Sukkah 45bסוכה מ״ה ב
The William Davidson Talmudתלמוד מהדורת ויליאם דוידסון
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45bמ״ה ב

אסרו חג בעבותים עד קרנות המזבח א"ר ירמיה משום ר"ש בן יוחי ור' יוחנן משום ר"ש המחוזי משום ר' יוחנן המכותי כל העושה איסור לחג באכילה ושתיה מעלה עליו הכתוב כאילו בנה מזבח והקריב עליו קרבן שנא' אסרו חג בעבותים עד קרנות המזבח

“Bind [isru] with dense-leaved branches [ba’avotim] on the Festival until the horns of the altar” (Psalms 118:27), which alludes to both the binding of the lulav and to the myrtle branch, referred to in the Torah as the branch of a dense-leaved tree [anaf etz avot]. Rabbi Yirmeya said in the name of Rabbi Shimon ben Yoḥai, and Rabbi Yoḥanan said in the name of Rabbi Shimon HaMeḥozi, who said in the name of Rabbi Yoḥanan HaMakkoti: With regard to anyone who establishes an addition [issur] to the Festival on the day after the Festival by eating and drinking, the verse ascribes him credit as though he built an altar and sacrificed an offering upon it, as it is stated: “Add [isru] to the Festival with fattened animals [ba’avotim] until the horns of the altar.”

אמר חזקיה א"ר ירמיה משום רשב"י כל המצות כולן אין אדם יוצא בהן אלא דרך גדילתן שנאמר (שמות כו, טו) עצי שטים עומדים

§ Apropos the halakha cited by Rabbi Yirmeya in the name of Rabbi Shimon ben Yoḥai, the Gemara cites additional halakhot. Ḥizkiya said that Rabbi Yirmeya said in the name of Rabbi Shimon ben Yoḥai: With regard to all objects used in performance of each and every one of the mitzvot, a person fulfills his obligation only when the objects are positioned in the manner of their growth. One must take the lulav with the bottom of the branch facing down, as it is stated with regard to the beams of the Tabernacle: “Acacia wood, standing” (Exodus 26:15), indicating that the beams stood in the manner of their growth.

תנ"ה עצי שטים עומדים שעומדים דרך גדילתן דבר אחר עומדים שמעמידין את ציפוין דבר אחר עומדים שמא תאמר אבד סיברם ובטל סיכויין ת"ל עצי שטים עומדים שעומדים לעולם ולעולמי עולמים

That was also taught in a baraita: “Acacia wood, standing,” indicating that they stand in the Tabernacle in the manner of their growth in nature. Alternatively, standing means that the beams support their gold plating that is affixed to the beams with nails. Alternatively, standing teaches: Lest you say that after the destruction of the Tabernacle their hope is lost and their prospect is abolished, and they will never serve a sacred purpose again, therefore the verse states: “Acacia wood, standing,” meaning that they stand forever and for all time and will yet be revealed and utilized again.

ואמר חזקיה א"ר ירמיה משום רשב"י יכול אני לפטור את כל העולם כולו מן הדין מיום שנבראתי עד עתה ואילמלי אליעזר בני עמי מיום שנברא העולם ועד עכשיו ואילמלי יותם בן עוזיהו עמנו מיום שנברא העולם עד סופו

And Ḥizkiya said that Rabbi Yirmeya said in the name of Rabbi Shimon ben Yoḥai: I am able to absolve the entire world from judgment for sins committed from the day I was created until now. The merit that he accrued through his righteousness and the suffering that he endured atone for the sins of the entire world. And were the merit accrued by Eliezer, my son, calculated along with my own, we would absolve the world from judgment for sins committed from the day that the world was created until now. And were the merit accrued by the righteous king, Jotham ben Uzziah, calculated with our own, we would absolve the world from judgment for sins committed from the day that the world was created until its end. The righteousness of these three serves as a counterbalance to all the evil deeds committed throughout the generations, and it validates the ongoing existence of the world.

ואמר חזקיה א"ר ירמיה משום רשב"י ראיתי בני עלייה והן מועטין אם אלף הן אני ובני מהן אם מאה הם אני ובני מהן אם שנים הן אני ובני הן ומי זוטרי כולי האי והא אמר רבא תמני סרי אלפי דרא הוה דקמיה קודשא בריך הוא שנאמר (יחזקאל מח, לה) סביב שמנה עשר אלף ל"ק הא דמסתכלי באספקלריא המאירה הא דלא מסתכלי באספקלריא המאירה

And Ḥizkiya said that Rabbi Yirmeya said in the name of Rabbi Shimon ben Yoḥai: I have seen members of the caste of the spiritually prominent, who are truly righteous, and they are few. If they number one thousand, I and my son are among them. If they number one hundred, I and my son are among them; and if they number two, I and my son are they. The Gemara asks: Are they so few? But didn’t Rava say: There are eighteen thousand righteous individuals in a row before the Holy One, Blessed be He, as it is stated: “Surrounding are eighteen thousand” (Ezekiel 48:35)? Apparently, the righteous are numerous. The Gemara answers: This is not difficult. This statement of Rabbi Shimon ben Yoḥai is referring to the very few who view the Divine Presence through a bright, mirror-like partition, while that statement of Rava is referring to those who do not view the Divine Presence through a bright partition.

ודמסתכלי באספקלריא המאירה מי זוטרי כולי האי והא אמר אביי לא פחות עלמא מתלתין ושיתא צדיקי דמקבלי אפי שכינה בכל יום שנאמר (ישעיהו ל, יח) אשרי כל חוכי לו ל"ו בגימטריא תלתין ושיתא הוו ל"ק הא דעיילי בבר הא דעיילי בלא בר:

The Gemara asks further: And are those who view the Divine Presence through a bright partition so few? But didn’t Abaye say: The world has no fewer than thirty-six righteous people in each generation who greet the Divine Presence every day, as it is stated: “Happy are all they that wait for Him [lo]” (Isaiah 30:18)? The numerological value of lo, spelled lamed vav, is thirty-six, alluding to the fact that there are at least thirty-six full-fledged righteous individuals in each generation. The Gemara answers: This is not difficult. This statement of Abaye is referring to those who enter to greet the Divine Presence by requesting and being granted permission, while that statement of Rabbi Shimon ben Yoḥai is referring to those who enter even without requesting permission, for whom the gates of Heaven are open at all times. They are very few indeed.

בשעת פטירתן מה הן אומרים וכו': והא קא משתתף שם שמים ודבר אחר ותניא כל המשתף שם שמים ודבר אחר נעקר מן העולם שנאמר (שמות כב, יט) בלתי לה' לבדו הכי קאמר ליה אנחנו מודים ולך אנו משבחין ליה אנחנו מודים ולך אנו מקלסין:

§ The mishna asks: At the time of their departure at the end of the Festival, what would they say? The mishna answers that they would praise the altar and glorify God. The Gemara challenges this: But in doing so aren’t they joining the name of Heaven and another entity, and it was taught in a baraita: Anyone who joins the name of Heaven and another entity is uprooted from the world, as it is stated: “He that sacrifices unto the gods, save unto the Lord only, shall be utterly destroyed” (Exodus 22:19)? The Gemara answers that this is what the people are saying when they depart the Temple: To the Lord, we acknowledge that He is our God, and to you, the altar, we give praise; to the Lord, we acknowledge that He is our God, and to you, the altar, we give acclaim. The praise to God and the praise to the altar are clearly distinct.

כמעשהו בחול: אמר רב הונא מ"ט דר' יוחנן בן ברוקה דכתיב (ויקרא כג, מ) כפות שנים אחת ללולב ואחת למזבח ורבנן אמרי כפת כתיב

§ The mishna continues: As its performance during the week, so is its performance on Shabbat. And according to Rabbi Yoḥanan ben Beroka, on the seventh day of the Festival they would bring palm branches to the Temple. Rav Huna said: What is the rationale for the opinion of Rabbi Yoḥanan ben Beroka? It is as it is written: “And you shall take for yourselves on the first day the fruit of a beautiful tree, branches of a date palm” (Leviticus 23:40). Branches in the plural indicates that two branches must be taken, one for the lulav and one for placement around the altar. And the Rabbis say: Although the word is vocalized in the plural, based on tradition it is written kappot, without the letter vav. Therefore, it is interpreted as if it were written kappat, indicating that only one palm branch need be taken.

ר' לוי אומר כתמר מה תמר זה אין לו אלא לב אחד אף ישראל אין להם אלא לב אחד לאביהם שבשמים

Rabbi Levi says: The rationale for the opinion of Rabbi Yoḥanan ben Beroka is not based on a verse. Rather, it is a custom that developed to express praise for the Jewish people, likening them to a date palm. Just as the date palm has only one heart, as branches do not grow from its trunk but rather the trunk rises and branches emerge only at the top, so too, the Jewish people have only one heart directed toward their Father in Heaven.

אמר רב יהודה אמר שמואל לולב שבעה וסוכה יום אחד מ"ט לולב דמפסקי לילות מימים כל יומא מצוה באפיה נפשיה הוא סוכה דלא מפסקי לילות מימים כולהו שבעה כחד יומא אריכא דמו

§ Rav Yehuda said that Shmuel said: The blessing over the mitzva of lulav is recited seven days and the blessing over the mitzva of sukka is recited one day. What is the rationale for this distinction? It is written explicitly in the Torah that the mitzva to sit in the sukka applies all seven days. The Gemara explains: With regard to the lulav, where the nights are distinct from the days, as the mitzva of lulav is not in effect at night, each day is a mitzva in and of itself. A separate blessing is recited over each mitzva. However, with regard to sukka, where the nights are not distinct from the days, as the mitzva of sukka is in effect at night just as it is during the day, the legal status of all seven days of the Festival is like that of one long day.

ורבה בר בר חנה אמר רבי יוחנן סוכה שבעה ולולב יום אחד מאי טעמא סוכה דאורייתא שבעה לולב דרבנן סגי ליה בחד יומא

But Rabba bar bar Ḥana said that Rabbi Yoḥanan said: The blessing over the mitzva of sukka is recited seven days and the blessing over the mitzva of lulav is recited one day. What is the rationale for this distinction? The Gemara explains: The mitzva of sukka is a mitzva by Torah law all seven days of the Festival. Therefore, a blessing is recited for seven days. However, the mitzva of lulav, other than on the first day, is a mitzva by rabbinic law, as the Sages instituted an ordinance to take the lulav for all seven days to commemorate the practice in the Temple. Therefore, it is enough to recite the blessing one day, on the first day.

כי אתא רבין אמר רבי יוחנן אחד זה ואחד זה שבעה אמר רב יוסף נקוט דרבה בר בר חנה בידך דכולהו אמוראי קיימי כוותיה בסוכה

When Ravin came from Eretz Yisrael to Babylonia, he said that Rabbi Yoḥanan said: One recites a blessing over both this, the mitzva of sukka, and over that, the mitzva of lulav, all seven days. Rav Yosef said: Take the statement of Rabba bar bar Ḥana in your hand, as all the amora’im who transmitted statements of Rabbi Yoḥanan hold in accordance with his opinion in matters related to sukka.

מיתיבי

The Gemara raises an objection based on a baraita: