mishna did not cite the case of Rosh HaShana is that the tanna held that the case of Shabbat eve during the Festival is necessary in order to teach that the halakha is in accordance with the opinion of Rabbi Eliezer ben Ya’akov that one does not sound the trumpet at the tenth stair. The Gemara asks: Is anyone saying: Let the tanna teach this case and let him not teach that case? Let him teach this case and let him teach that case, as there is a novel element in each. The Gemara answers: The tanna did not list all the possible cases; he taught one case and omitted others. The Gemara asks: What other case did he omit, that he omitted this case of Rosh HaShana as well? While the tanna does not typically list all relevant cases, if there are only two that are relevant, he typically cites them in the mishna.

11 יא

שייר ערב הפסח

The Gemara answers: He omitted the case of Passover eve. The Paschal lamb was sacrificed in three shifts. When the Paschal lamb was sacrificed they would recite hallel, and the recitation of hallel was accompanied by three blasts. Due to the great number of Paschal lambs sacrificed, they would often recite hallel three times during each shift. Consequently, there could be as many as twenty-seven additional blasts sounded on that day. Added to the twenty-one blasts sounded each day, the total is forty-eight blasts.