אִסְרוּ חַג בַּעֲבוֹתִים עַד קַרְנוֹת הַמִּזְבֵּחַ אָמַר רַבִּי יִרְמְיָה מִשּׁוּם רַבִּי שִׁמְעוֹן בֶּן יוֹחַי וְרַבִּי יוֹחָנָן מִשּׁוּם רַבִּי שִׁמְעוֹן הַמָּחוֹזִי מִשּׁוּם רַבִּי יוֹחָנָן הַמָּכוֹתִי כׇּל הָעוֹשֶׂה אִיסּוּר לֶחָג בַּאֲכִילָה וּשְׁתִיָּה מַעֲלֶה עָלָיו הַכָּתוּב כְּאִילּוּ בָּנָה מִזְבֵּחַ וְהִקְרִיב עָלָיו קׇרְבָּן שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר אִסְרוּ חַג בַּעֲבוֹתִים עַד קַרְנוֹת הַמִּזְבֵּחַ “Bind [isru] with dense-leaved branches [ba’avotim] on the Festival until the horns of the altar” (Psalms 118:27), which alludes to both the binding of the lulav and to the myrtle branch, referred to in the Torah as the branch of a dense-leaved tree [anaf etz avot]. Rabbi Yirmeya said in the name of Rabbi Shimon ben Yoḥai, and Rabbi Yoḥanan said in the name of Rabbi Shimon HaMeḥozi, who said in the name of Rabbi Yoḥanan HaMakkoti: With regard to anyone who establishes an addition [issur] to the Festival on the day after the Festival by eating and drinking, the verse ascribes him credit as though he built an altar and sacrificed an offering upon it, as it is stated: “Add [isru] to the Festival with fattened animals [ba’avotim] until the horns of the altar.”
אָמַר חִזְקִיָּה אָמַר רַבִּי יִרְמְיָה מִשּׁוּם רַבִּי שִׁמְעוֹן בֶּן יוֹחַי כׇּל הַמִּצְוֹת כּוּלָּן אֵין אָדָם יוֹצֵא בָּהֶן אֶלָּא דֶּרֶךְ גְּדִילָתָן שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר עֲצֵי שִׁטִּים עוֹמְדִים § Apropos the halakha cited by Rabbi Yirmeya in the name of Rabbi Shimon ben Yoḥai, the Gemara cites additional halakhot. Ḥizkiya said that Rabbi Yirmeya said in the name of Rabbi Shimon ben Yoḥai: With regard to all objects used in performance of each and every one of the mitzvot, a person fulfills his obligation only when the objects are positioned in the manner of their growth. One must take the lulav with the bottom of the branch facing down, as it is stated with regard to the beams of the Tabernacle: “Acacia wood, standing” (Exodus 26:15), indicating that the beams stood in the manner of their growth.
תַּנְיָא נָמֵי הָכִי עֲצֵי שִׁטִּים עוֹמְדִים שֶׁעוֹמְדִים דֶּרֶךְ גְּדִילָתָן דָּבָר אַחֵר עוֹמְדִים שֶׁמַּעֲמִידִין אֶת צִיפּוּיָן דָּבָר אַחֵר עוֹמְדִים שֶׁמָּא תֹּאמַר אָבַד סִיבְרָם וּבָטַל סִיכּוּיָין תַּלְמוּד לוֹמַר עֲצֵי שִׁטִּים עוֹמְדִים שֶׁעוֹמְדִים לְעוֹלָם וּלְעוֹלְמֵי עוֹלָמִים That was also taught in a baraita: “Acacia wood, standing,” indicating that they stand in the Tabernacle in the manner of their growth in nature. Alternatively, standing means that the beams support their gold plating that is affixed to the beams with nails. Alternatively, standing teaches: Lest you say that after the destruction of the Tabernacle their hope is lost and their prospect is abolished, and they will never serve a sacred purpose again, therefore the verse states: “Acacia wood, standing,” meaning that they stand forever and for all time and will yet be revealed and utilized again.
וְאָמַר חִזְקִיָּה אָמַר רַבִּי יִרְמְיָה מִשּׁוּם רַבִּי שִׁמְעוֹן בֶּן יוֹחַי יָכוֹל אֲנִי לִפְטוֹר אֶת כׇּל הָעוֹלָם כּוּלּוֹ מִן הַדִּין מִיּוֹם שֶׁנִּבְרֵאתִי עַד עַתָּה וְאִילְמָלֵי אֱלִיעֶזֶר בְּנִי עִמִּי מִיּוֹם שֶׁנִּבְרָא הָעוֹלָם וְעַד עַכְשָׁיו וְאִילְמָלֵי יוֹתָם בֶּן עוּזִּיָּהוּ עִמָּנוּ מִיּוֹם שֶׁנִּבְרָא הָעוֹלָם עַד סוֹפוֹ And Ḥizkiya said that Rabbi Yirmeya said in the name of Rabbi Shimon ben Yoḥai: I am able to absolve the entire world from judgment for sins committed from the day I was created until now. The merit that he accrued through his righteousness and the suffering that he endured atone for the sins of the entire world. And were the merit accrued by Eliezer, my son, calculated along with my own, we would absolve the world from judgment for sins committed from the day that the world was created until now. And were the merit accrued by the righteous king, Jotham ben Uzziah, calculated with our own, we would absolve the world from judgment for sins committed from the day that the world was created until its end. The righteousness of these three serves as a counterbalance to all the evil deeds committed throughout the generations, and it validates the ongoing existence of the world.
וְאָמַר חִזְקִיָּה אָמַר רַבִּי יִרְמְיָה מִשּׁוּם רַבִּי שִׁמְעוֹן בֶּן יוֹחַי רָאִיתִי בְּנֵי עֲלִיָּיה וְהֵן מוּעָטִין אִם אֶלֶף הֵן אֲנִי וּבְנִי מֵהֶן אִם מֵאָה הֵם אֲנִי וּבְנִי מֵהֶן אִם שְׁנַיִם הֵן אֲנִי וּבְנִי הֵן וּמִי זוּטְרֵי כּוּלֵּי הַאי וְהָא אָמַר רָבָא תַּמְנֵי סְרֵי אַלְפֵי הָוֵה דָּרָא דְּקַמֵּיהּ קוּדְשָׁא בְּרִיךְ הוּא שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר סָבִיב שְׁמֹנָה עָשָׂר אָלֶף לָא קַשְׁיָא הָא דְּמִסְתַּכְּלִי בְּאַסְפַּקְלַרְיָא הַמְּאִירָה הָא דְּלָא מִסְתַּכְּלִי בְּאַסְפַּקְלַרְיָא הַמְּאִירָה And Ḥizkiya said that Rabbi Yirmeya said in the name of Rabbi Shimon ben Yoḥai: I have seen members of the caste of the spiritually prominent, who are truly righteous, and they are few. If they number one thousand, I and my son are among them. If they number one hundred, I and my son are among them; and if they number two, I and my son are they. The Gemara asks: Are they so few? But didn’t Rava say: There are eighteen thousand righteous individuals in a row before the Holy One, Blessed be He, as it is stated: “Surrounding are eighteen thousand” (Ezekiel 48:35)? Apparently, the righteous are numerous. The Gemara answers: This is not difficult. This statement of Rabbi Shimon ben Yoḥai is referring to the very few who view the Divine Presence through a bright, mirror-like partition, while that statement of Rava is referring to those who do not view the Divine Presence through a bright partition.
וּדְמִסְתַּכְּלִי בְּאַסְפַּקְלַרְיָא הַמְּאִירָה מִי זוּטְרֵי כּוּלֵּי הַאי וְהָא אָמַר אַבָּיֵי לָא פָּחֵית עָלְמָא מִתְּלָתִין וְשִׁיתָּא צַדִּיקֵי דִּמְקַבְּלִי אַפֵּי שְׁכִינָה בְּכׇל יוֹם שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר אַשְׁרֵי כׇּל חוֹכֵי לוֹ לוֹ בְּגִימַטְרִיָּא תְּלָתִין וְשִׁיתָּא הָווּ לָא קַשְׁיָא הָא דְּעָיְילִי בְּבַר הָא דְּעָיְילִי בְּלָא בַּר: The Gemara asks further: And are those who view the Divine Presence through a bright partition so few? But didn’t Abaye say: The world has no fewer than thirty-six righteous people in each generation who greet the Divine Presence every day, as it is stated: “Happy are all they that wait for Him [lo]” (Isaiah 30:18)? The numerological value of lo, spelled lamed vav, is thirty-six, alluding to the fact that there are at least thirty-six full-fledged righteous individuals in each generation. The Gemara answers: This is not difficult. This statement of Abaye is referring to those who enter to greet the Divine Presence by requesting and being granted permission, while that statement of Rabbi Shimon ben Yoḥai is referring to those who enter even without requesting permission, for whom the gates of Heaven are open at all times. They are very few indeed.
בִּשְׁעַת פְּטִירָתָן מָה הֵן אוֹמְרִים וְכוּ׳ וְהָא קָא מִשְׁתַּתַּף שֵׁם שָׁמַיִם וְדָבָר אַחֵר וְתַנְיָא כׇּל הַמְשַׁתֵּף שֵׁם שָׁמַיִם וְדָבָר אַחֵר נֶעֱקָר מִן הָעוֹלָם שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר בִּלְתִּי לַה׳ לְבַדּוֹ הָכִי קָאָמַר לֵיהּ אֲנַחְנוּ מוֹדִים וְלָךְ אָנוּ מְשַׁבְּחִין לֵיהּ אֲנַחְנוּ מוֹדִים וְלָךְ אָנוּ מְקַלְּסִין: § The mishna asks: At the time of their departure at the end of the Festival, what would they say? The mishna answers that they would praise the altar and glorify God. The Gemara challenges this: But in doing so aren’t they joining the name of Heaven and another entity, and it was taught in a baraita: Anyone who joins the name of Heaven and another entity is uprooted from the world, as it is stated: “He that sacrifices unto the gods, save unto the Lord only, shall be utterly destroyed” (Exodus 22:19)? The Gemara answers that this is what the people are saying when they depart the Temple: To the Lord, we acknowledge that He is our God, and to you, the altar, we give praise; to the Lord, we acknowledge that He is our God, and to you, the altar, we give acclaim. The praise to God and the praise to the altar are clearly distinct.
כְּמַעֲשֵׂהוּ בַּחוֹל אָמַר רַב הוּנָא מַאי טַעְמָא דְּרַבִּי יוֹחָנָן בֶּן בְּרוֹקָה דִּכְתִיב כַּפּוֹת שְׁנַיִם אַחַת לַלּוּלָב וְאַחַת לְמִזְבֵּחַ וְרַבָּנַן אָמְרִי כַּפַּת כְּתִיב § The mishna continues: As its performance during the week, so is its performance on Shabbat. And according to Rabbi Yoḥanan ben Beroka, on the seventh day of the Festival they would bring palm branches to the Temple. Rav Huna said: What is the rationale for the opinion of Rabbi Yoḥanan ben Beroka? It is as it is written: “And you shall take for yourselves on the first day the fruit of a beautiful tree, branches of a date palm” (Leviticus 23:40). Branches in the plural indicates that two branches must be taken, one for the lulav and one for placement around the altar. And the Rabbis say: Although the word is vocalized in the plural, based on tradition it is written kappot, without the letter vav. Therefore, it is interpreted as if it were written kappat, indicating that only one palm branch need be taken.
רַבִּי לֵוִי אוֹמֵר כְּתָמָר מָה תָּמָר זֶה אֵין לוֹ אֶלָּא לֵב אֶחָד אַף יִשְׂרָאֵל אֵין לָהֶם אֶלָּא לֵב אֶחָד לַאֲבִיהֶם שֶׁבַּשָּׁמַיִם Rabbi Levi says: The rationale for the opinion of Rabbi Yoḥanan ben Beroka is not based on a verse. Rather, it is a custom that developed to express praise for the Jewish people, likening them to a date palm. Just as the date palm has only one heart, as branches do not grow from its trunk but rather the trunk rises and branches emerge only at the top, so too, the Jewish people have only one heart directed toward their Father in Heaven.
אָמַר רַב יְהוּדָה אָמַר שְׁמוּאֵל לוּלָב שִׁבְעָה וְסוּכָּה יוֹם אֶחָד מַאי טַעְמָא לוּלָב דְּמַפְסְקִי לֵילוֹת מִיָּמִים כׇּל יוֹמָא מִצְוָה בְּאַפֵּיהּ נַפְשֵׁיהּ הוּא סוּכָּה דְּלָא מַפְסְקִי לֵילוֹת מִיָּמִים כּוּלְּהוּ שִׁבְעָה כְּחַד יוֹמָא אֲרִיכָא דָּמוּ § Rav Yehuda said that Shmuel said: The blessing over the mitzva of lulav is recited seven days and the blessing over the mitzva of sukka is recited one day. What is the rationale for this distinction? It is written explicitly in the Torah that the mitzva to sit in the sukka applies all seven days. The Gemara explains: With regard to the lulav, where the nights are distinct from the days, as the mitzva of lulav is not in effect at night, each day is a mitzva in and of itself. A separate blessing is recited over each mitzva. However, with regard to sukka, where the nights are not distinct from the days, as the mitzva of sukka is in effect at night just as it is during the day, the legal status of all seven days of the Festival is like that of one long day.
וְרַבָּה בַּר בַּר חָנָה אָמַר רַבִּי יוֹחָנָן סוּכָּה שִׁבְעָה וְלוּלָב יוֹם אֶחָד מַאי טַעְמָא סוּכָּה דְּאוֹרָיְיתָא שִׁבְעָה לוּלָב דְּרַבָּנַן סַגִּי לֵיהּ בְּחַד יוֹמָא But Rabba bar bar Ḥana said that Rabbi Yoḥanan said: The blessing over the mitzva of sukka is recited seven days and the blessing over the mitzva of lulav is recited one day. What is the rationale for this distinction? The Gemara explains: The mitzva of sukka is a mitzva by Torah law all seven days of the Festival. Therefore, a blessing is recited for seven days. However, the mitzva of lulav, other than on the first day, is a mitzva by rabbinic law, as the Sages instituted an ordinance to take the lulav for all seven days to commemorate the practice in the Temple. Therefore, it is enough to recite the blessing one day, on the first day.
כִּי אֲתָא רָבִין אָמַר רַבִּי יוֹחָנָן אֶחָד זֶה וְאֶחָד זֶה שִׁבְעָה אָמַר רַב יוֹסֵף נְקוֹט דְּרַבָּה בַּר בַּר חָנָה בִּידָךְ דְּכוּלְּהוּ אָמוֹרָאֵי קָיְימִי כְּווֹתֵיהּ בְּסוּכָּה When Ravin came from Eretz Yisrael to Babylonia, he said that Rabbi Yoḥanan said: One recites a blessing over both this, the mitzva of sukka, and over that, the mitzva of lulav, all seven days. Rav Yosef said: Take the statement of Rabba bar bar Ḥana in your hand, as all the amora’im who transmitted statements of Rabbi Yoḥanan hold in accordance with his opinion in matters related to sukka.
מֵיתִיבִי The Gemara raises an objection based on a baraita: