Sukkah 45aסוכה מ״ה א
The William Davidson Talmudתלמוד מהדורת ויליאם דוידסון
Save "Sukkah 45a"
Toggle Reader Menu Display Settings
45aמ״ה א

וכי לייבשן הוא צריך אלא אימא על גב האיצטבא אמר רחבא אמר (רב) יהודה הר הבית סטיו כפול היה סטיו לפנים מסטיו:

And does he need to dry them? Clearly, that is not his intention. Why, then, would he place the lulavim on the roof? Rather, emend your version and say: On the bench beneath the roof, in a place designated for that purpose. Raḥava said that Rav Yehuda said: The Temple Mount was a double colonnade [setav], a colonnade within a colonnade, and there was room there to place the lulavim.

מתני׳ מצות ערבה כיצד מקום היה למטה מירושלים ונקרא מוצא יורדין לשם ומלקטין משם מורביות של ערבה ובאין וזוקפין אותן בצדי המזבח וראשיהן כפופין על גבי המזבח תקעו והריעו ותקעו בכל יום מקיפין את המזבח פעם אחת ואומרים אנא ה' הושיעה נא אנא ה' הצליחה נא ר' יהודה אומר אני והו הושיעה נא ואותו היום מקיפין את המזבח שבע פעמים בשעת פטירתן מה הן אומרים יופי לך מזבח יופי לך מזבח ר"א אומר ליה ולך מזבח ליה ולך מזבח

MISHNA: How is the mitzva of the willow branch fulfilled? There was a place below Jerusalem, and it was called Motza. They would descend there and gather willow branches [murbiyyot] from there. And they would then come and stand them upright at the sides of the altar, and the tops of the branches would be inclined over the top of the altar. They then sounded a tekia, a simple uninterrupted blast, sounded a terua, a broken sound and/or a series of short staccato blasts, and sounded another tekia. Each day they would circle the altar one time and say: “Lord, please save us. Lord, please grant us success” (Psalms 118:25). Rabbi Yehuda says that they would say: Ani vaho, please save us. And on that day, the seventh day of Sukkot, they would circle the altar seven times. At the time of their departure at the end of the Festival, what would they say? It is beautiful for you, altar; it is beautiful for you, altar. Rabbi Elazar said that they would say: To the Lord and to you, altar; to the Lord and to you, altar.

כמעשהו בחול כך מעשהו בשבת אלא שהיו מלקטין אותן מערב ומניחין אותן בגיגיות של זהב כדי שלא יכמושו ר' יוחנן בן ברוקה אומר חריות של דקל היו מביאין וחובטין אותן בקרקע בצדי המזבח ואותו היום נקרא חבוט חריות מיד תינוקות שומטין את לולביהן ואוכלין אתרוגיהן:

The mishna notes: As its performance during the week, so is its performance on Shabbat; except for the fact that they would gather the branches from Shabbat eve and place them in basins of gold so that they would not dry. Rabbi Yoḥanan ben Beroka says: There was a unique custom on the seventh day. They would bring palm branches to the Temple and place them on the ground at the sides of the altar, and that seventh day of Sukkot was called: The day of the placing of palm branches. Immediately after fulfilling the mitzva of taking the four species on the seventh day of the festival of Sukkot, children remove their lulavim from the binding and eat their etrogim as an expression of extreme joy.

גמ׳ תנא מקום קלניא הוה ותנא דידן מ"ט קרי ליה מוצא איידי דמיפק מכרגא דמלכא קרי ליה מוצא:

GEMARA: It was taught: Motza, which was mentioned in the mishna, was a Roman military colony [kelanya]. The Gemara asks: And the tanna of our mishna, what is the reason that he called it Motza? The reason is that since it is exempted from the king’s tax [karga], they call it Motza, meaning removed.

ובאין וזוקפין אותן בצדי כו': תנא רבות וארוכות וגבוהות אחד עשר אמה כדי שיהו גוחות על המזבח אמה

§ The mishna continues: And after gathering the willow branches, they would then come and stand them upright at the sides of the altar. It was taught: The willow branches were numerous and long, and eleven cubits high, so that they would lean over the altar one cubit.

אמר מרימר משום מר זוטרא שמע מינה על היסוד מנח להו דאי סלקא דעתך אארעא מנח להו מכדי עלה אמה וכנס אמה זהו יסוד עלה חמש וכנס אמה זהו סובב עלה שלש זהו מקום הקרנות גוחות על גבי המזבח היכי משכחת לה אלא לאו ש"מ איסוד מנח להו שמע מינה

Mareimar said in the name of Mar Zutra: Learn from it that one places them on the base of the altar and not on the ground, as, if it enters your mind that one places them on the ground, it would pose a difficulty in understanding the mishna. Now, since the following is stated with regard to the structure of the altar: The altar ascended one cubit high and indented one cubit and that is the base, and it ascended five additional cubits and indented one cubit and that is the surrounding ledge, and it ascended three additional cubits and that is the location of the horns of the altar, as the height of the altar totaled nine cubits; consequently, where can you find a case where the willow branches lean over the altar one cubit? Due to the indentations, the branches would need to stand inclined. Eleven cubits would not be sufficiently high to lean one cubit over the altar. Rather, is it not that one must conclude from this that the branches were placed on the base, adding a cubit to their height? The Gemara concludes: Indeed, conclude from it that it is so.

אמר רבי אבהו מאי קראה שנאמר (תהלים קיח, כז) אסרו חג בעבותים עד קרנות המזבח א"ר אבהו אמר ר"א כל הנוטל לולב באגודו והדס בעבותו מעלה עליו הכתוב כאילו בנה מזבח והקריב עליו קרבן שנאמר

Rabbi Abbahu said: What is the verse that alludes to the fact that the branches must lean one cubit over the top of the altar? It is as it is stated: “Encircle [isru] with branches on the Festival until the horns of the altar” (Psalms 118:27), indicating that willow branches should surround the horns of the altar. That is facilitated by standing the branches on the base. The Gemara cites derivations based on different interpretations of the terms in that verse. Rabbi Abbahu said that Rabbi Elazar said: With regard to anyone who takes a lulav in its binding and a myrtle branch in its dense-leaved form, the verse ascribes him credit as though he built an altar and sacrificed an offering upon it, as it is stated: