52bנ״ב ב
רע כל היום אמר רבי שמעון בן לקיש יצרו של אדם מתגבר עליו בכל יום ומבקש להמיתו שנאמר (תהלים לז, לב) צופה רשע לצדיק ומבקש להמיתו ואלמלא הקב"ה שעוזר לו אינו יכול לו שנאמ' (תהלים לז, לג) ה' לא יעזבנו בידו ולא ירשיענו בהשפטו evil all day” (Genesis 6:5). All day long his thoughts and desires are for evil. Rabbi Shimon ben Lakish said: A person’s evil inclination overcomes him each day and seeks to kill him, as it stated: “The wicked watches the righteous and seeks to kill him” (Psalms 37:32); the wicked here is referring to the wickedness inside one’s heart. And if not for the Holy One, Blessed be He, Who assists him with the good inclination, he would not overcome it, as it is stated: “The Lord will not leave him in his hand, nor suffer him to be condemned when he is judged” (Psalms 37:33).
תנא דבי רבי ישמעאל אם פגע בך מנוול זה משכהו לבית המדרש אם אבן הוא נימוח אם ברזל הוא מתפוצץ אם אבן הוא נימוח דכתיב (ישעיהו נה, א) הוי כל צמא לכו למים וכתיב (איוב יד, יט) אבנים שחקו מים אם ברזל הוא מתפוצץ דכתיב (ירמיהו כג, כט) הלא כה דברי כאש נאם ה' וכפטיש יפוצץ סלע The school of Rabbi Yishmael taught: If this scoundrel, the evil inclination, accosted you, seeking to tempt you to sin, drag it to the study hall and study Torah. If it is like a stone, it will be dissolved by the Torah. If it is like iron, it will be shattered. The Gemara elaborates: If it is like stone, it will be dissolved, as it is written: “Ho, everyone who is thirsty, come you for the water” (Isaiah 55:1), water in this context meaning Torah; and it is written: “Stones were worn by water” (Job 14:19). If it is like iron, it will be shattered, as it is written: “Is not My word like fire, says the Lord; and like a hammer that shatters rock” (Jeremiah 23:29).
א"ר שמואל בר נחמני א"ר יונתן יצר הרע מסיתו לאדם בעוה"ז ומעיד עליו לעולם הבא שנאמר (משלי כט, כא) מפנק מנוער עבדו ואחריתו יהיה מנון שכן באטב"ח של ר' חייא קורין לסהדה מנון Rabbi Shmuel bar Naḥmani said that Rabbi Yoḥanan said: The evil inclination incites a person to sin in this world, and then testifies against him in the next world, as it is stated: “He that delicately brings up his servant from a child shall have him become a master [manon] at the last” (Proverbs 29:21). Initially, in one’s youth, the evil inclination, which should have been enslaved to him, takes control of him and causes him to sin. Then, ultimately, that same evil inclination becomes his manon. Manon means witness, as in Rabbi Ḥiyya’s coded alphabet in which alef and tet and beit and ḥet, etc., are interchanged. Witness [sahada] is called manon. The letters mem and samekh, nun and heh, and vav and dalet are interchanged with other letters.
רב הונא רמי כתיב (הושע ד, יב) כי רוח זנונים התעה וכתיב (הושע ה, ד) בקרבם בתחלה התעם ולבסוף בקרבם Rav Huna raised a contradiction between two verses. It is written: “For the spirit of harlotry caused them to err” (Hosea 4:12), indicating that this spirit was a temporary phenomenon and not an integral part of their persona. And it is also written: “For the spirit of harlotry is within them” (Hosea 5:4), indicating that it is an integral part of their persona. The Gemara explains: Initially, it causes them to err from without, and ultimately, it is from within them.
אמר רבא בתחלה קראו הלך ולבסוף קראו אורח ולבסוף קראו איש שנאמר (שמואל ב יב, ד) ויבא הלך לאיש העשיר ויחמול לקחת מצאנו ומבקרו לעשות לאורח וכתיב ויקח את כבשת האיש הרש ויעשה לאיש הבא אליו Rava said: Initially, the verse called the evil inclination a traveler coming from afar. Subsequently, the verse calls it a guest, as one welcomes it. Ultimately, the verse calls it man, indicating significance, as it became the homeowner. As it is stated in the parable of the poor man’s lamb that Nathan the prophet said to David: “And there came a traveler to the rich man, and he was reluctant to take of his own flock and of his own herd, to prepare for the guest” (II Samuel 12:4). And it is written in the same verse: “And he took the poor man’s lamb, and prepared it for the man that was come to him.” In other words, the evil inclination that began as a traveler gradually rose in prominence.
אמר רבי יוחנן אבר קטן יש לו לאדם מרעיבו שבע משביעו רעב שנאמר (הושע יג, ו) כמרעיתם וישבעו וגו' Rabbi Yoḥanan said: A man has a small organ used in sexual relations. If he starves the organ, and does not overindulge, it is satiated; however, if he satiates the organ and overindulges in sexual relations, it is starving, and desires more, as it is stated: “When they were fed, they became full, they were filled, and their heart was exalted; therefore have they forgotten Me” (Hosea 13:6).
אמר רב חנא בר אחא אמרי בי רב ארבעה מתחרט עליהן הקב"ה שבראם ואלו הן גלות כשדים וישמעאלים ויצר הרע גלות דכתיב (ישעיהו נב, ה) ועתה מה לי פה נאם ה' כי לקח עמי חנם וגו' כשדים דכתיב (ישעיהו כג, יג) הן ארץ כשדים זה העם לא היה Rav Ḥana bar Aḥa said that the Sages in the school of Rav say: There are four creations that the Holy One, Blessed be He, created, yet He, as it were, regrets that He created them, as they do more harm than good. And these are they: Exile, Chaldeans, and Ishmaelites, and the evil inclination. Exile, as it is written: “Now therefore, for what am I here, says the Lord, seeing that My people is taken away for naught” (Isaiah 52:5). God Himself is asking: For what am I here? Chaldeans, as it is written: “Behold the land of the Chaldeans, this is the people that was not” (Isaiah 23:13), meaning, if only they never were.
ישמעאלים דכתיב (איוב יב, ו) ישליו אהלים לשודדים ובטוחות למרגיזי אל לאשר הביא אלוה בידו יצר הרע דכתיב (מיכה ד, ו) ואשר הרעתי Ishmaelites, as it is written: “The tents of robbers prosper, and they that provoke God are secure, in whatsoever God brings with His hand” (Job 12:6). God brought upon Himself these Arabs that dwell in the deserts in tents. The evil inclination, as it is written: “On that day, says the Lord, will I assemble her that is lame, and I will gather her that is driven away, and her that I corrupted” (Micah 4:6). God is saying that He created the evil inclination that led the people to sin and to be cast into exile.
אמר רבי יוחנן אלמלא שלש מקראות הללו נתמוטטו רגליהם של שונאיהן של ישראל חד דכתיב ואשר הרעתי וחד דכתיב (ירמיהו יח, ו) הנה כחומר ביד היוצר כן אתם וגו' ואידך (יחזקאל לו, כו) והסרתי את לב האבן מבשרכם ונתתי לכם לב בשר Rabbi Yoḥanan said: Were it not for these three verses that follow that indicate that God controls people’s hearts, the legs of the enemies of the Jewish people, a euphemism for the Jewish people themselves, would have collapsed, unable to withstand the repercussions of their sins. One, as it is written: “And her that I corrupted,” indicating God’s regret for doing so. And one, as it is written: “Behold, as the clay in the potter’s hand, so are you in My hand, O house of Israel” (Jeremiah 18:6). And the other verse: “And I will take away the heart of stone out of your flesh, and I will give you a heart of flesh” (Ezekiel 36:26), indicating that the matter is not solely in human hands, but in the hands of God as well.
רב פפא אמר אף מהאי נמי (יחזקאל לו, כז) ואת רוחי אתן בקרבכם וגו' Rav Pappa said: It is derived from this verse as well: “And I will put My spirit within you, and cause you to walk in My statutes, and you shall keep My ordinances, and do them” (Ezekiel 36:27).
(זכריה ב, ג) ויראני ה' ארבעה חרשים מאן נינהו ארבעה חרשים אמר רב חנא בר ביזנא אמר רבי שמעון חסידא משיח בן דוד ומשיח בן יוסף ואליהו וכהן צדק מתיב רב ששת אי הכי היינו דכתיב (זכריה ב, ב) ויאמר אלי אלה הקרנות אשר זרו את יהודה הני לשובה אתו § Apropos the end of days, the Gemara cites another verse and interprets it homiletically. It is stated: “The Lord then showed me four craftsmen” (Zechariah 2:3). Who are these four craftsmen? Rav Ḥana bar Bizna said that Rabbi Shimon Ḥasida said: They are Messiah ben David, Messiah ben Yosef, Elijah, and the righteous High Priest, who will serve in the Messianic era. Rav Sheshet raised an objection: If so, if that is the identity of the four craftsmen, then that which is written in the previous verse: “And he said to me: These are the horns that scattered Judea” (Zechariah 2:2), is difficult; these four in the first verse are coming for their enemies, and are not redeemers.
א"ל שפיל לסיפיה דקרא ויבואו אלה להחריד אותם לידות את קרנות הגוים הנושאים קרן אל ארץ יהודה לזרותה וגו' א"ל בהדי חנא באגדתא למה לי Rav Ḥana said to Rav Sheshet: Go to the end of the verse: “These then are come to frighten them, to cast down the horns of the nations, which lifted up their horn against the land of Judah to scatter it.” This indicates that the horns refer to the nations that exiled the Jewish people and that the four craftsmen will hurl those horns aside. Rav Sheshet said to him: Why should I disagree with Rav Ḥana in matters of aggada, where he is more expert than I, and I cannot prevail?
(מיכה ה, ד) והיה זה שלום אשור כי יבא בארצנו וכי ידרוך בארמנותינו והקמנו עליו שבעה רועים ושמנה נסיכי אדם מאן נינהו שבעה רועים דוד באמצע אדם שת ומתושלח מימינו אברהם יעקב ומשה בשמאלו ומאן נינהו שמנה נסיכי אדם ישי ושאול ושמואל עמוס וצפניה צדקיה ומשיח ואליהו: The Gemara continues homiletically interpreting verses that relate to the end of days. It is stated: “And this shall be peace: When the Assyrian shall come into our land, and when he shall tread in our palaces, then shall we raise against him seven shepherds, and eight princes among men” (Micah 5:4). The Gemara asks: Who are these seven shepherds? The Gemara explains: David is in the middle; Adam, Seth, and Methuselah are to his right; Abraham, Jacob, and Moses are to his left. And who are the eight princes among men? They are Yishai, Saul, Samuel, Amos, Zephania, Zedekiah, Messiah, and Elijah.
ארבעה סולמות כו': תנא גובהה של מנורה חמשים אמה (כו'): וארבעה ילדים של פרחי כהונה ובידיהם כדי שמן של מאה ועשרים לוג: איבעיא להו מאה ועשרים לוג כולהו או דלמא לכל חד וחד תא שמע ובידיהם כדי שמן של שלשים שלשים לוג שהם כולם מאה ועשרים לוג § The mishna continues: And there were four ladders for each pole. One of the Sages taught: The height of the candelabrum upon the pole is fifty cubits. And there were four children from the priesthood trainees holding and in their hands jugs of oil with a capacity of 120 log of oil. A dilemma was raised: Was it 120 log altogether, or perhaps each and every child carried that amount? Come and hear proof from this baraita: And in their hands were jugs of oil, each with a capacity of thirty log, that were all together 120 log.
תנא והן משובחין היו יותר מבנה של מרתא בת בייתוס אמרו על בנה של מרתא בת בייתוס שהיה נוטל שתי יריכות של שור הגדול שלקוח באלף זוז ומהלך עקב בצד גודל ולא הניחוהו אחיו הכהנים לעשות כן משום (משלי יד, כח) ברב עם הדרת מלך One of the Sages taught: And these young priests who held the pitchers were superior in strength to the son of Marta, daughter of Baitos, who was a priest renowned for his might. They said about the son of Marta, daughter of Baitos, that he would take two thighs of a large bull that was so large that it would be purchased for one thousand zuz, and walk up the ramp in small steps, heel to toe, without hurrying, due to his strength. However, his brethren the priests would not allow him do so, due to the principle: “In the multitude of people is the King’s glory” (Proverbs 14:28). The more priests engaged in the Temple service, the greater glory for God. Therefore, it is preferable for the thighs to be carried to the altar by multiple priests.
מאי משובחים אילימא משום יוקרא הני יקירי טפי אלא התם כבש ומרובע ולא זקיף הכא סולמות וזקיף טובא: The Gemara asks: In what sense were these young priests superior? If we say it is due to the weight of the pitchers that they carried, these two thighs are heavier than the thirty log of oil. The Gemara answers: Rather, the difference is that there, in the case of the son of Marta, he walked on a ramp that was wide, and with a moderate gradient of only one cubit every four cubits of length, and it is not steep; here they climbed ladders, and those are very steep.
ולא היה חצר בירושלים: תנא § The mishna continues: And there was not a courtyard in Jerusalem that was not illuminated from the light of the Place of the Drawing of the Water. One of the Sages taught:
1 א
וָאֶשָּׂ֥א אֶת־עֵינַ֖י וָאֵ֑רֶא וְהִנֵּ֖ה אַרְבַּ֥ע קְרָנֽוֹת׃ I looked up, and I saw four horns.
2 ב
וָאֹמַ֗ר אֶל־הַמַּלְאָ֛ךְ הַדֹּבֵ֥ר בִּ֖י מָה־אֵ֑לֶּה וַיֹּ֣אמֶר אֵלַ֔י אֵ֤לֶּה הַקְּרָנוֹת֙ אֲשֶׁ֣ר זֵר֣וּ אֶת־יְהוּדָ֔ה אֶת־יִשְׂרָאֵ֖ל וִירוּשָׁלָֽם׃ (ס) I asked the angel who talked with me, “What are those?” “Those,” he replied, “are the horns that tossed Judah, Israel, and Jerusalem.”
3 ג
וַיַּרְאֵ֣נִי יְהוָ֔ה אַרְבָּעָ֖ה חָרָשִֽׁים׃ Then the LORD showed me four smiths.
4 ד
וָאֹמַ֕ר מָ֛ה אֵ֥לֶּה בָאִ֖ים לַֽעֲשׂ֑וֹת וַיֹּ֣אמֶר לֵאמֹ֗ר אֵ֣לֶּה הַקְּרָנ֞וֹת אֲשֶׁר־זֵ֣רוּ אֶת־יְהוּדָ֗ה כְּפִי־אִישׁ֙ לֹא־נָשָׂ֣א רֹאשׁ֔וֹ וַיָּבֹ֤אוּ אֵ֙לֶּה֙ לְהַחֲרִ֣יד אֹתָ֔ם לְיַדּ֞וֹת אֶת־קַרְנ֣וֹת הַגּוֹיִ֗ם הַנֹּשְׂאִ֥ים קֶ֛רֶן אֶל־אֶ֥רֶץ יְהוּדָ֖ה לְזָרוֹתָֽהּ׃ (ס) “What are they coming to do?” I asked. He replied: “Those are the horns that tossed Judah, so that no man could raise his head; and these men have come to throw them into a panic, to hew down the horns of the nations that raise a horn against the land of Judah, to toss it.”
5 ה
וָאֶשָּׂ֥א עֵינַ֛י וָאֵ֖רֶא וְהִנֵּה־אִ֑ישׁ וּבְיָד֖וֹ חֶ֥בֶל מִדָּֽה׃ I looked up, and I saw a man holding a measuring line.
6 ו
וָאֹמַ֕ר אָ֖נָה אַתָּ֣ה הֹלֵ֑ךְ וַיֹּ֣אמֶר אֵלַ֗י לָמֹד֙ אֶת־יְר֣וּשָׁלִַ֔ם לִרְא֥וֹת כַּמָּֽה־רָחְבָּ֖הּ וְכַמָּ֥ה אָרְכָּֽהּ׃ “Where are you going?” I asked. “To measure Jerusalem,” he replied, “to see how long and wide it is to be.”
7 ז
וְהִנֵּ֗ה הַמַּלְאָ֛ךְ הַדֹּבֵ֥ר בִּ֖י יֹצֵ֑א וּמַלְאָ֣ךְ אַחֵ֔ר יֹצֵ֖א לִקְרָאתֽוֹ׃ But the angel who talked with me came forward, and another angel came forward to meet him.
8 ח
וַיֹּ֣אמֶר אֵלָ֔ו רֻ֗ץ דַּבֵּ֛ר אֶל־הַנַּ֥עַר הַלָּ֖ז לֵאמֹ֑ר פְּרָזוֹת֙ תֵּשֵׁ֣ב יְרוּשָׁלִַ֔ם מֵרֹ֥ב אָדָ֛ם וּבְהֵמָ֖ה בְּתוֹכָֽהּ׃ The former said to him, “Run to that young man and tell him: “Jerusalem shall be peopled as a city without walls, so many shall be the men and cattle it contains.
9 ט
וַאֲנִ֤י אֶֽהְיֶה־לָּהּ֙ נְאֻם־יְהוָ֔ה ח֥וֹמַת אֵ֖שׁ סָבִ֑יב וּלְכָב֖וֹד אֶֽהְיֶ֥ה בְתוֹכָֽהּ׃ (פ) And I Myself—declares the LORD—will be a wall of fire all around it, and I will be a glory inside it.
10 י
ה֣וֹי ה֗וֹי וְנֻ֛סוּ מֵאֶ֥רֶץ צָפ֖וֹן נְאֻם־יְהוָ֑ה כִּ֠י כְּאַרְבַּ֞ע רוּח֧וֹת הַשָּׁמַ֛יִם פֵּרַ֥שְׂתִּי אֶתְכֶ֖ם נְאֻם־יְהוָֽה׃ “Away, away! Flee from the land of the north—says the LORD—though I swept you [there] like the four winds of heaven—declares the LORD.”
11 יא
ה֥וֹי צִיּ֖וֹן הִמָּלְטִ֑י יוֹשֶׁ֖בֶת בַּת־בָּבֶֽל׃ (ס) Away, escape, O Zion, you who dwell in Fair Babylon!
12 יב
כִּ֣י כֹ֣ה אָמַר֮ יְהוָ֣ה צְבָאוֹת֒ אַחַ֣ר כָּב֔וֹד שְׁלָחַ֕נִי אֶל־הַגּוֹיִ֖ם הַשֹּׁלְלִ֣ים אֶתְכֶ֑ם כִּ֚י הַנֹּגֵ֣עַ בָּכֶ֔ם נֹגֵ֖עַ בְּבָבַ֥ת עֵינֽוֹ׃ For thus said the LORD of Hosts—He who sent me after glory—concerning the nations that have taken you as spoil: “Whoever touches you touches the pupil of his own eye.
13 יג
כִּ֠י הִנְנִ֨י מֵנִ֤יף אֶת־יָדִי֙ עֲלֵיהֶ֔ם וְהָי֥וּ שָׁלָ֖ל לְעַבְדֵיהֶ֑ם וִֽידַעְתֶּ֕ם כִּֽי־יְהוָ֥ה צְבָא֖וֹת שְׁלָחָֽנִי׃ (ס) For I will lift My hand against them, and they shall be spoil for those they enslaved.”—Then you shall know that I was sent by the LORD of Hosts.
14 יד
רָנִּ֥י וְשִׂמְחִ֖י בַּת־צִיּ֑וֹן כִּ֧י הִנְנִי־בָ֛א וְשָׁכַנְתִּ֥י בְתוֹכֵ֖ךְ נְאֻם־יְהוָֽה׃ Shout for joy, Fair Zion! For lo, I come; and I will dwell in your midst—declares the LORD.
15 טו
וְנִלְווּ֩ גוֹיִ֨ם רַבִּ֤ים אֶל־יְהוָה֙ בַּיּ֣וֹם הַה֔וּא וְהָ֥יוּ לִ֖י לְעָ֑ם וְשָׁכַנְתִּ֣י בְתוֹכֵ֔ךְ וְיָדַ֕עַתְּ כִּי־יְהוָ֥ה צְבָא֖וֹת שְׁלָחַ֥נִי אֵלָֽיִךְ׃ In that day many nations will attach themselves to the LORD and become His people, and He will dwell in your midst. Then you will know that I was sent to you by the LORD of Hosts.
16 טז
וְנָחַ֨ל יְהוָ֤ה אֶת־יְהוּדָה֙ חֶלְק֔וֹ עַ֖ל אַדְמַ֣ת הַקֹּ֑דֶשׁ וּבָחַ֥ר ע֖וֹד בִּירוּשָׁלִָֽם׃ The LORD will take Judah to Himself as His portion in the Holy Land, and He will choose Jerusalem once more.
17 יז
הַ֥ס כָּל־בָּשָׂ֖ר מִפְּנֵ֣י יְהוָ֑ה כִּ֥י נֵע֖וֹר מִמְּע֥וֹן קָדְשֽׁוֹ׃ (ס) Be silent, all flesh, before the LORD! For He is roused from His holy habitation.